2003, Volume: 9, Number: 3
Contents
DİLEK, E. F. and H. ÇELEM, Determination of Site Selection Possibilities in the Evaluation of Bodrum Solid Waste Landfill Area Abstract
ÇEVİK, O. and K. YÜREKLİ, Modeling of Yeşilırkmak River's Monthly Flow Series Using Seasonal ARIMA Model Abstract
ELİBOL, O, Effect of Cessation of Turning at 14th and 18th Days of Incubation Period on Hatchability of Eggs from Broiler Breeder Flocks at Different Ages Abstract
SOY, M. and A. GÜNEŞ, Effect of Phosphorus on the Aleviation of Boron Toxicity in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) Plant Abstract
ERGÜL, İ. and E. DURSUN, Effect of Wear on Spray Distribution Pattern of Cone Nozzles Made from Different Materials Abstract
GÜNER, M. and M. T. ERKAN, Design of Hydraulic Bucket Elevator Abstract
ATLIHAN, R., E. N. YARDIM, M. S. ÖZGÖKÇE and M. B. KAYDAN, Harmful Insects and Their Natural Enemies in Potato Fields in Van Province Abstract
KUTLAR, İ. and M. A. TOKGÖZ, Relationships Between Water Distribution Uniformity and Design Criteria in Spinkler Irrigation Abstract
ÖZENÇ BENDER, D. and İ. ÖZKAN, Effect of Peat and Perlite Mixed with Soil on Growth of Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum var. grossum cv. 11B-14) Under Water Stress Abstract

KARADAĞ, Y. Karyotype Analysis of Pisum arvense L. Collected from Tokat Native Vegetation Abstract

COŞKUN, M. B. Determination of Variety Effect of a Simple Cotton Picking Machine on Design Parameters Abstract
CEYLAN, N., İ. ÇİFTÇİ, F. ILDIZ and A. SÖĞÜT, Effects of Enzyme, Growth Promoter, Probiotic and Organic Acid Supplementation to Broiler Diets on Performance and Gut Microflora Abstract
SAKAL, A. and N. AKPINAR, Determination of Landscape Planning Criteria of Commander-in-Chief Historical National Park's Kocatepe Section Abstract
ERDAL, İ., M. A. TURAN and S. TABAN, Effect of Zinc Application on Growth and Nutrient Contents of Corn Grown in Soils with Different Characters Abstract
KIZIL, S., N. ARSLAN and A. İPEK, A Research on Adaptation of Different Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Lines in Diyarbakır Ecological Conditions Abstract
ÖZTÜRK, F., F. K. SÖNMEZ, Y. E. YILDIRIM, İ. BAYRAMİN, H. APAYDIN and E. KARAŞ, Prediction of Runoff and Sediment Yield by Using AGNPS Model Abstract
TEKELİ, A. S., R. AVCIOĞLU and E. ATEŞ, Changes in Some Morphological and Chemical Properties of Persian Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.) in Relation to Time and Above Abstract
PUL, F. and A. ELİÇİN, Studies on the Determination of the Effect of Some Environmental Factors on Live Weight of Kids at Various Periods by Different Methods Abstract
YÜKSEL, M. Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Properties of Soils Formed on Different Height, Climate and Parent Material Abstract
MARASALI, B. and A. AKTEKİN, Comparative Study on Stomatal Density of Grape Cultivars Grown Under Dry and Irrigated Vineyard Conditions Abstract
Abstracts
 

2003, 9 (3) 255-260
Determination of Site Selection Possibilities in the Evaluation of Bodrum Solid Waste Landfill Area
(Turkish)

E. Figen DİLEK and Hayran ÇELEM
Ankara University, Department of Landscape Architecture-Ankara

To date, just before the beginning of the twenty-first century, household garbage has been collected and disposed without any treatment in an arbitrarily selected area. This process has been applied by the Municipalities. Open dump areas are located in the periphery of the city. Open dumping has been applied without any treatment in an arbitrarily selected area in Bodrum, the most important and famous touristic place in Turkey. The open dump area of Bodrum is located in the forest and at the seaside. At the step of the determination of landfill areas, GIS and RS technologies are used for accurate site selection decisions considering whole natural and cultural data of the area. The open dumping implementations, however, which are considered as the most primitive and environmental damaging method of solid waste management should be given up evidently, meanwhile sanitary landfill area(s) is required both for mitigating the negative effects of open dumping implementations to the environment and also preventing the damages to the tourism resources of research area. It is considered that the usage of the advantageous of those recent technologies at this study will built up an example for whole other type of site selection studies. This method also can be used for site selection and comparison steps of the EIA works.

Key Words : Bodrum, solid waste, landfill, landfill site selection, GIS, RS

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2003, 9 (3) 261-268
Modeling of Yeşilırmak River's Monthly Flow Series Using Seasonal ARIMA Model
(Turkish)

Osman ÇEVİK1 and Kadri YÜREKLİ2
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Econimic and Administrative Sciences-Tokat
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation -Tokat

This study was made to model monthly flow series measured on Yesilırmak river. 361 forms of ARIMA(p,d,q)(P,D,Q) model were used in modeling monthly flow series. In selecting appropriate model, it was taken into account whether the residuals calculated from ARIMA(p,d,q)(P,D,Q) models were independent. For this reason, Ljung-Box Q(r) statistics and Pr (Probability) values for c2 distribution of these statistics for every model were gotten. If the Pr values of models were higher than 0.05, these models were assumed to be appropriate for monthly flow series. Pr values of seven of models used in this study were higher than 0.05. But, Pr value (0.072) of ARIMA(1,0,0) (0,1,1) model was higher than Pr values of the other models selected. Therefore, it was came to a decision that ARIMA (1,0,0) (0,1,1) model was more suitable in forecasting monthly flows for Yeşilırmak river.

Key Words : monthly flows, autocorrelation coefficient, ARIMA model

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2003, 9 (3) 269-272
Effect of Cessation of Turning at 14th and 18th Days of Incubation Period on Hatchability of Eggs from Broiler Breeder Flocks at Different Ages
(Turkish)

Okan ELİBOL
Ankara University, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

This experiment was intended to investigate the effect of cessation of turning at either 14 or 18 days of age on eggs from breeder hens of different ages. In this experiment totally 7200 hatching eggs were used and eggs were collected from commercial flocks of Ross * Ross 308 within the same company at six different ages ranging from 28 to 53 weeks. There was a significant flock age * turning treatment interaction for late embriyonic mortality and fertile hatchability that indicated that the effect was greater at the older age of breeder hen, i.e. stopping of turning at 14 days had a beneficial effect on the hatchability of the eggs from older flock in comparison to the eggs from the younger flock. Turning beyond 14 days seemed to actually increased the percentage late dead in the eggs from the older flock.

Key Words: turning, hatchability, age of embryo

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2003, 9 (3) 273-277
Effect of Phosphorus on the Alleviation of Boron Toxicity in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) Plant
(Turkish)

Metin SOY and Aydın GÜNEŞ
Ankara University, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

A greenhouse study was conducted in order to determine the effect of P on alleviating B toxicity in tomato. For this purpose 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 B and 10, 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 P were applied to the pots holding 3000 g soil. Vegetatif and root dry weights, B and P concentration of the young and old part of the plants were determined. According to experimental results, dry weights of vegetatif part and root were decreased at 40 mg kg-1 B level. Boron concentration of the plants (both young and old parts) was higher than the critical toxicity level given for tomato at 40 mg kg-1 applied B level. Increases in B concentration as a result of applied B was decreased by the P treatments and resulting in an increase in dry weight of the tomato plants. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that phosphorus was effective on alleviating the B toxicity in tomato plants.

Key Words: B toxicity, phosphorus, tomato, boron and phosphorus concentration of tomato

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2003, 9 (3) 278-283
Effect of Wear on Spray Distribution Pattern of Cone Nozzles Made from Different Materials
(Turkish)

İbrahim ERGÜL1 and Ergin DURSUN2
Directory of Testing Center of Agricultural Equipment and Mechinory-Ankara
Ankara University, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, the effect of nozzle wear on spray pattern delivered by cone pattern nozzles made from different materials were investigated. A test stand was constructed for nozzle wear. Test stand consist mainly of a tank, pump, pressure regulator, pressure gauge and pipes containing nozzles. For nozzle wear tests contucted in laboratory, both a 1 % copper oxychloride suspension and water - kaolin clay mixture containing 60 grams of kaolin clay per liter of water were used. All tests were made at a spray pressure of 6 bar. Spray distrubution patterns of nozzles were determined before and after wear operation. Research results indicated that there was difference between spray distribution pattern of new and worn nozzles. The C.V.s of spray distributions from worn nozzles were found higher than from new nozzles.

Key Words: nozzle wear, cone nozzles, spray distribution pattern

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2003, 9 (3) 284-290
Design of Hydraulic Bucket Elevator
(Turkish)

Metin GÜNER1 and Mustafa T. ERKAN1
Ankara University, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

The object of this study is to design a bucket elevator and to obtain the design parametres which will control the drive and the brake mechanism of the bucket elevator. In the design, a bucket elevator with 10 m height, which will be used in conveying of wheat, and the hydraulics system parts suitable for this purpose were examined. At the end of the desingning, motor and pump powers, system pressure, flow rate and conveying capacity were found as 3,61 kW, 5 kW, 150 bar, 17 L/min, and 32 t/h, respectively. The models of motor, pump and relief valve were selected as Casappa RBS 125, Casappa PLP 20-20, and Oleostar VOSL 38, respectively.

Key Words: bucket elevator, design, hydraulic

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2003, 9 (3) 291-295
Harmful Insects and Their Natural Enemies in Potato Fields in Van Province
(Turkish)

Remzi ATLIHAN, E. Necip YARDIM, M. Salih ÖZGÖKÇE and M. Bora KAYDAN
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Department of Plant Protection-Van

This study was carried out to find out the harmful and beneficial insects at the potato fields in Van province and Erciş, Gevaş ve Muradiye counties in 1998-1999. In study, netting and point sampling methods were used. As a result, 49 phytophagous insects belonging to 4 order and 28 beneficial insects belonging to 5 order were determined. Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Agrotis spp (A. ipsilon (Hufnagel) and A. segetum (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Empoasca decipiens Paoli (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) Exolygus rugulipennis (Popp.) and Exolygus pratensis (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) were found having high population level. Nabis punctatus C., Nabis ferus (L.) (Heteroptera: Nabidae), Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopide) and Adonia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were observed more common and widely distributed among obtained natural enemies.

Key Words: potato pests, natural enemies

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2003, 9 (3) 296-304
Relationships Between Water Distribution Uniformity and Design Criteria in Sprinkler Irrigation
(Turkish)

İlknur KUTLAR1 and M. Ali TOKGÖZ2
Selçuk University, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation -Konya
Ankara University, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation -Ankara

In this study, the alternative sprinkler irrigation systems for different crops were planned and designed for 1000 da (1000mx1000m) of a model area considered in the research and Application Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara. In these systems, cost analysis, water distribution uniformities, annual total costs, and crop yields were determined. Validity of the existing design criteria of sprinkler irrigation systems was found that the most economical solution was not depend on the water distribution uniformity, system design should be done by considering alternative system layouts and crop characteristics. In addition system cost decreased when sprinkler spacings and lateral length were lower. Crop yields decreased due to poor water distribution uniformity.

Key Words: sprinkler irrigation, water distribution uniformity, yield response to water, system cost

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2003, 9 (3) 305-312
Effect of Peat and Perlite Mixed with Soil on Growth of Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum var. grossum cv. 11B-14) Under Water Stress
(Turkish)

Damla BENDER ÖZENÇ1 and İlhami ÖZKAN2
1Blacksea Technical University, Department of Soil Science-Ordu
2Ankara University, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

In this study, the effect of peat and perlite mixed with soil on growth of pepper plant (Capsicum annuum var. grossum cv. 11B-14) under water stress were investigated. The effect of peat and perlite mixed with soil at different rates on growth of pepper plants exposed to water stress at the 10th day after seedling transplanting, flowering and fruiting were determined in greenhouse conditions for two years. Peat and perlite mixed with soil were more effective than soil on growth of plants. In according to soil, the plant growth was favoured with soil mixed peat and perlite and particularly the peat produced more favorable media than the perlite for growth of plants. Significant differences were observed in growth of pepper plants exposed to water stress in certain development stage. The results revealed that growth of plant was rather susceptible to water stress in seedling stage, whereas it was more tolerant at flowering and fruit setting.

Key Words: pepper (Capsicum annuum var.grossum cv.11B-14), plant growth, water stress, peat, perlite

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2003, 9 (3) 313-315
Karyotype Analysis of Pisum arvense L. Collected from Tokat Native Vegetation
(English)

Yaşar KARADAĞ
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops-Tokat

This research was conducted to determine karyotype analysis of Pisum arvense L. occurred in native vegetation of Tokat region. After the seeds were germinated, they were stained by feulgen and karyotype analysis was carried out with obtained cells by using the squash method. The results of the cytological studies that the chromosome numbers of Pisum arvense L. were 2n= 14. Four chromosomes of the Pisum arvense L. were submedian and ten chromosomes were median. In addition, the chromosome length, the arm index and the relative chromosome length in Pisum arvense L. were 4.59-5.93 µ, 0.56-0.91 and 6.38-8.24, respectively.

Key Words: Pisum arvense L., karyotype, native vegetation, karyogram, idiogram

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2003, 9 (3) 316-319
Determination of Variety Effect of a Simple Cotton Picking Machine on Design Parameters
(Turkish)

M. Bülent COŞKUN
Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Aydın

This study was made in order to determine how much the type of cotton affects the design parameters such as vacuum pressure, suction speed and break-off force in a simple cotton picking machinery. The vacuum pressure, suction speed and curl break-off forces belonging to the cotton types of DPXxC//BixLa hybrid and Nazilli 84 which is still being developed in accordance with the mechanical harvesting were measured. The statistical relationships between measured design parameters and cotton variety were searched. It was observed that there is no statistical difference between types in aspect of suction speed and values of vacuum pressure where as the types differ in aspect of lock break-off force. The lock break-off force of the type of Nazilli 84 was been found lower than the kind which is still being developed. Although the break-off forces of cotton variety are different it is observed that suction speed of 2 m s-1 in average and a vacuum pressure of -5 kPa is sufficient for the locks to be broken off from the bolls.

Key Words: cotton, vacuum, suction speed, cotton picking machinery

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2003, 9 (3) 320-326
Effects of Enzyme, Growth Promoter, Probiotic and Organic Acid Supplementation to Broiler Diets on Performance and Gut Microflora
(Turkish)

Necmettin CEYLAN1, İbrahim ÇİFTÇİ1, Faruk ILDIZ2 and Ali SÖĞÜT²
Ankara University, Department of Animal Science-Ankara
Turkish Atomic Energy Authority Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences-Ankara

In this research, effects of enzyme, growth promoter, probiotic and mixture of organic acids on performance and gut microflora have been examined in 240 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks. In the experiment, 8 treatments made by supplementation of 3 different additives (Control without additive, growth promoter, probiotic and organic acids and 2 different enzyme levels (0 and 0.1 %) in corn-soy based broiler diets have been examined in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Live weight, weight gain , feed consumption, hot carcass yield, mortality and ileal viscosity values has not been significantly affected by dietary treatments through the experiment. However, feed conversion ratio was significantly affected by supplementation of enzyme in 0-6 weeks period. Feed conversion results are as follow; 1.898 and 1.845 for the groups without enzyme and with enzyme. Gut microorganism numbers determined 6th weeks of age by counting number of aerobic bacteria. total yeast and coliform were found significant (P<0.01) among the groups. The groups received organic acid and arganic acid plus enzyme had lower microorganism numbers than the others (P<0.01) Interaction between type of additives and levels of enzyme was also significant (P<0.01) regarding with microorganism numbers. It could be concluded that enzyme supplementation has improved performance of broilers and also organic acid and organic acid plus enzyme supplementation has decreased the undesired microorganism in the gut while the other treatments had no beneficial efffect in comparison to negative control.

Key Words : enzyme , growth promoter, probiotic, organic acid, broiler performance, gut microflora

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2003, 9 (3) 327-333
Determination of Landscape Planning Criteria of Commander-in-Chief Historical National Park's Kocatepe Section
(Turkish)

Aslı SAKAL1 and Nevin AKPINAR2
Ministy of Agriculture and Rural Affairs General Directorate of Agricultural Production and Development-Ankara
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture

In this study, the research area is the Kocatepe Section of Commander-in-Chief Historical National Park which has two parts and is situated in Afyon, Kütahya and Uşak provinces. Natural characteristics such as the location, water and soil resources, geological structure and cultural characteristics such as socio-economic structure, population and historical characteristics have been evaluated and landscape planning criteria were determined. Also the protection, using and familiarization features of the national park's section had been analysed. Depending on the zonning system that used in the USA Valley Forge National Historical Park and according to the landscape planning criteria, various zone studies are realised in the Kocatepe Section of Commander-in-Chief Historical National Park. As a result, The research area was classified as Natural Zone, Historical Zone, Park Development Zone and Special Use Zone. According to the charecteristics of these zones, some recommendation for protection, using and familiarization were proposed.

Key Words: national park, Kocatepe Section of Commander-in-Chief Historical National Park, landscape planning criteria

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2003, 9 (3) 334-339
Effect of Zinc Application on Growth and Nutrient Contents of Corn Grown in Soils with Different Characters
(Turkish)

İbrahim ERDAL1, M. Ali TURAN2 and Süleyman TABAN3
Süleyman Demirel University, Department of Soil Science-Isparta
Uludağ University, Department of Soil Science -Bursa
Ankara University, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

This study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of zinc on corn plant growth and plan nutrient content. For this, 0, 5, 10 and 20 ppm Zn as Zn-EDTA applied to the soil. According to the result obtained, plant dry matter and Zn content increased but the others decreased generally for all soils.

Key Words: soil properties, zinc, maize, nutrient

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2003, 9 (3) 340-343
A Research on Adaptation of Different Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Lines in Diyarbakır Ecological Conditions
(Turkish)

Süleyman KIZIL1, Neşet ARSLAN2 and Arif İPEK2
Dicle University, Department of Agronomy-Diyarbakır
Ankara University, Department of Agronomy -Ankara

This research was conducted at experimental fields of Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Dicle in 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 growing seasons. The aim of the study was the determination of eight cumin lines to Diyarbakır Ecological conditions. The experiment was established as split plots in randomised blocks design with three replications. In the research; plant height, number of fruitfully branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of seeds per umbrella, seed yield per plant, seed yield, thousand seed weight and essential oil rate were investigated. According to results of this research; plant height, number of fruitfully branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number on seed per umbrella, seed yield per plant, thousand seed weight, seed yield and essential oil rate varied between 24.20-30.27cm, 6.88-7.96 pieces/plant, 7.80-11.77 pieces/plant, 18.60-21.30 pieces/umbrella, 0.49-0.86 g, 2.90-3.99 g, 56.80-122.80 kg/da and % 1.87-2.37, respectively.

Key Words: cumin, plant height, seed yield, essential oil rate

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2003, 9 (3) 344-351
Prediction of Runoff and Sediment Yield by Using AGNPS Model
(Turkish)

Fazlı ÖZTÜRK1, F. Kemal SÖNMEZ1 Y. Ersoy YILDIRIM1, İlhami BAYRAMİN2, Halit APAYDIN1 and Ertuğrul KARAŞ
Ankara University, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara
Ankara University, Department of Soil Science-Ankara
General Directorate of Rural Services, Eskişehir Research Institute-Eskişehir

In this study, runoff depth and sediment quantities were predicted using AGNPS model with the input data for the years of 1994, 1995 and 1996 for Kurukavak creek watershed located within the boundaries of Küçükelmalı, Güde and Bahçesultan villages of Pazaryeri town of Bilecik. The watershed topography, crop cover, soil, land use and climate data were gathered and data were transferred to geographic information system. In the geographic information system the necessary analysis of the data for the AGNPS model were performed. The estimated values were compared to the measured runoff depth. Based on 8 events selected from 15 different storms for the years 1994, 1995 and 1996, effectiveness of the model predictions were determined as 25 %, and determination coefficient was found to be 0.43. Since P value of Kolmogrov-Smirnov test was P:0.98 and Khikare value was c2h = 0.83, it was thought that the model and observation values were homogeneous and belong to same population and model values could represent the observation values.

Key Words: runoff, erosion, sediment, AGNPS, Kurukavak watershed

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2003, 9 (3) 352-360
Changes in Some Morphological and Chemical Properties of Persian Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.) in Relation to Time and Above-Ground Biomass
(Turkish)

Ali Servet TEKELİ1, Rıza AVCIOĞLU2 and Ertan ATEŞ1
Trakya University, Tekirdağ Department of Agronomy-Tekirdağ
Ege University, Department of Agronomy-İzmir

This research was conducted between the years of 1999-2001 in the experimental field of Field Crops Department of Agricultural Faculty in Tekirdag. This experiment was carried out in randomised complete block design with four replications. Demet-82 Persian clover was used as the material in this research. In the study samples were taken at weekly intervals from the emergence to maturity stage for measurements and analyses of plant height, aboveground biomass, number of leaves on main stem, leaf/stem ratio, dry matter, crude protein, crude cellulose, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium ratio. All the parameters were regressed against time and aboveground biomass. All the parameters regressed varied significant (P<0.01) with time and aboveground biomass. Regression graphics and formulas were determined in the study.

Key Words: Persian clover, Trifolium resupinatum L., biomass, morphological characters, chemical compositions

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2003, 9 (3) 361-364
Studies on the Determination of the Effect of Some Environmental Factors on Live Weight of Kids at Various Periods by Different Methods
(Turkish)

Figen PUL1 and Ayhan ELİÇİN 1
Ankara University, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

The material of this study consisted of 50 heads of Kilis kids raised at the University of Ankara Faculty of Agriculture. The effects of dam age, birth type and sex of kid on the birth weight, the effects of birth weight in addition to the factors affecting birth weight on the weaning weight and the effects of above all factors on the six months live weight in Kilis kids were investigated. According to the result of; sex of kid and age of dam on the birth weight of kids were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01). Effects of sex of kid, dam age, birth type and birth weight on the weaning weight were found to be nonsignificant. Effects of sex of kid, dam age, birth type and birth weight on the six months live weight were found to be nonsignificant, whereas weaning weight on the six months live weight were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01).

Key Words: kid, live weight, environmental factors, least-squares analyses

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2003, 9 (3) 365-369
Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Properties of Soils Formed on Different Height, Climate and Parent Material
(Turkish)

Mahmut YÜKSEL1
Ankara University, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

The purpose of this study was to determine physical, chemical properties and minerological composition of the soils derived from different parent materials (magmatic rocks and alluvial materials) around Iğdır province and the Ararat Mount, under different environmental condition and to detect the relation between soil, parent material, climate and minerological composition. Seven soil samples were taken between 850 m-3200 m altitude. Annual average temperature and precipitation of flat land (alluvial soils) has 12.7oC and 225 mm. However, They are 6.1oC and 528 mm for high land. Physical and chemical properties of each soil samples were determined. In addition that, minerological compositions of soils were examined by XRD method. According to analysis results, it was found that climatic is very important factor for weathering and for formation of mineral. Dominant mineral for all soils samples are Plajiyoklas, Opal-CT, Quartz, Klorit. Different amount of smectite also was found in all samples but it was detected that it is higher level in soil taken from flat land than other samples. This situation shows us that weathering is more effective in low land than high land due to climate factor.

Key Words: minerology, X-ray, soil fomation

2003, 9 (3) 370-372
Comparative Study on Stomatal Density of Grape Cultivars Grown Under Dry and Irrigated Vineyard Conditions
(Turkish)

Birhan MARASALI and Aysun AKTEKİN
Ankara University, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

In this study, number of stomata per unit leaf area (mm2) and variation of the numbers were determined in 17 grape varieties grown in Ankara, under dry and irrigated vineyard conditions. Stomata transferred nitrocellulose membranes were used for stomata counting. Stomatal density of the cultivars were found significantly different in both conditions. According to the comparison between dry and irrigated vineyard conditions, number of stomata did not appear to be significantly influenced in 9 cultivars (Amasya, Emir, Ergin Çekirdeksizi, Hafızali, Karagevrek, Narince, Razakı, Yalova İncisi ve Perlette) whereas the number varied considerably in the other 8 cultivars (Alicante Bouschet, Gülüzümü, Hasandede, Kalecik karası, Uslu, Cardinal, Pinot noir and Portugieser).

Key Words: Vitis vinifera L., stomatal density, dry conditions, irrigated conditions

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