2003, Volume: 9, Number: 2
Contents
DEMİRCİ, F. and F. S. DOLAR, Effects of Plant Residues on Root Rot in Wheat Caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum Abstract
YÜREKLİ, K. Evaluation of Çorum Çat Stream's Monthly Flow Series via Different Stochastic Models Abstract
ŞİMŞEK, M., E. BOYDAK, H. KIRNAK, S. GERÇEK and Y. KASAP, Effect of Sprinkler Irrigation Method with Different Irrigation Intervals and Row Spacings on Water-Yield Relationships of Sesame Crop Abstract
MENDEŞ, M. The Comparisons of Levene, Bartlett, Neyman-Pearson and Bartlett 2 Tests in Terms of Actual Type I Error Rates Abstract
GÜRHAN, R. and M. ÇETİN, Control of Pulsation Characteristics in Small Ruminant's Milking Machines Aided with PIC Abstract
DEMİR, N., H. YAVUZ, A. PERENDECİ, C. ÇAKIROĞLU and S. S. ÇELEBİ, An Investigation on the Biomass of Aquatic Plants and Evaluation of Management Methods in Pınarbaşı Reservoir (Afşin-Elbistan, Kahramanmaraş) Abstract
FİLYA, İ., E. SUCU, H. HANOĞLU and A. KARABULUT, Investigations on Using Protected Protein in Ruminants Nutrition,
1. The In Situ Rumen Degradability Characteristics of Protected Proteins Abstract
ERDOĞDU, İ. and S. ALTINOK, Morphological Characters and Forage Yields of Some Silage Type of Dent Maize (Zea mays indentata Sturt.) Hybrids Abstract
KARACA, İ. and S. PULATSÜ, The Effect of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) Culture on Zooplankton in a Cage Farm, Kesikköprü Dam Lake Abstract

BALKAYA, A. and R. YANMAZ, Identification of Some Selected French Bean Cultivars by Morphological Properties and Protein Markers Abstract

KARADAĞ, A. A. and N. AKPINAR, Determination and Evaluation of Eğirdir Town's Recreation Resources Abstract
YILMAZ, S. and M. ÇINAR, Evaluation of Landscape Design Procedure; A Case Study from Ispir (Erzurum) Social Facility Complex Abstract
ERZURUM, K. and S. MADEN, Effects of Frisol F, Promot and Fluorescent Pseudomonads Against Fusarium Wilt of Melon Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Race 1,2 in Controlled Conditions Abstract
GÜNER, M. Fasülye, Determination of Mechanical Behaviour of Bean, Reddish Bean and Lentil Under Compression Loading Abstract
TUĞRUL, K. M. and İ. G. DURSUN, Determination of the Efficiency of Different Soil Tillage Methods in the Sugar Beet Cultivation Abstract
SAĞLAM, C. and M. VATANDAŞ, Sensitivity Analysis on Confidence Interval of Workable Time for Tractor Abstract
KAN, Y. and N. ARSLAN, Comparision to Drug and Fresh Leaf Yield of Different Varieties of Tube Flower (Datura stramonium L.) Abstract
AKPINAR, N. Determination of Priorities of Land Use Types Using Simos Procedure and ELECTRE 1 Method in Sustainable Land Use Planning Abstract
AYDIN, C. and Y. E. YILDIRIM, Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Relationship by AGNPS Model in Harabe Creek Watershed Abstract
DURSUN, E. Determination of Air-Assisted Spray Application Efficiency in Tomato Abstract
Abstracts
 

2003, 9 (2), 125-128
Effect of Plant Residues on Root Rot in Wheat Caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum
(Turkish)

Fikret DEMİRCİ and F. Sara DOLAR
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

The effects of extracts of soil amended with different plant ( wheat, lentil, chickpea, barley, rape, common vetch and oat) residues to mycelial growth of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum were determined in laboratory experiment. All the crop residues stimulated the mycelial growth of F. culmorum. However, oat, lentil, barley, common vetch and rape residues inhibited mycelial growth of B. sorokiniana and F. graminearum. In pot experiment, the disease incidence of the three root rot pathogens of wheat was reduced between 8.92 and 71.98% by all of the plant residues. Barley, oat and rape residues were found the most effective on B. sorokiniana, F. culmorum and F. graminearum . They reduced disease incidence of three pathogens up to 41.49 to 71.98 %.

Key Words: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium culmorum , Fusarium graminearum, crop residue, wheat, root rot

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2003, 9 (2) 129-135
Evaluation of Çorum Çat Stream's Monthly Flow Series via Different Stochastic Models
(Turkish)

Kadri YÜREKLİ
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Tokat

This study was made to model monthly flows. ARMA (p,q) models and Tomas-Fiering model were used in modeling monthly flows. In selecting ARMA (p,q) models, it was taken into account whether the residuals calculated from ARMA (p,q) models were independent. For monthly flows, ARMA (1,0), ARMA (2,0), ARMA (1,1), ARMA (1,2) ve ARMA (3,0) models were appropriate. But, ARMA (2,0) model was fitted better to monthly flows. The monthly flows forecasted from ARMA (2,0) model and Thomas-Fiering model were compared to the observed flows considering their correlation coefficients. The correlation coefficients for ARMA (2,0) model were very high. Therefore, ARMA (2,0) model in forecasting monthly flows was preferred.

Key Words: monthly flow, autocorrelation coefficient, ARMA (p,q) model, Thomas-Fiering model

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2003, 9 (2), 136-142
Effect of Sprinkler Irrigation Method with Different Irrigation Intervals and Row Spacings on Water-Yield Relationships of Sesame Crop
(Turkish)

Mehmet ŞİMŞEK1, Erkan BOYDAK2, Halil KIRNAK1, Sinan GERÇEK1 and Yaşar KASAP3
1Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Şanlıurfa
2Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Şanlıurfa
3Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Şanlıurfa

This study was conducted in 1998 and 19999 growing periods in order to determine water use-yield relations on sesame plant irrigated by sprinkler along with four irrigation intervals (6, 12, 18, 24 days) and four row spacings (50-30, 70-30, 80-40, 70-70 cm) at the research station of Agricultural Faculty of Harran University. An amount of 398-971 mm and 486-1037 mm irrigation water was applied respectively. The average yield of both years was 179.0-120.8, 160.5-115.3, 155.5-115.3 and 113.2-59.9 kg da-1 based on different irrigation intervals and row spaces, respectively. Water use efficiency (WUE) was changed between 1.19 and 2.82 kg ha-1 mm-1. There was a significant change between irrigation intervals and row spaces statistically at P<0.001 level. The yield response factor (ky) between relative evopotranspiration deficit and relative yield loss was changed between 0.45-1.22. A 10% of decrease in ET resulted in a reduction of 4.5-12.2 % in yield. According to the research result, A 6 days irrigation interval along with 50x30 cm row space can be recommended for the region. Irrigation interval can be prolonged to 18 days under drought conditions since this irrigation program saves 37% of irrigation water with only 14 % yield reduction.

Key Words: sprinkler irrigation, sesame, irrigation interval, row spacing

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2003, 9 (2) 143-146
The Comparisons of Levene, Bartlett, Neyman-Pearson and Bartlett 2 Tests in Terms of Actual Type I Error Rates
(Turkish)

Mehmet MENDEŞ
Çankırı Forestry Faculty-Çankırı

In this study, Levene, Bartlett, Neyman-Pearson and Bartlett 2 tests were compared in terms of actual Type I error rates under various experimental conditions. At the end of 50000 simülation experiment it was seen that all of these tests were effected distribution shapes and sample size.

Key Words: homogeneity of variance, variance analysis, Type I error rates, homogeneity of variance tests

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2003, 9 (2) 147-152
Control of Pulsation Characteristics in Small Ruminant's Milking Machines Aided with PIC
(Turkish)

Recai GÜRHAN and Mustafa ÇETİN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, a control unit was developed for electronic pulsator using with milking machine for small ruminant. Central control unit was made by PIC (Peripheral Interface Controller). According to the test result, it is determined that all the parameter values in milking are satisfied in high stability by the automation system.

Key Words : small ruminant milking, electronic pulsator, automation, PIC

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2003, 9 (2) 153-161
An Investigation on the Biomass of Aquatic Plants and Evaluation of Management Methods in Pınarbaşı Reservoir (Afşin-Elbistan, Kahramanmaraş)
(Turkish)

Nilsun DEMİR1, Hülya YAVUZ2, Altunay PERENDECİ3, Cem ÇAKIROĞLU4 and Serdar S. ÇELEBİ2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara
2Hacettepe University, Department of Chemical Engineering-Ankara
3Turkish Sugar Company-Ankara
4Electricity Production Company, Environment-New and Renewable Energy Reseources Department-Ankara

The aquatic plants were grown excessively in Pınarbası reservoir supplying cooling water to Afsin Elbistan A thermal plant. In order to understand the problem and suggest solutions, water quality, sediment structure and composition of plants were investigated in August and September 2000 since the plant biomass is the highest in the reservoir in this term. Water plants like Groenlandia densa (L.) Fourr. and Nasturtium officinale R. Br. in spring part of reservoir were replaced by Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Chara globularis Thuill. in the enlarged part. The plant covered the water surface was Cladophora fracta (Dillw.) Kuetz. It covered 42% of the water surface area approximately. Estimated total dry weight of aquatic plants in reservoir was 27 t. The plant management methods suitable for water quality and type of reservoir were discussed in this paper.

Key Words: aquatic plant, biomass, water quality, sediment, management

 

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2003, 9 (2) 162-169
Investigations on Using Protected Protein in Ruminants Nutrition
1. The In Situ Rumen Degradability Characteristics of Protected Proteins
(Turkish)

İsmail FİLYA1 Ekin SUCU1 Hülya HANOĞLU2 and Ali KARABULUT1
Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Bursa
Marmara Animal Research Institute, Bandırma-Balıkesir

This research was carried out to determine the in situ rumen degradability characteristics of protected proteins. Sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM) and soybean meal (SBM) were used as protein sources. SFM, CSM and SBM treated with formaldehyde at the level of 1.1, 0.9 and 0.6 % of crude protein contents. Three heads rumen cannulated Merino rams were used as animal material in the study. Both SFM, CSM, SBM and formaldehyde treated SFMf, CSMf, SBMf were incubated in the rumen for 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 48 hours. At the end of 48 hours of rumen incubation, degradability for dry matter of SFM, SFMf, CSM, CSMf, SBM and SBMf were found as 79.45, 49.51, 59.65, 44.53, 95.37 and 76.36 %; organic matters degradability as 78.15, 47.01, 55.43, 37.28, 93.07 and 73.68 %; crude protein degradability as 95.58, 39.14, 70.20, 55.41, 93.86 and 60.08 %, respectively. Effective ruminal degradability of dry matter for SFM, SFMf, CSM, CSMf, SBM and SBMf were 60.07, 26.89, 39.76, 31.55, 63.08 and 35.24 %; organic matters 57.61, 23.40, 35.03, 27.47, 62.70 and 34.04 %; crude protein 66.12, 30.74, 45.07, 38.40, 68.35 and 41.23 %, respectively. Results indicated that, formaldehyde treatment decreased ruminal dry matter, organic matters and crude protein degradabilities of SFM, CSM and SBM. This treatment also decreased in ruminal potential degradabilities, degradation rate constants and effective degradability of dry matter, organic matters and crude protein of the meals.

Key Words: protected protein, In situ rumen degradability

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2003, 9 (2), 170-173
Morphological Characters and Forage Yields of Some Silage Type of Dent Maize (Zea mays indentata Sturt.) Hybrids
(Turkish)

İlker ERDOĞDU and Suzan ALTINOK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

This research was conducted on the experimental field of Field Crops Department on Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University in order to search morphological characters and forage yields of four silage type of dent maize hybrids in the years of 2000 and 2001. The mid-early maize varieties of C-6127 supplied Cargill and P.3394, P.3751, P. 32K61 supplied Pioner seed companies were used as research materials. Experimental design was completly randomized block with three replications and seeding times were May 1st and April 30 in 2000 and 2001, respectively. On the research results, the variety P.32K61 harvested later and had better morphological developments than other varieties gave the higher forage yields as well. According to this, on the variety of P.32K61, fresh yields were 10559 and 7985 kg/da, dry matter yields were 2621 and 1957 kg/da and crude protein yields were 315 and 176 kg/da in the years of 2000 and 2001, respectively. At the result, the variety of P.32K61 can be advised for production of silage maize as a main crop under irrigation conditions in our region.

Key Words: mısır, Zea mays indentata Sturt., silage, morphological characters, forage yields

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2003, 9 (2) 174-181
The Effect of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum,1792) Culture on Zooplankton in a Cage Farm, Kesikköprü Dam Lake
(Turkish)

İlknur KARACA1 and Serap PULATSÜ2
Gazi University, Eğitim Faculty Biyoloji Bölümü-Ankara
Ankara University, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

The effect of rainbow trout culture on zooplankton was investigated at three stations (cage station, distance15 and 60 metres from the cage station) in a cage farm of about 55 ton capacity, during 11 months in Kesikköprü Dam Lake. The difference of zooplankton abundance between stations were found to be statistically significant (p<0,05). The abundance and composition of zooplankton were found to be lower at the cage station except august and december than the other stations. Zooplankton abundance was the lowest (8421 individual/m3) in february at cage station and the highest (165 034 individual/m3) in october at the station selected 60 m distance from the cage station. The percentage of rotifers was the highest in all stations, composing more than 90% of the individuals counted. The rotifer community consisted mostly of Keratella and Polyarthra spp.

Key Word: Kesikköprü Dam Lake, rainbow trout, cage culture, zooplankton

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2003, 9 (2) 182-188
Identification of Some Selected French Bean Cultivars by Morphological Properties and Protein Markers
(Turkish)

Ahmet BALKAYA1 and Ruhsar YANMAZ2
1Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Horticulture-Samsun
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Horticulture -Ankara

Twentyone bean cultivars (15 cultivar canditate and 5 commercial cultivar) were identified both field and laboratory tests. In field tests earliness, plant (heigth), leaf (color, the size of terminal and side leaflts, shape of terminal leaflet),flower (size of bracte, color), pod (size, shape of cross section, color, stringiness, surface texture, ldegree of curvature, prominence of grains) and seed (size, shape, color) properties were determined. In laboratory tests seed protein bands were obtained by SDS-PAGE. Results of research, both candidates of cultivars and commercial cultivars showed that differences morphological characters and protein band design.

Key Words: bean, variety, identification, morphological properties, protein marker

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2003, 9 (2) 189-196
Determination and Evaluation of Eğirdir Town's Recreation Resources
(Turkish)

Aybike Ayfer KARADAĞ and Nevin AKPINAR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture-Ankara

This research was carried out to determine and evaluate of Eğirdir Town's recreation resources in the context of protection and using criteria. In this context; firstly, the terms of recreation and recreation resources have been explained. Inventory and analysis of natural and cultural resources are the important part of this research. In the light of the inventory and analysis; the method of "classification of recreation resources" which is improved by ORRRC (Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission) is used in the case of Eğirdir Town to determine and classification its recreation resources. As a result, the recreation resources of the area have been evaluated and some recommendation was given to develop of the area's recreation resources.

Key Words: recreation, recreation resources, Eğirdir

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2003, 9 (2) 197-202
Evaluation of Landscape Design Procedure ;A Case Study from Ispir (Erzurum) Social Facility Complex
(English)

Sevgi YILMAZ1 and Murat ÇINAR2
Atatürk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Erzurum, Turkey
Landscape Architecture

The main goal of landscape design studies is to construct more comfortable living areas for human beings by arranging natural and socio-cultural factors. The Ispir Social Facility complex, an environmental arrangement project, was evaluated for its physical atmosphere, comfort and aesthetic satisfaction. The Landscape Gardening Project study comprising 8950 square metres in the area was achieved through putting forward the subject /matter, data collection on the present situation, expasing the final product (design), making analysis, development, evaluation and synthesis in collaboration with local administration.

Key Words : landscape, land use, design process, design

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2003, 9 (2), 203-205
Effects of Frisol F, Promot and Fluorescent Pseudomonads Against Fusarium Wilt of Melon Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis Race 1,2 in Controlled Conditions
(English)

Kudret ERZURUM and Salih MADEN
Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

The organic material, Frisol F, was incorporated to the potting soil at the rate of 1,13 g/kg soil. Application of this material alone or in combination with antagonistic microorganisms did not reduce wilt development. The commercial preparation of Trichoderma koningii and T. harzianum, Promot (1 g/kg soil) reduced wilt incidence 42.86 % but this was not statistically different than the control. When melon seeds were soaked in the suspensions of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida of 109 cell/ml for 2 hours wilt incidence was reduced 54.14 and 71.43 % respectively, the latter being significant.

Key Words : melon, fusarium wilt, antagonistic microorganisms

 

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2003, 9 (2) 206-212
Determination of Mechanical Behaviour of Bean,Reddish Bean and Lentil Under Compression Loading
(Turkish)

Metin GÜNER
Ankara University, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

This paper examines mechanical behaviour of bean (horoz oturak and şeker varieties), reddish bean and lentil (pul II variety) under compression load between two paralel plates. At the beginning of every test three major perpendicular dimensions of the seeds were measured and the geometric mean diameter, sphericity, deformation, specific deformation, initial rupture force and initial rupture energy were determined The tests were made at three moisture contents and two compression positions (x-x, y-y). Seeds were compressed at an applied force speed of 40,2 mm/min between two parallel plates. For each combination of moisture content and load position, a sample of 10 seeds was tested. In addition, statistical analysis were made. For bean of horoz oturak variety; the maximum specific deformation, rupture force and energy were obtained at x-x load position. With increasing moisture content specific deformation and rupture force decreased and rupture energy increased to a value of moisture and then decreased. For bean of şeker variety; the maximum specific deformation occurred at x-x load position and the maximum rupture force and energy were obtained at y-y load position. For reddish bean; at the y-y load position the specific deformation and rupture energy, and at the x-x load position the maximum rupture force were obtained. The specific deformation, rupture force and energy decreased as the moisture content increased for reddish been. The average deformation, specific deformation, rupture force and energy for lentil (pul 11 variety) were 0,307±0,0201 mm, %12,9±0,938, 190,6±15,7 N and 180,6±21,1 Nmm respectively.

Key Words: bean, reddish bean, lentil, mechanical behaviour, deformation, rupture force, rupture energy

 

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2003, 9 (2) 213-221
Determination of the Efficiency of Different Soil Tillage Methods in the Sugar Beet Cultivation
(Turkish)

Koç Mehmet TUĞRUL1 and İlknur GÖKNUR DURSUN2
1 Sugar Institute of Turkey-Ankara
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this research, it was aimed the comparisons of six different sugar beet tillage methods in terms of some physico-mechanic features, yield, internal quality, process characteristic and cost and determination of the most suitable methods in sugar beet cultivation. One of the soil tillage methods is traditional soil tillage method including disc - harrow + two times mouldboard plough in autumn, harrow + rotary harrow combination + drilling in spring (S1) which is common use in Turkey. The other soil tillage methods are; tandem disc harrow + mouldboard plough + duckfoot cultivator on autumn and seedbed combination implement + drilling on spring (S2), tandem disc harrow + chisel on autumn and seedbed combination implement + drilling on spring (S3), inter row hoeing machine + drilling on spring (S4), subsoiler + rotary cultivator + rotary harrow combination + seedbed combination implement + drilling on spring (S5) and direct drilling (S6) the sugar beet without inversion respectively. The methods were evaluated as comparatively in terms of soil moisture content, dry bulk density, porosity, aggregate size distribution, penetration resistance, sugar beet yield, sugar content, extractable sugar content, extractable sugar yield, syrup purity, fuel consumption, machinery time and labour requirements, effective area capasity, total costs and net income. In conclusion it was determined the best results in S2 and S3. In addition, it was determined S6 is successfully applicable in sugar beet cultivation.

Key Words: sugar beet cultivation, soil tillage methods, soil physico-mechanic features, yield, quality, process characteristics, cost

 

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2003, 9 (2), 222-227
Sensitivity Analysis on Confidence Interval of Workable Time for Tractor
(Turkish)

Cevdet SAĞLAM and Mustafa VATANDAŞ
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Machinery - Ankara

In this study, sensitivity analysis on mean's confidence interval of workable time for tractor based on climatical parameters was performed. Linear programming technique was used for analysis done for a model farm in Şanlıurfa-Harran conditions. It was determined that increasing declination in workable time variable was decreased sensitivity of farm gross profit parameter. It was also observed that wheat was the most sensitive crop against changes in workable time of tractor while cotton and second crop corn were not sensitive. Finally, it was concluded that number of machine operations were increased sensitivity against tractor workable time.

Key Words: sensitivity analysis, workable time of tractor, linear programming

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2003, 9 (2) 228-233
Comparision to Drug and Fresh Leaf Yield of Different Varieties of Tube Flower (Datura stramonium L.)
(Turkish)

Yüksel KAN1 and Neşet ARSLAN2
Selçuk University,Department of Agronomy-Konya
Ankara University,Department of Agronomy -Ankara

This study was conducted in the experimental field of Central Animal Researc Institute-Konya during two years growing seasons. The aim of the study was to choose the best botanical varieties (stramonim, inermis, tatula and godronii) respect to fresh and drug left yield. Four varieties namely stramonium, inermis, tatula and godronii were evaluated during the field trials whole were designed in randomined complete blocks, with 4 replications in an plot area of 7.2 m2. According to the results ; the highest fresh leaf yields were obtained from var.inermis as (669kg/da) in two contequtive years. This was followed by var. godronii as 596kg/da and var.stramonium as 544kg/da respectively in the examine the drug leaf yields, the highest yield with aparalel of fresh leaf yield was obtained from var. inermis 95kg/da and followed by other varieties with a lower such as var. godronii, 88kg/da, var. stramonium 81kg/da and var. tatula 76 kg/da.

Key Words: tube-flower, fresh leaf, drug leaf, yield, Datura stramonium L.

 

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2003, 9 (2) 234-242
Determination of Priorities of Land Use Types Using Simos Procedure and ELECTRE 1 Method in Sustainable Land Use Planning
(Turkish)

Nevin AKPINAR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Departmen of Landscape Architecture-Ankara

Ecological, economical and social problems caused by misuse of natural and cultural resources effects the life quality in both urban and rural areas. Sustainable land use planning may be accepted as an effective tool to solve these problems in global, regional and local level. In the frame of sustainable land use planning, evaluation of ecological, economical, social information and planning goals all together can be managed with multi criteria decision making methods. In this study a multi criteria decision making method known as ELECTRE 1 was employed to determine priorities of land use types. Additionally , Simos procedure was used assigning weight of criteria. Eight land use types considered as alternatives have been assessed using fifteen criteria and all alternatives outranked in the scope of ELECTRE 1 . Agro-forestry and agricultural recreation have been determined as the best land use types for the case study that has been carried out in Adıyaman Ziyaret Stream Basin. As a result, ELECTRE 1 method has been determined as an appropriate method for ranking land use alternatives and also different landscape planning and assessment studies.

Key Words: land use planning, ELECTRE 1 method, Simos procedure

 

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2003, 9 (2) 243-248
Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Relationship by AGNPS Model in Harabe Creek Watershed
(Turkish)

Cüneyt AYDIN and Y. Ersoy YILDIRIM
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

The AGNPS is a commonly used watershed level model in the world and especially in the USA. This study was based on the data of Harabe Creek watershed of Şanlıurfa Rural Affairs Research Institute. Storm-based surface flows resulted from the rains greater than 25.4 mm between 1992-1996 were predicted by AGNPS model. Consequently, AGNPS model can succesfully be used in the watershed runoff predictions for the period between march and may.

Key Words: Harabe Creek Watershed, model, AGNPS, rainfall, runoff

2003, 9 (2) 249-254
Determination of Air-Assisted Spray Application Efficiency in Tomato
(Turkish)

Ergin DURSUN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

This study was conducted to determine the effects of air-assisted spray application on spray deposition on both the upper and lower leaf surfaces, spray penetration into plant canopy, and spray dirift in tomato. An air-assisted experimental sprayer was built for this study. This sprayer has an inflatable air bag along the boom. Air-assisted produced by a centrifugal fan is forced vertically down through a series of circular holes, 40 mm in diameter and 80 mm apart at the bottom of the inflated air bag. Fan was driven by a hydraulic motor. Fan rotation speed can be adjusted to obtain different air velocities. Tests were done with air velocities of 21, 30, and 37 m/s. Hollow cone nozzles on the boom were angled 30 degree backward. Thus, spray droplets ejected from nozzles were carried to the plant by the vertical air stream. Research results showed that air assistance increased deposits on both the upper and lower leaf surfaces, improved spray penetration, and reduced spray drift. The highest spray deposits on the upper and lower leaf surface were obtained with air velocity of 37 m/s. Mean spray deposits over all plant locations increased 30.96, 40.65, and 43.87 % for air-assisted application with air velocities of 21, 30, and 37 m/s, respectively, compared to spray application without air assistance. Air assistance reduced spray drift between 21.3 - 43.5 % depending on air and wind velocities.

Key Words: tomato spraying, air-assisted spray application, spray deposition, spray penetration, spray drift

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