2002, Volume: 8, Number: 2
Contents
 
YURTSEVEN, E., G. ÇAYCI, C. S. SEVİMAY, A. ÖZTÜRK ve M. PARLAK, The Effect of Salinity and Water Amounts on the Yield of Hungarian Wetch (Vicia pannonica, Crantz) and Soil Salinization. II. Leaching with Different Salty Waters Abstract
KORUKLUOĞLU, M., O. GÜRBÜZ ve İ. ŞAHİN, Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fresh Olive Microflora Abstract
ÇOLAK, A. ve K. SAÇILIK, Determination of the Coefficients of Friction of Olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Memecik) Abstract
DELLAL, G. ve A. M. TATAR, Heritabilities of Testes Characteristics of Ile de France (IF) x Akkaraman (AK) (B1) Male Lambs Abstract
ÖZTÜRK, H. S. ve R. HARTMANN, Monitoring the Soil Water Content Using Time Domain Reflectometry in a Clay Loam and an Organic Soil Abstract
PULATSÜ, S., A. AKÇORA ve F. T. KÖKSAL, The Effect of Sediment on Trophic Level of Sakaryabaşı West Pond Abstract
BOYDAK, E., Z. DOĞAN ve İ. ÖZTÜRK, Correlation and Path Analysis of Yield and Some Effective Characters on Yield at Some Soybean (Glycine max. L.) Cultivars Abstract
VATANDAŞ, M. ve K. EKMEKÇİ, Optimization of Exhaust Pollution and Fuel Economy for Tractor Engines Abstract
SEVİMAY, C. S., H. B. HAKYEMEZ ve A. İPEK, The Effect of Different Nitrogen Doses on Yield and Some Agronomic Characters of Sorghum for Silage Varieties Under Irrigated Conditions in Ankara Abstract
DURSUN, İ. G. Determination of the Suitable Tillage Equipment and Seed Drill Sets to Control Erosion by Surface Residues Using Calculating Method Abstract
ŞEN, A. ve M. GÜNER, Time Analysis in Sugar Factory Abstract
BÜYÜKBURÇ, U. ve Y. KARADAĞ, A Research on Herbage Yield and Quality of Some Perennial Forage Grasses Under Tokat Conditions Abstract
DOLAR, F. S. Antagonistic Effect of Aspergillus melleus Yukawa on Soilborne Pathogens of Chickpea Abstract
BUZLUK, Ş. ve A. İ. ACAR, The Effects of Different Weed Control Methods on Sugar Beet Yield and Quality Abstract
MARASALI, B. Investigations on the Functional Ovule and Embryo Development in Grapevine Abstract

Abstracts
 

2002, 8 (2) 101-108
The Effect of Salinity and Water Amounts on the Yield of Hungarian Wetch (Vicia pannonica, Crantz) and Soil Salinization II. Leaching With Different Salty Waters
(Turkish)

Engin YURTSEVEN1 Gökhan ÇAYCI2 Cafer S.SEVİMAY3 Ahmet ÖZTÜRK1 Mehmet PARLAK2
1 Ankara University, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara
2 Ankara University, Department of Soil Science-Ankara
3 Ankara University, Department of Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü-Ankara

In this greenhouse study to determine the effect of irrigation water salinity, amount water applied and different leaching water salinity on the yield and quality of Hungarian Wetch (Vicia pannonica, Crantz), an experiment were conducted in 35 cm in diameter and 65 cm in depth PVC lysimeters, with 4 irrigation and leaching water salinity levels (0.25, 1.5, 3 ve 6 dS/m) and 2 water amounts applied (70% and 100% of required irrigation water), with 4 replications in totally 80 lysimeters. For each irrigation water salinity level (T), the green yield of the crop wasn't affected by the leaching water salinity levels (C) but caused to decrease significantly the dry grass yield. The protein and total ash contents, both, haven't affected by the leaching water salinity levels. Soil salinity was increased in all lizymeters with the irrigation water salinity levels increased. The higher the leaching water salinity levels, caused to increase the profile salinity at the end of the irrigation period as well.

Key Words: salinity, leaching, leaching water salinity, crop yield, crop quality, Vicia pannonica, soil salinity

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2002, 8 (2) 109-113
Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fresh Olive Microflora
(Turkish)

Mihriban KORUKLUOĞLU Ozan GÜRBÜZ İsmet ŞAHİN
Uludağ University, Department of Food Engineering-Bursa

The aim of the research is to determine lactic acid bacteria, which are contaminating naturally fresh olives, and their suitability for olive fermentation and to determine the validity of suggestions directed towards usage of starter and also necessary measures should be taken. For this reason, totally 18 fresh olive samples (three of them were green olive) from 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 harvesting terms were used as material. From 12 of them, lactic acid bacteria were isolated and 38 isolates were examined as stab culture for identification. It was determined that, 12 of these isolates were L. plantarum, 4 of them were L. brevis,17 of them were L. mesenteroides, 4 of them were L. lactis ssp. lactis and only one of them was P. damnosus. It was established that, L. plantarum and L. lactis ssp. Lactis, L. lactis ssp. lactis were suitable for spontaneous fermentation and also fermentation with inoculation because of their abilities of growing at 15ºC and 10% salt concentration, utilizing from lot of carbon sources and being homofermentative and non-forming any danger for gas containing spoilages. However, the latter (L. lactis ssp. lactis) wasn't mentioned before in any other research related with olive. So that it is necessary to search the suitability of L. lactis ssp. lactis for olive fermentation. The majority of lactic acid bacteria isolated and identified in this research could grow until 8% salt concentration. For that reason, it is appropriate to adjust salt concentration of brine not exceeding to 8% level until the end of lactic acid fermentation.

Key Words: olive, lactic acid bacteria, starter, salt, temperature

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2002, 8 (2) 114-118
Determination of the Coefficients of Friction of Olive (Olea europaea L.cv. Memecik)
(Turkish)

Ahmet ÇOLAK Kâmil SAÇILIK
Ankara University, Department of Agricultural, Machinery

In this study, the coefficients of friction of olive which were harvested in the region of İzmir were determined on various structural surfaces. A measurement system was developed to determine the coefficients of friction of olive. Measurement system consists of bottomless box that is filled with olives, test surface and data acquisition system. Rubber, plywood, galvanized steel and chrome stain steel were used as structural surface in the experiments. The experiments were executed at 23.1, 28.1 and 33.1 N normal force and friction force versus displacement was continuously recorded on files.The analysis of variance showed that test surface on the static and dynamic coefficient of friction is significant (p<0.01). Normal force hasn't a significant effect on the static and dynamic coefficient of friction. However, the static and dynamic coefficient of friction has tendency to decrease with increases in normal force. Among the structural surfaces, rubber has the highest value of the static and dynamic coefficient of friction and chrome stain steel has the lowest one.

Key Words: olive, structural surface, normal force, static coefficient of friction, dynamic coefficient of friction

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2002, 8 (2) 119-121
Heritabilities of Testes Characteristics of Ile de France (IF) x Akkaraman (AK) (B1) Male Lambs

Gürsel DELLAL Ali Murat TATAR
1Ankara Üniversity, Animal Science-Ankara
2Dicle Üniversity, Animal Science-Diyarbakır

In this research,the heritabilities of some testes characteristics in Ile de France (IF) x Akkaraman (AK) (B1) male lambs were estimated. While the heritabilities of left and right testes diameters, left and right testes lengths, left and right testes volumes and scrotal circumference determining before slaughtering were estimated as 0,21, 0,24, 0,04, 0,00, 0,31, 0,15 and 0,00,respectively, the heritabilities of left and right testes volumes, both testes weights, left and right testes circumference determining after slaughtering were estimated as 0,05, 0,00, 0,00, 0,33, 0,27 and 0,00, respectively.

Key Words: male lamb, testes characteristics, heritability

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2002, 8 (2) 122-127
Monitoring the Soil Water Content Using Time Domain Reflectometry in a Clay Loam and an Organic Soil
(English)

Hasan Sabri ÖZTURK1 Roger HARTMANN2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Science-Ankara, Turkey
2Gent University, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Dept. of Soil Management and Soil Care-Gent, Belgium

In the present study, Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and tensiometers were used to follow changes in soil water content and soil water pressure head over time in soil containers filled with a clay loam soil and an organic soil. The moisture content changes throughout the soil columns were determined by three-rod TDR probes and tensiometers inserted at the depths of 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 cm. In the experiment, changes in soil water content and soil water pressure head were determined during and after the simulation of 15 L demineralized water applied at a constant rate of 20 mm hr-1. The water movement through the clay loam soil was initially fast and the first moisture content change at the depth of 15 cm was detected during the first half an hour but later slow water movement was observed. For the organic soil, change in the moisture content with depth was slow compared with that of the clay loam soil. The first change in moisture content at the depth of 15 cm was observed after only 1hour from the simulation of water. The highest moisture level, 48.6%, at the depth of 5 cm was determined only after approximately 2.5 hours later from the beginning of simulated rainfall.

Key Words: time domain refloctemetry, water movement, soil column, tensiometer

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2002, 8 (2) 128-134
The Effect of Sediment on Trophic Level of Sakaryabaşı West Pond
(Turkish)

Serap PULATSÜ1 Akasya AKÇORA1 Fatma TOKSOY KÖKSAL2
1 Ankara University, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara
2 Orta Doğu Teknik Üniv. Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü-Ankara

This investigation was carried out in West Pond from which water was supplied to the Sakaryabaşı Fish Culture and Research Station. Water and sediment samples were taken from the station determined in the West Pond in 2000 (july, october), 2001 (january, april). Total filtrable phosphorus (TFP), total filtrable orhtophosphate (TFO), iron concentrations and pH values were measured in pond water, overlying water which was sampled from just over sediment and porewater obtained from sediment samples. Also, water content (%), organic content (%), total phosphorus and total iron concentrations and pH values were determined in sediment. During the period of this study, it was found that overlying water (TFP:38,12-107,21µg/L; TFO:31,45-62,81µg/L) and porewater (TFP: 65,09-157,66µg/L;TFO:41,87-123,95µg/L) phosphorus fractions were higher than those pond water phosphorus fractions (TFP:13,92-41,76µg/L;TFO:15,24-27,15µg/L), this indicates the influence of sediment on pond's trophic level. In porewater when the ratio of iron to phosphorus (in molar) is found to be lower than 1,8 this indicates that iron never effects the release of phosphorus from sediment. Also considering observed pH values, pH does not have a role on the release of phosphorus from sediment.

Key Words: Sakaryabaşı West Pond, porewater, phosphorus fractions, pH

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2002, 8 (2) 135-139
Correlation and Path Analysis of Yield and Some Effective Characters on Yield at Some Soybean (Glycine max. L.) Cultivars
(Turkish)

Erkan BOYDAK1 Zeki ERDOĞAN2 İrfan ÖZTÜRK2
1Harran University, Department of Agronomy-Şanlıurfa
2Harran University, Department of Animal Science-Şanlıurfa

This investigation was conducted to determine the correlations among Seed Yield, Planting Date, Cultivars, Seed Yield of Per Plant,Seed Number of Per Pod, 1000 Seed Weight, Pod Number, First Pod Hight, Plant Hight and Branch Number and to determine the direct and the indirect contribution of this traits on Seed Yield with 6 soybean cultivars under Harran Plain Conditions in 1995-1996. It's tried to find the factor more influence on the Seed Yield. On the Seed Yield, direct and indirect contribution of studied factors were investigated to be used correlation and path analysis coefficients. At both years, the correlations between Seed Yield and Plant Hight were found significant (p<0.01). The correlation between Seed Yield and Node number follow this result. Among path analysis coefficients that does direct effect on the Seed Yield, direct effect belong Plant Hight and 1000 Seed Weight was found the possitive and most significant (p<0.01).

Key Words: correlation coefficient, path analysis, soybean

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2002, 8 (2) 140-142
Optimization of Exhaust Pollution and Fuel Economy for Tractor Engines
(Turkish)

Mustafa VATANDAŞ1 Kerim EKMEKCİ2
Ankara University, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara
Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı, Tarım Alet ve Makinaları Test Merkezi Müdürlüğü-Ankara

In this study, exhaust black smoke concentration and specific fuel consumption were determined for various percent of loading of PTO on four agricultural tractors. Standard Diesel fuel was used in the tests. Experimental results showed that, optimum percent loading of PTO was calculated as 85,6 % for minimum Bosch Smoke Value and minimum specific fuel consumption.

Key Words: tractor engine, percent loading of PTO, Bosch smoke value, specific fuel consumption

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2002, 8 (2) 143-148
The Effect of Different Nitrogen Doses on Yield and Some Agronomic Characters of Sorghum for Silage Varieties Under Irrigated Conditions in Ankara
(Turkish)

Cafer Sırrı SEVİMAY1, Hakan B. HAKYEMEZ2 and Arif İPEK1
1Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara
2 Onsekiz Mart Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Çanakkale

This research was conducted at experimental fields of Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara in 1998 and 1999. The aim of the research is to determine the conveinent sorghum variety for silage and nitrogen dose under irragated conditions in Ankara. In the research Early Sumak, Leoti, Rox varieties and 0, 5, 10 and 15 kg/da nitrogen doses were used as materials. Effects of nitrogen doses were found statistically significant for plant height, stem thickness, green yield, hay yield ratio, , raw protein ratio and raw protein yield in both years. The highest green yield was obtained from 15 kg N/da with 3395.1 kg/da in 1998 and 3006.1 kg/da in 1999. Differences among varieties for green yield were found not significant.

Key Words: sorghum, nitrogen, green yield, hay yield, crude proein yield

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2002, 8 (2) 149-156
Determination of the Suitable Tillage Equipment and Seed Drill Sets to Control Erosion by Surface Residues Using Calculating Method
(Turkish)

İlknur GÖKNUR DURSUN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

Leaving crop residues on the soil surface is one of the easiest and the most effective method of reducing soil erosion. But, it is very important the amount of surface residue remained after all tillage and planting operations for an effective soil erosion control. The objective of this study was to determine suitable tillage equipment and seed drill sets to reduce soil erosion at different soil conditions where soil erosion is caused by wind and water. In this study, eight different primary tillage equipment, six secondary tillage equipment and six different seed drills were selected. Wheat and corn were taken as crop variety. Moreover, it was assumed that crops was harvested in summer or fall and field was left uncultivated. At the end of this study, crop residues remained on the soil surface were found using calculation method after tillage and planting operations by selected tillage equipment and seed drill sets. Efficiencies of this sets at different conditions were determined with regard to water and wind erosion.

Key Words: erosion control, crop residue, tillage equipment and seed drill sets

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2002, 8 (2) 157-161
Time Analysis in Sugar Factory
(Turkish)

Ali ŞEN1 and Metin GÜNER2
1Ankara Sugar Factory
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, the time analysis was searched for the usage of labour and machinery in sugar production at the Sugar Factory of Ankara. For this purpose; according to the work flow chart, the standard times were determined by measuring main time, distribution time and unit time in fabrication unit. These data have been evaluated by using the statistical methods. The REFA Standard program was used in the operation measuring studies. In the study the eighteen main operation steps and in addition to this 56 sub-group operation steps in sugar beet processing at factory were determined. As a result, unit times per unit product were determined and the time for processing 1000 ton of sugar beet was calculated as 3592.59 minutes.

Key Words: time analysis, work flow chart, performance, standard time, sugar, sugar beet, sugar factory

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2002, 8 (2) 162-166
A Research on Herbage Yield and Quality of Some Perennial Forage Grasses Under Tokat Conditions
(Turkish)

Uğur BÜYÜKBURÇ1 Yaşar KARADAĞ2
1Harran University, Departmen of Agronomy-Şanlıurfa
2Gaziosmanpaşa University, Departmen of Agronomy-Tokat

This study was carried out to determine herbage yield and quality of some perennial grasses under Tokat ecological conditions in 1997-1999 years. The research was designed according to randomized block design with three replications. The results showed differences among perennial forage grass species for plant heights, green herbage yields, hay yields, crude protein contents, crude protein yields. According to the average of two year results, plant heights of perennial forage grasses varied between 67.50-92.83 cm, green yields between 834.50-1352.62 kg/da, hay yields between 253.26-414.51 kg/da, crude protein contents between 7.59-10.32 % and crude protein yields between 21.96-32.30 kg/da.

Key Words: perennial forage grasses, herbage yield, crude protein content, crude protein yield

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2002, 8 (2) 167-170
Antagonistic Effect of Aspergillus melleus Yukawa on Soilborne Pathogens of Chickpea
(English)

F.Sara DOLAR
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

Effect of Aspergillus melleus Yukawa on mycelial growth and infection of chickpea by Marcophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, F.solani, F.acuminatum, F.equiseti, F.moniliforme, F.sambucinum and Rhizoctonia solani was studied. A. melleus inhibited the colony growth of F.sambucinum, F.equiseti, R.solani, M.phaseolina, F.oxysporum and F.moniliforme (52.2, 51.1, 46.6, 46.6, 46.3 and 42.1%, respectively) on PDA. Root rot and wilt diseases caused by F.sambucinum, F.moniliforme, M.phaseolina, F.equiseti and F.oxysporum f.sp.ciceri in A.melleus-amended soil were reduced significantly. However, there was no effect of A.melleus on infection by F.acuminatum and R.solani in chickpea. The highest reduction value was obtained with M.phaseolina (72.78%).

Key Words: chickpea, Aspergillus melleus, antagonist, soilborne pathogens

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2002, 8 (2) 171-179
The Effects of the Different Weed Control Methods on Sugar Beet Yield and Quality
(Turkish)

Şevki BUZLUK1 and Ali İhsan ACAR2
1Türkiye Şeker Fabrikaları A.Ş. Şeker Enstitüsü Tarımsal Mekanizasyon Şubesi-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this research, effects of different weed control methods on sugar beet yield and quality, determining and comparing the efficiency of control weeds were investigated in Turkey. Field trials were carried out randomized block designes as four replication on 36 plots. Hand hoeing, rotary power hoe, tractor mounted steerage hoe and low dose post emergence spraying were used in this research. Consequently, results from obtained the trials showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the subjects in terms of beet yield and refined sugar yield. The best result obtained from the hand hoeing and there were no differences between the other methods except rotary power hoe and tractor mounted steerage hoe. There were also no significant differences between the methods in terms of beet quality datas.

Key Words: sugar beet, weed control

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2002, 8 (2) 180-184
Investigations on the Functional Ovule and Embryo Development in Grapevine
(Turkish)

MARASALI, B.
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

The present study was undertaken to examine the embryogenesis, from the development of the female gametophyte to the mature embryo, in normally seeded fruit set. Therefore, the investigations were carried out in Hasandede (Vitis vinifera L.) which is a seedeed and indigenous grape cultivar. In anatropous ovules megaspore mother cell became visible 8-12 days before flowering. Development of chalazal megaspor into embryo sac established before anthesis. Four celled proembryo was observed in 24 days and embryo development was completed in 74-80 days after anthesis.

Key Words: vitis vinifera L, hasandede cultivar, ovule, embryogenesis

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