2002, Volume: 8, Number: 1
Contents
 
YURTSEVEN, E., G. ÇAYCI, C. S. SEVİMAY, A. ÖZTÜRK, M. PARLAK and L. YALÇIN, The Effect of Salinity and Water Amounts on the Yield of Hungarian Wetch (Vicia pannonica, Crantz) and Soil Salinization: I.Without Leaching Application Abstract
SAÇILIK, K. and A. ÇOLAK, Determination of Some Impact Parameters of the Olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Memecik) Abstract
SAKİN, M. A. and Ö. SENCAR, The Effects of Different Doses of Gamma Ray and EMS on Formation of Chlorophyll Mutations in Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Abstract
POLAT, R. Determination of the Working Performance at Prunning and Branch Cutting Resistance of Pistachio Nuts Abstract
BAŞAR, H., H. ÇELİK and V. KATKAT,, Effects of Various Seed Applied Zinc Compounds on Contents of Zinc, Some Nutrient Elements and Growth of Maize Abstract
ÇOLAK, A. The Investigation of Reaction Time of Topping Feeler on Sugar Beet Harvester in Different Forward Speeds Abstract
ACAR, A. İ. and H. H. A. ALIZADEH, Determination the Effect of Hole Shapes on the Pick up of Sunflower Seeds in Vacuum Type Precision Drills Abstract
ALTINOK, S. and H. B. HAKYEMEZ, The Effects on Forage Yields of Different Mixture Rates of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa L.) and Narbonne Vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) Seeded with Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Abstract
KESKİN, S. and F. GÜRBÜZ, The Investigation of Bartlett and Levene' s Test Statistics in Terms of Type-I Error Rates in Small Samples Abstract
DELLAL, G. Phenotypic Correlations Between Testes, Fattening and Carcass Characteristics of Ile de France (IF) x Akkaraman (AK) (B1) Male Lambs Abstract
ÖLMEZ, F. N. and N. KAYABAŞI, A Research on the Colors Obtained from Rockrose (Cistus laurifolius L.) and Their Fastness Values Abstract
TATAR, A. M. and A. ELİÇİN, The Research on the Relations Between Body Weight and Measurements in Sucking and Fattening Periods by the Method of Canonical Correlation in Ile de France x Akkaraman (B1) Male Lambs Abstract
VATANDAŞ, M., R. GÜRHAN and M. ÇETİN, Determination of Cracking Characteristics of Chickpea According to Different Varieties and Moisture Levels Abstract
DURDIYEV, D. and E. DURSUN, Determination of the Effects of Stalk Chopping and Different Tillage Systems on Mixing of Corn Stalks into the Soil Abstract
GÜRHAN, R. and B. GELEGEN, Control of Pulsation Characteristics in Milking Systems Aided with PLC Abstract
ÖZGÖZ, E. and R. OKURSOY, Relations Between Tractor Rubber Tire Pressure and Soil Compaction Abstract
Abstracts
 

2002, 8 (1) 1-6
The Effect of Salinity and Water Amounts on the Yield of Hungarian Wetch (Vicia pannonica, Crantz) and Soil Salinization: I.Without Leaching Application
(Turkish)

Engin YURTSEVEN1, Gökhan ÇAYCI2, Cafer S.SEVİMAY3, Ahmet ÖZTÜRK1 , Mehmet PARLAK2 and Levent YALÇIN4
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara
3 Ankara University. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy -Ankara
4 Turkish State Meteorological Service-Ankara

In this greenhouse study to determine the effect of irrigation water salinity and amount water applied on the yield and quality of Hungarian Wetch (Vicia pannonica, Crantz), an experiment were conducted in 35cm in diameter and 65cm in depth PVC lysimeters, with 4 irrigation water salinity levels (0.25, 1.5, 3 ve 6 dS/m) and 2 water amounts applied (70% and 100% of irrigation water required) in fully randomised factorial design. Increasing salinity caused to decrease the green yield but to increase somewhat biomass yield of the crop. The water amount applied did not effect these yields. The dry grass yield, however, affected by both the two factors. Increasing salinity levels caused to decrease the protein contents, but to increase the total ash percentage of the crop as well. Soil salinization were increased in all lizymeter with the irrigation water salinity levels increased.

Key Words: salinity, leaching, leaching water salinity, crop quality, Vicia pannonica, soil salinity

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2002, 8 (1) 7-14
Determination of Some Impact Parameters of the Olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Memecik)
(Turkish)

Kâmil SAÇILIK and Ahmet ÇOLAK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

Impact parameters make an important role in harvesting and handling of biological materials. In this research, impact parameters of the olive such as impact force, impact acceleration, impact energy, momentum and impact duration was evaluated depending on drop height and mass of the olive. Impact parameters were determined by using impact testing apparatus whose drop height and impact surface was changeable. Before the impact experiments, the olives were divided into five groups and then every groups of the olives were dropped from different drop heights varying between 0.4 and 2 m onto two different impact surfaces. Other impact parameters were calculated by using measured impact force values. The analysis of variance showed that the drop height has a significant effect on the impact force, impact acceleration and impact duration of the olives. As a result of the study, for each group the olives, as the drop height increases, the impact force, impact acceleration, impact energy and momentum increase , but the impact duration decreases. Furthermore, the data on impact parameters versus the drop height are illustrated together with the confidence intervals of 95 %.

Key Words: olive, impact, force, acceleration, energy, momentum, impact duration

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2002, 8 (1) 15-21
The Effects of Different Doses of Gamma Ray and EMS on Formation of Chlorophyll Mutations in Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)
(English)

Mehmet Ali SAKİN and Özer SENCAR
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops-Tokat

The main target of breeding programmes has been to develop high yielding durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars. Breeding programmes aim to exploit the existing variability and to enhance genetic variation. Genetic variation may be broadened through experimental mutagenesis. An important plant breeding problem is the selection of suitable mutagenic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of durum wheat cultivars to mutagens by detecting fertility of M1 plants and chlorophyll mutations in M2 plants. This study was carried out in Tokat-Kazova conditions in 1996 and 1997. Gediz-75 and Sofu durum wheat cultivars were used as plant material in the trial. The gamma rays obtained from Cobalt 60 (60Co) as physical mutagen and the EMS as chemical mutagen were used. The seeds were irradiated with 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy and 200 Gy gamma rays or treated with 0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % EMS (Ethyl Methane Sulphonate). The seeds were treated with EMS at 24 °C for 8 hours without presoaked and were washed for 6 hours after treatment. Either of treated cultivars were grown separately in the trial. Besides, the treatments of gamma rays and EMS separately were "Randomized Complete Block Design" with three replications. According to the results of this research, fertility in M1 plants was lower with gamma ray application compared to EMS application. The spectrum and frequency of mutations were varied with treatments of mutagen and cultivars. The effect of mutagens markedly increased with high doses. The highest mutagenic efficiency was obtained from 0.4 % EMS dose in Gediz-75 cultivar and from 100 Gy gamma ray dose in Sofu cultivar.

Key Words: durum wheat, gamma rays, EMS, chlorophyll mutations, mutation frequency, mutagenic efficiency

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2002, 8 (1) 22-27
Determination of the Working Performance at Prunning and Branch Cutting Resistance of Pistachio Nuts
(Turkish)

Refik POLAT
Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Şanlıurfa

Prunning of the pistachio nuts is generally done by using hand scissors and as a secondary tool hand saws for cuttings of thick branches as being at other fruit trees and viniculture. But Mechanization isn't applied exactly at the prunning of pistachio nuts as used in the other process. In this study, cutting resistance of pistachio nut's branches were determined for three different diameters and cultivars . Working performances for prunning were determined on the siirt cultivars pistachio nuts trees by using both hand machines and pneumatic machines. These two system were compared with each other. It has been found out that there was differences beetwen prunning with hand machines and pneumatic scissors and saws. Prunning time for pneumatic scissors and saw was less than hand scissors and saws. Cutting forces of branches of pistachio was measured at six different branch thickness varying from 5 mm to 30 mm. Cutting forces of branches of kırmızı cultivars pistachio nuts was less than siirt and ohadi cultivars

Key Words: pistachio nut, prunning

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2002, 8 (1) 28-31
Effects of Various Seed Applied Zinc Compounds on Contents of Zinc, Some Nutrient Elements and Growth of Maize
(Turkish)

Haluk BAŞAR, Hakan ÇELİK and Vahap KATKAT
Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Bursa

This study was performed to determine effects of various seed-applied Zn compounds in different incubation times on contents of Zn, dry matter production and some nutrient elements in maize. The solutions of ZnO as 30%; 60% and Teprosyn F-2498 were used as Zn compounds. The seeds were incubated in these solutions in times of 0 (very short touch), 1, 12 and 24 hours. According to the results obtained from the experiment; the highest contents of Zn and dry matter were determined in Teprosyn F-2498 seed applied plants incubated in times of 0 and 1 hours. Seed application of ZnO, 30% and ZnO, 60% were not as effective as Teprosyn at the times of 0 and 1 hours.

Key Words: zinc, seed, maize, nutrient elements

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2002, 8 (1) 32-35
The Investigation of Reaction Time of Topping Feeler on Sugar Beet Harvester in Different Forward Speeds
(Turkish)

Ahmet ÇOLAK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this research, drop times of topping feeler were obtained as digitally under 0.39, 0.68, 0.975 and 1.7 m/s forward speed and 175 N and 235 N vertical feeler force conditions. Drop times were between 0.050-0.375 s. Drop times were low at the small height of beet top and high forward speed and big feeler vertical force. The horizontal displacement of feeler was 60-220 mm and had reached its maximum value at high forward speed and low vertical feeler force.

Key Words: sugar beet harvest, topping, drop time, vertical feeler force, forward speed, horizontal displacement of feeler

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2002, 8 (1) 36-44
Determination the Effect of Hole Shapes on the Pick up of Sunflower Seeds in Vacuum Type Precision Drills
(Turkish)

Ali İhsan ACAR1 and Hossein H. A. ALIZADEH2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara
2Bu-Ali Sina University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Hamadan, Iran

This study aims to determine the effect of the hole shape of vacuum seeder which is one of the most important part of vacuum type precision drill on the pick up heights of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds which have a considerably low value of sphericity were used in the experiments. The factors investigated were vacuum level (-4, -6 and -8 kPa), hole area (7.1, 9.6, 12.6, 15.9, 19.6, 23.7, 28.3, 33.2, 38.5 44.2 and 50.2 mm2) and hole shape (circular, square, triangular and oblong). The data of experiments had been evaluated as statistically. The results of varians analyses, the triple interaction betwen hole shape, vacuum and hole area had been determined. According to the Duncan test results, the minimum pick up heights of seeds had been occured at square hole shapes and the circular, oblong and triangular hole shapes had been followed the previous one. This order especialy had been observed preminant in -8 kPa vacuum level. The increase of vacuum level had been caused the increase of pick up heights. It is observed that the increase of hole area at the same hole shape and vacuum level had been caused increase in pick up heights of seeds.

Key Words: vacuum type precision drill, vacuum seeder, hole shape, hole area, vacuum level

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2002, 8 (1) 45-50
The Effects on Forage Yields of Different Mixture Rates of Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa L.) and Narbonne Vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) Seeded with Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
(Turkish)

Suzan ALTINOK1 and Hakan B. HAKYEMEZ2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy -Ankara
2Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy -Çanakkale

In this research which was carried out at the experimental field of Agronomy Department of Agricultural Fac. of Ankara Univ., in the years of 19998-1999 and 1999-2000, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.) line of L-626, narbonne vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) line of L-1025 and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Tokak 157/37 were used as materials. In the research, two vetch species were grown as monocropped and four different mixture rates with barley. All of those seed rates were; a) %100 vetch+%0 barley (V100+B0), b) % 80 vetch + % 20 barley (V80+B20), c) %60 vetch + % 40 barley (V60+B40), d) % 40 vetch + % 60 barley (V40+B60) and e) % 20 vetch + % 80 barley (V20+B80). According to the research results, except the dry matter and crude protein yields on second year, there were no significant differences between the vetch species on fresh end dry matter yields, crude protein content and yield on two years. On the other hand, there were significant differences in the level of 1% among the mixture rates on the forage yields, crude protein content and yield of vetch species+barley mixtures. At the result, the forage yields were increased with barley seeding rate in the mixture of hairy vetch+barley. The most fresh and dry matter yields and crude protein yield were got the rate of %20 hairy vetch+% 80 barley (V20+B80) in both years. On the crude protein content, there were no significant differences on the mixtures except monocropped vetches. On the mixture of narbonne vetch+barley, the highest fresh yield and dry matter yield were also taken from the mixture of %20 narbonne vetch+%80 barley (V20+B80) in the year of 2000, but they were the highest as the mixture of %80 narbonne vetch + %20 barley (V80+B20) in the year of 1999. Apart then, the highest crude protein yield was got from the same mixture (V80+B20) with increasing the rate of narbonne vetch in the mixture. On the all forage yields, the mixtures of narbonne vetch+barley plots was more productive than the those of hairy vetch+barley plots. According to the average forage yields in two years, the highest green, dry matter and crude protein yields were obtained from the mixtures of %20 hairy vetch+%80 barley (V20+B80) and %80 narbonne vetch+%20 barley(V80+B20).

Key Words: hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.), narbonne vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), fresh yield, dry matter yield, crude protein content, crude protein yield

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2002, 8 (1) 51-58
The Investigation of Bartlett and Levene' s Test Statistics in Terms of Type I Error Rates in Small Samples
(Turkish)

Sıddık KESKİN and Fikret GÜRBÜZ
Ankara Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this study, It was aimed that the investigation of Bartlett and Levene' s test statistics in terms of Type I error rates (a = 0.50, 0.25, 0.20, 0.15, 0.10, 0.05 and 0.01) in small samples. For this, samples had 3 and 4 treatment groups were drawn from a normal N(0.1) population and balanced (equal) sample sizes were increased from 2 to 30. In these samles, Type I error rates were obtained empirically. In order to obtain Type I error rates, 100000 replications were done for each sample sizes. In addition, the critical values of Bartlett and Levene's test statistics at a = 0. 05 ve 0.01 Type I error levels were obtained from 1000000 replications for each sample sizes. As a result, It was emphasised that Bartlett's test is better

Key Words: Bartlett's test, Levene's test, Type I error, homogeneity of variance

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2002, 8 (1) 59-61
Phenotypic Correlations Between Testes, Fattening and Carcass Characteristics of Ile de France (IF) x Akkaraman (AK) (B1) Male Lambs
(Turkish)

Gürsel DELLAL
Ankara Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

This research was carried out with 74 of Ile de France (IF) x white Karaman (WK) (B1) male lambs. In the research, phenotypic correlations between testes characteristics determining before and after slauhgtering with fattening and carcass characteristics were determined. Phenotypic correlations among these characteristics were high and significant (p<0,05; p<0,01).

Key Words: male lamb, testes characteristics, fattening period, canonical correlation

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2002, 8 (1) 62-66
A Research on the Colors Obtained from Rockrose (Cistus laurifolius L.) and Their Fastness Values
(English)

Filiz Nurhan ÖLMEZ1 and Nuran KAYABAŞI2
1Süleyman Demirel Universtiy, Fine Arts Faculty, Traditional Turkish Handicrafts Department-Isparta
2Ankara University, College of Home Economics-Ankara

The aim of this research is to determine colors obtained from rockrose with different mordants and mordanting methods, these colors fastness values such as light, friction, wet and dry water drop fastness, and to form a color catalogue. In this study, by doing totally 45 dyings, rockrose gave very different kinds of colors, if mordants were used alone at the rate of 3% and 5%, yellow, earth color, mustard, cumin colors and tones were obtained from rockrose. Mustard, tobacco and yellow tones were obtained by mixing fixed Pbc with the other mordants separately. If mordants were used alone, light fastness values were between 2 and 8 generally. They were in the middle level. However, they changed between 4 and 8 by mixing fixed Pbc with the other mordants separately. They were generally in the good level. The friction fastness values of the colors obtained from rockrose were between 1-2 and 3-4 generally. These values were in the middle or good level. The water drop wet and dry fastness values of the colors obtained from rockrose were between 3-4 and 5 generally in both method.

Key Words: vegetable dying, rockrose, mordant, carpet, rug

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2002, 8 (1) 67-72
The Research on the Relations Between Body Weight and Measurements in Sucking and Fattening Periods by the Method of Canonical Correlation in Ile de France x Akkaraman (B1) Male Lambs
(Turkish)

Ali Murat TATAR1 and Ayhan ELİÇİN2
1Dicle Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Diyarbakır
2Ankara Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this study, the relations between characteristics of preweaning and fattening periods of Ile de France x Akkaraman (B1) crossbred male lambs which were raised in Polatlı state (Ankara) were investigated by canonical correlation method. The two sets of data which were belong to above periods were analyzed directly by using canonical correlation analysis and after that, some significant sets were made for these periods and their canonical correlations were calculated.As a result, it was found that the canonical correlation between the set which consists of birth type, birth weight and ewe's weight in preweaning period and the set consists of 20 characters in fattening period as r=0.730 and statisticaly significant (p<0.01). According to this result it was concluded that the selection for body weight and measurements in fattening period could be done using of birth type, birth weight and ewe's weight characters.

Key Words: sheep, lamb, growth, fattening period, canonical correlation

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2002, 8 (1) 73-78
Determination of Cracking Characteristics of Chickpea According to Different Varieties and Moisture Levels
(Turkish)

Mustafa VATANDAŞ, Recai GÜRHAN and Mustafa ÇETİN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, mechanical behaviour of five various chickpea varieties was determined under compression load. Tests were made for four moisture level, three deformation speeds and two loading axis. Experimental results showed that, moisture level decreases rupture force but increases deformation energy, However, deformation speed increases rupture force but decreases deformation energy.

Key Words: chickpea, rupture force, deformation energy

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2002, 8 (1) 79-87
Determination of the Effects of Stalk Chopping and Different Tillage Systems on Mixing of Corn Stalks into the Soil
(Turkish)

Devletkılıç DURDIYEV and Ergin DURSUN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stalk chopping and different tillage methods on mixing of corn stalks into the soil. Six tillage methods were used in tests. A stalk chopper was also used in tests. Thus, burying and mixing efficiency of tillage methods were determined for stalk chopping and without chopping. According to the research results; the effects of tillage method, stalk height and stalk chopping on stalk burying ratio were found to be significant (p<0.01). The burying ratio of short stalk (14.77 cm) were found higher than long stalk (31.20 cm). Burying ratio of short stalk were found between 78.77 - 93.63 % depending on tillage methods. These ratios for long stalk were found between 70.18 - 88.11 %. Stalk chopping has increased burying ratio. Increase in stalk burying ratio by stalk chopping were found between 9.75 - 14.27 % depending on tillage method. The highest stalk burying ratios were obtained by Y5 (mouldboard plough+horizontal axis rotary tiller) method from both chopped and not chopped stalk. As burying ratio the highest mixing efficiency were obtained from chopped stalk. Mean deviation were found between 25.00 - 40.22 % for chopped stalk and 30.60 - 46.06 % for not-chopped stalk. The highest mixing efficiency were also obtained by Y5 in all tests.

Key Words: stalk chopping, tillage method, corn stalk, mixing efficiency, burying ratio

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2002, 8 (1) 88-91
Control of Pulsation Characteristics in Milking Systems Aided with PLC
(Turkish)

Recai GÜRHAN1 and Burak GELEGEN2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara
2Aston Computer Systems Ltd.-Ankara

In this study, a control unit was deleloped for electronic pulsator using with milking machine for dairy farms in Turkey continiously increasing use. Central control unit was made by PLC tool that widely used in automation systems. According to the test result, it is determined that all the parameter values in milking are satisfied in high stability by the automation system.

Key Words: electronic pulsator, automation, PLC

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2002, 8 (1) 92-100
Relations Between Tractor Rubber Tire Pressure and Soil Compaction
(Turkish)

Engin ÖZGÖZ1 and Rasim OKURSOY2
1Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Tokat
2Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Bursa

One of the physical limiting factors for the plant growth is the soil compaction where mostly occurs during to the seedbed preparation and then seeding process. The soil compaction is defined as to reduce the soil porosity and to let the soil particles to orient closer to each other under the external pressures. The main effects of soil compaction in farm mechanization is the influences of tractor tires and top soil itself due to the heavy traffic on field. The magnitude of these influences depends on the variety of the tractor and tire parameters as well as the soil parameters. In general, these parameters are the inflation pressure of tires, axle load, tire pressure on to soil, tire geometry and profile, %slippage, the number of the pass on a certain point, tractor velocity, soil type, soil moisture content and soil bulk density. In this research, the effect of tire inflation pressure and the axle load on the soil compaction as well as the maximum profile depth on the tire marks on soil have investigated. For this purpose a 18 m length, 3 m width and 1.5 m depth soil bin was designed, and the silty loam (%48 sand, %34 loam, %18 clay) soil in this bin was used for the experiment. A movable soil test frame was also designed to move along the bin length in three levels (1.0 m/s, 1.3 m/s, 1.6 m/s) powering by an electrical motor, a tractor tire sized 13.6/12-36 was attached on a bin frame. The measurements were performed by the Data Acquisition System such that the soil shear stress in the soil buried load cells that produced analog signals for the shear stress of the soil in 15 an 30 cm depth under the tire marks center and the side. As a result, analyses statistically showed there was significant influences of interaction between tire and soil parameters, and measured data have also been discussed to explain the effects experimental parameters such as the axle load, soil depth, number of passes in certain point, tire inflation and external pressures, slippage, forward velocity and soil bulk density and the moisture content on soil compaction.

Key Words: soil compaction, tire inflation pressure, tire sinkage, cone index

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