2001, Volume: 7, Number: 4
Contents

 

KARA, Ş. M. Evaluation of Relationships Between Yield and Yield Components by Using Correlation and Path Analysis in a Hybrid Maize Population Abstract
AYDINALP, C. Classification of Selected Sample of Soil Great Group Profiles in the Marmara Basin, According to FAO/UNESCO (1990), FitzPatrick (1988) and USDA Soil Taxonomy (1994) Systems Abstract

ALPASLAN, M., A. GÜNEŞ, A. İNAL and M. AKTAŞ, Nutritional Status of the Plants Grown in Mediterranean Region Greenhouses, II. Nutritional Status of Tomato, Cucumber, Pepper and Eggplant Abstract

GÜNER, M. and G. DUMAN, Pneumatic Control of Cellephone Welding Mechanism in Sachet Pack Machine Abstract

ÇİMRİN, K. M., S. KARACA and M. A. BOZKURT, The Effect of Fertilization on the Chemical Composition and Hay Yield in Vetch+Barley Mixtures Abstract

ELİBÜYÜK, İ. Ö. Linked Immunosorbent Detection of Plum Pox Potyvirus (PPV) in Leaf Tissue Disks of Apricot by Indirect Enzyme-Assay (ELISA) Abstract

ÇAKMAK, B. and B. KENDİRLİ, Problems of Water Table and Salinitiy in Konya Plain Irrıgation Schemes Abstract

DELLAL, G. Some Properties of Wools of Ile de France (IF) X Akkaraman (AK) (B1) Male Lambs for Using in Textile Indrustry Abstract

AĞAOĞLU, Y. S., B. MARASALI and A. ERGÜL, A Research on the RAPD Assay of DNA Isolation from Different Tissues of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Abstract

BAŞAR, H. and E. TABAN, Effect of Various Iron Compounds and Application Methods on Iron Contents and Growth of Soybean Abstract

ALAN, M. and H. EKİZ, A Vegetation Survey in Forest Range of Küredağı-Bala Abstract

ÇOLAK, A. The Developing a Method which Makes Possible Analising the Trajectory of Feeler Wheel During Sugar Beet Topping Using Machine Abstract

ÖZGÖZ, E. and R. OKURSOY, Relations Between Tractor Rubber Tire Pressure and Soil Compaction Abstract

ACAR, A. İ. and A. ÇOLAK, Determination of the Picked up Distances Due to the Hole Diameters and Vacuum Levels of Some Seeds in Precision Pneumatic Drills Abstract
KESKİN, S. Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Its an Application Abstract

ETİKAN, S. and M. ARLI, The Colours Obtained from Leadwort (Plumbago europaea) Plant in Natural Dyeing and Their Colour Fastnesses to Light and Abrasion on Wool Carpet Yarns Abstract

KARADENİZ, F. and A. EKŞİ, Relationship Between Browning Level of Apple Juice and Natural Factors Abstract

ERDOĞAN, Z., G. DELLAL and F. SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, A Research on Some Physical Characteristics of Coarse Fiber Obtained from Hair x Angora (B1) Crossbred Goats Abstract

VATANDAŞ, M. and R. GÜRHAN, Determination of Potato's Force-Deformation Characteristics Abstract

KENDİRLİ, B. Irrigation Scheduling of Pistachio in Irrigation Associations in Harran Plain Abstract

KOCABAŞ, Z. An Application and Interpretation of the Second Order Response Surface Model Abstract

YÜKSEL, M. and O. DENGİZ, Land Assesment of the Field Plants Central Research Institute-İkizce Research Farm Abstract

GÜRHAN, R., M. VATANDAŞ and M. GÜNER, Determination of Mechanical Behavior of Apricot Abstract

SELENAY, M. F. The Effect of Seasonal and In-season Deficit Irrigations on Yield for the Crops Grown at the Amasya Gökhöyük State Farm Abstract

DEĞİRMENCİ, D. and B. MARASALI, Effects of Growth Regulators on Induction of Seed Trace Development and Germination Rate of Stenospermic Sultani Çekirdesiz and Perlette Grape Cultivars Abstract

Abstracts
 

2001, 7 (4) 1-4
Evaluation of Relationships Between Yield and Yield Components by Using Correlation and Path Analysis in a Hybrid Maize Population
(Turkish)

Ş. Metin KARA
Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy - Ordu

A clear assessment of association and relative contribution of yield components is of utmost importance in optimizing yield for any crop plants. In this study, the data for grain yield and certain related attributes (plant height, ear length, ear diameter, ear row number, row kernel number, ear kernel number, ear kernel weight, and thousand kernel weight) in a population consisted of 18 F1 maize hybrids were studied to determine relationships between yield and yield components using correlation and path coefficient analysis. The grain yield was positively correlated with all the characters investigated. Path coefficient analysis revealed that number of grains on ear had the greatest positive direct effect on grain yield followed by thousand grain weight and ear grain weight, respectively. Direct effects for the other traits were of negligible importance in determining corn yield. In conclusion, A greater priority would be given for number of grains on ear, thousand grain weight, and ear grain weight in improving yield in corn.

Key Words: maize, correlation, path analysis, yield, yield components

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2001, 7 (4) 5-11
Classification of Selected Sample of Soil Great Group Profiles in the Marmara Basin, According to FAO/UNESCO (1990), FitzPatrick (1988) and USDA Soil Taxonomy (1994) Systems
(Turkish)

Cumhur AYDINALP
Uludağ Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Bursa

Classification system developed by Thorp et. all., in 1949 was used by the General Directories of Soil-Water and Rural Affairs therefore, this system no longer in use nowadays. Various classification systems were developed in place of this system, which were based on morphological features and identification horizons. The main classification systems of these are FAO/UNESCO (1990), FitzPatrick (1988) and USDA Soil Taxonomy (1994). In the Marmara basin, 13 profiles of 10 soil great groups have been investigated and evaluated according to FAO/UNESCO (1990), FitzPatrick (1988) and USDA Soil Taxonomy (1994) systems in this study.

Key Words: Marmara basin, soil genesis, taxonomy

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2001, 7 (4) 12-22
Nutritional Status of the Plants Grown in Mediterranean Region Greenhouses
II. Nutritional Status of Tomato, Cucumber, Pepper and Eggplant
(Turkish)

Mehmet ALPASLAN1, Aydın GÜNEŞ1, Ali İNAL1 and Mehmet AKTAŞ2
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Forestry-Çankırı

This study was conducted to evaulate the nutritional status and determine the nutritional problems of the tomatoes, cucumber, pepper and eggplant grown under greenhouse in Mediterranean Region. For this purpose, leaf samples of tomatoes, cucumber, pepper and eggplant were collected from 314 representative greenhouse. Leaf samples were analysed for their N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, and B contents. Nutritional status of surveyed plants was evaluated by comparing the results of analyses with the interpretative values for the nutriens. According to the results, N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn contents of tomatoes leaf samples were found sufficient or high, but K and B contents low, and most of the leaf samples showed sufficient and low P and Zn contents respectively. Nitrogen content of cucumber leaf changed in range between low to high, and P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn contents were found sufficient, but K contents of the most of the samples and B contents of the almost all samples were found insufficient. Most of the samples of the pepper were classified as sufficient or high according to their N, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn contents. Potassium contents of the pepper leaf were changed in the range between low to high, but all the pepper samples were showed B deficiency. While the N, K, Mg, and Cu contents of the eggplant samples changed in the range between low to high, all samples showed B deficiency. Eggplant leaf samples were found to be sufficient for their P, Ca, and Fe contents. Leaf samples of the eggplant showed changes between low to high for their Zn and Mn contents.

Key Words: Mediterranean region, tomatoes, cucumber, pepper, egglpant, nutritional status

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2001, 7 (4) 23-31
Pneumatic Control of Cellephone Welding Mechanism in Sachet Pack Machine
(Turkish)

Metin GÜNER1 and Gökhan DUMAN2
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara
2Ultio-Enerpac-Ankara

In this study, the reorganisation of horizontal sachet pack machine's thermoplastic film shaping parts are studied by using pneumatic system principles and equipments. It is aimed to prevent the usage difficulties of mechanical power transmission system with pneumatic system equipment at the end of the study. In order to adapt pneumatic system for the machine, electropneumatic equipment supported by PLC program are used. Cylinders, sensitive sensors, directional valves, and pressure control valves are used on the sealing tools, cutters, carriers, grippers, vacuum tools, and blower.

Key Words: thermic sealing, thermoplastic, film, sachet pack machine, cellephone, welding mechanism

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2001, 7 (4) 32-36
The Effect of Fertilization on the Chemical Composition and Hay Yield in Vetch + Barley Mixtures
(Turkish)

K. Mesut ÇİMRİN, Siyami KARACA and Mehmet Ali BOZKURT
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science -Van

This study was carried out to determine the effect of different doses of nitrogen (0 and 6 kg N / da) and phosphorus (0, 4, 8, 12 kg P2O5 / da) fertilizers on the chemical composition and hay yield of vetch+barley mixtures (Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa+ Hordeum vulgare L.) in the conditions of Van. Nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased fresh and hay yield, plant length, and N and P contents of the plant of the mixture while the ratio of vetch in botanical composition decreased. Phosphorus fertilizer also increased significantly fresh and hay yields and contents of N and P. 6 kg N and 8-12 kg P2O5 /da for establishment fertilizers can be suggested to get quality higher hay yield regarding to the vetch + barley mixture in these conditions. As a result of plant analysis, the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn in the mixture was found sufficient for animal feeding.

Key Words: vetch+barley mixture, mixture, nutritional elements contents

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2001, 7 (4) 37-40
Detection of Plum Pox Potyvirus (PPV) in Leaf Tissue Disks of Apricot by Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
(Turkish)

İ. Özer ELİBÜYÜK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

The Plum Pox Potyvirus (PPV) infected leaf disks of 2, 3.5, 5 and 6.5 mm in diameter were cut of the leaf by cork borer. Leaf disks in different diameters were placed into the wells in the ELISA plate in increased numbers, starting with one till 4 folds. In this assay, symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves of infected trees were used. In the assay, two incubation times for disks as 370 C at hr and 40 C in overnight was used. It is observed that as number and size of leaf disks increase, the absorbance values were also increased. Absorbance values of incubation period of 370 C was greater than that of overnight. In addition, absorbance values of disks from symptomatic area was all times found a bit greater than that asymptomatic disks. Results are found to be similar both leaf disks of apricots and plums. In all conditions, absorbance values of the infected disks were at least two times greater than that of healthy ones.

Key Words: Plum Pox Potyvirus, apricot, leaf tissue disks

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2001, 7 (4) 41-47
Problems of Water Table and Salinity in Konya Plain Irrigation Schemes
(Turkish)

Belgin ÇAKMAK and Berna KENDİRLİ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

Farmers' unconscious irrigation applications and excess water usage lead to environmental problems such as erosion, waterlogging, salinity and alkaline. Environmental problems based on irrigation will become a threating factor for agriculture if necessary precautions are not taken. Lack of an efficient Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)system at operation phase mostly brings about these problems. M&E is becoming a critical management tool in irrigation projects day by day. In this study, water table level and quality and sustainable irrigation area ratio relating 1995-1999 years were estimated and evaluated. Based on water table level ranging 0-1 meter for the peak irrigation season, Çumra irrigation covered the highest area, then followed by Uluırmak, Atlantı, Gevrekli, Ilgın, İvriz and Ayrancı Irrigation. Çumra irrigation also has the first place based on water table salinity more than 5000 micromhos/cm, then followed by Uluırmak, İvriz, Ilgın, Atlantı, Gevrekli and Ayrancı irrigation. Sustainable irrigation area ratios are between 78% and 100%, the lowest with 78% in İvriz irrigation and the highest with 100% in Ilgın and Ayrancı irrigation. Unusable benefit and investment are the lowest in Gevrekli irrigation with 385.109 TL and 921.109 TL, the highest in İvriz irrigation with 1827. 109 TL and 8718. 109 TL respectively based on irrigation benefit supposed to be obtained from unused irrigatable agricultural land.

Key Words: sustainable irrigation area ratio, water table levelx water table quality, salinity

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2001, 7 (4) 48-51
Some Properties of Wools of Ile de France (IF) X Akkaraman (AK) (B1) Male Lambs for Using in Textile Industry
(Turkish)

Gürsel DELLAL
Ankara Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

This research was carried out on wool from Ile de France (IF) X Akkaraman (AK) (B1) male lambs. The means of shoulder, last rib, leg and three regions for fiber diameter, true, medullated and kempy fiber percentages were found as 28.8±0.81, 32.1±0.93, 35.7±1.01, 32.2±0.87 micron; 96.8±1.08%, 96.2±1.27%, 93.4±2.05%, 95.5±1.43%; 2.4±0.75, 2.5±0.68%, 4.2±1.27%, 3.0±0.88%; 0.8±0.39%, 1.3±0.69%, 2.4±0.86%, 0.6±0.54%, respectively. According to research findings, It was concluded that the wools of IFXAK (B1) were suitable for the production strayhgarn and carpet yarn type and taking sample only from last rib section was represent all fleece for fiber diameter and type rates.

Key Words: IIe de France X Akkaraman (B1) male lambs, woll properties, textile industry

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2001, 7 (4) 52-56
A Research on the RAPD Assay of DNA Isolation from Different Tissues of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)
(Turkish)

Y.Sabit AĞAOĞLU1, Birhan MARASALI1 and Ali ERGÜL2
1Ankara Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara
2 Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, General Mangement of Agricultural Researches-Ankara

The DNA yields of two grape DNA isolation methods that of Lodhi et al. (1994) and Lin and Walker (1997) which are suitable for young vegatative tissues and one year old canes respectively, were determined in the tissue were obtained from different growing conditions (vineyard, tissue culture and greenhouse plants). Isolated DNA was also tested for RAPD procedure. Insufficient DNA quantity which is less than 10 mg DNA/g tissue was obtained when the stored shoot tips-young leaves tissue were used for DNA isolation in Lodhi et al.(1994) method. Also, small quantities of DNA, 20-53 mg DNA/g tissue were extracted from the shoot tips-young leaves of tissue culture and greenhouse plants. Therefore, a few modification was carried out in the protocol begining from the stage of DNA was not visible in ice-cold ethanol. Our modification of Lodhi et al. (1994) method produced good DNA yield in every conditions. The amount of DNA (28-40 mg DNA/g tissue) from one year old cane, according to Lin and Walker (1997) was found to be very similar compared by that protocol.

Key Words: Vitis vinifera L., DNA isolation, RAPD

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2001, 7 (4) 57-61
Effect of Various Iron Compounds and Application Methods on Iron Contents and Growth of Soybean
(Turkish)

Haluk BAŞAR and Ebru TABAN
Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science -Bursa

This study was performed to determine effects o various iron compounds and application methods on total and active Fe contents and some quality properties of soybean grown in the greenhouse. In the research, as soil treatment, FeEDDHA (6 %, Fe); FeSO4.7H2O (19 %, Fe) and Ironite (12 %, Fe) were mixed into the soil before potting at the rates of 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg Fe kg-1. As soil and foliar treatment FeEDDHA and FeSO4.7H2O were applied to the soils same as the soil treatment and 0.01 N H2SO4 was spreyed two times on the plants. As foliar treatment, Fe-EDDHA, 0.2 % ; FeSO4.7H2O, 1% pH 7; 1 % pH 3; H2SO4 in the concentrations of0.1 N, 0.01 N and 0.001 N were sprayed two times on the plants. According to the results obtained from the experiment, foliar application of FeSO4 increased most both active Fe and total Fe contents and spray of FeEDDHA increased somewhat Fe contents of the plants, as well. On the ther hand, FeEDDHA was only the compound effective on the whole parameters measured in the experiment. Effects of the other treatments were not evident on the criterions measured in the experiment as much as foliar applicatio of FeSO4 and Fe-EDDHA.

Key Words: iron, cholorosis, fertilizer, correction, foliar, soil

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2001, 7 (4) 62-69
A Vegetation Survey in Forest Range of Küredağı-Bala
(Turkish)

Murat ALAN1 and Hayrettin EKİZ2
1 Ministry of Forestry-Ankara
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy -Ankara

The study was carried out in the forest range of Küredağı-Bala district of Ankara in 1997. The aim of this study is to determine the range condition by using floristical composition of qualitative characteristics and basal cover, frequency and weight of quantitative characteristics. Total basal cover was determined as 11.10 % while grasses 38.91%, legumes 13.96 % and other families 47.13 % in botanical composition. The most homogen and frequent plant cover determined as Agropyron repens, Veronica multifida and Salvia aethiopis. Plant species observed in this study composed of 19 species of grasses, 17 species of legumes and 51 species of other families. Forage yield of the range was 138 kg per decare dried hay and range condition was "poor" quality.

Key Words: forest range, basal cover, frequency, floristical composition, forage yield, range condition

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2001, 7 (4) 70-74
The Developing a Method which Makes Possible Analising the Trajectory of Feeler Wheel During Sugar Beet Topping Using Machine
(Turkish)

Ahmet ÇOLAK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

The feelers provide the referance plane to determine thickness of slice during topping. Driven feeler wheel used commonly on sugar beet harvesters. During the topping feeler wheel impact with beet crown. The mass of feeler and forward speed effect on this action. In this research the method was developed which let to monitor and save the data to PC belonging to trajectory of wheel. Trials were carried out with combination of 0.39; 0.68; 0.98 and 1.7 m/s forward speeds and 175 N and 235 N vertical force of wheel by using developed method in soil canal. At the result of research the wheel trajectories had been obtained digitally and graphically. Besides, it had been determined that 1.7 m/s forward speed had been caused jump of wheel 20 mm far away.

Key Words: sugar beet harvesting, feeler wheel trajectory, excess of peripheral velocity, simulation

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2001, 7 (4) 75-82
Relations Between Tractor Rubber Tire Pressure and Soil Compaction
(Turkish)

Engin ÖZGÖZ1 and Rasim OKURSOY2
1 Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Tokat
2.Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Bursa

One of the physical limiting factors for the plant growth is the soil compaction where mostly occurs during to the seedbed preparation and then seeding process. The soil compaction is defined as to reduce the soil porosity and to let the soil particles to orient closer to each other under the external pressures. The main effects of soil compaction in farm mechanization is the influences of tractor tires and top soil itself due to the heavy traffic on field. The magnitude of these influences depends on the variety of the tractor and tire parameters as well as the soil parameters. In general, these parameters are the inflation pressure of tires, axle load, tire pressure on to soil, tire geometry and profile, %slippage, the number of the pass on a certain point, tractor velocity, soil type, soil moisture content and soil bulk density. In this research, the effect of tire inflation pressure and the axle load on the soil compaction as well as the maximum profile depth on the tire marks on soil have investigated. For this purpose a 18 m length, 3 m width and 1.5 m depth soil bin was designed, and the silty loam (%48 sand, %34 loam, %18 clay) soil in this bin was used for the experiment. A movable soil test frame was also designed to move along the bin length in three levels (1.0 m/s, 1.3 m/s, 1.6 m/s) powering by an electrical motor, a tractor tire sized 13.6/12-36 was attached on a bin frame. The measurements were performed by the Data Acquisition System such that the soil shear stress in the soil buried load cells that produced analog signals for the shear stress of the soil in 15 an 30 cm depth under the tire marks center and the side. As a result, analyses statistically showed there was significant influences of interaction between tire and soil parameters, and measured data have also been discussed to explain the effects experimental parameters such as the axle load, soil depth, number of passes in certain point, tire inflation and external pressures, slippage, forward velocity and soil bulk density and the moisture content on soil compaction.

Key Words: soil compaction, tire inflation pressure, tire sinkage, cone index

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2001, 7 (4) 83-90
Determination of the Picked up Distances Due to the Hole Diameters and Vacuum Levels of Some Seeds in Precision Pneumatic Drills
(Turkish)

Ali İhsan ACAR and Ahmet ÇOLAK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

The developments of biotechnological area had increased either seed quality or cost of seed. High yield needs seed quality and seed quality is can be obtained with high price. Therefore pneumatic precision sowing is a precision step in mechanization. Precision pneumatic drills are used widely to minimize the seed loss and to maximize the field efficiency. The aim of this research is to determine the suitable vacuum for picking up distance of some seeds. For this purpose, three vacuum levels (-4, -6 and -8 kPa), fourteen hole diameters (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0 mm) and five various seeds (coated and uncoated sugar beet, soybean, sunflower and corn) have been used in tests. As a result, while sugar beet seeds have been picked up 5.12-8.55 mm distance on 1.5-4.0 mm hole diameters, the corn seeds and sunflower seeds and soybean seeds have been picked up respectively 6.42-12.66 mm, 5.03-10.96.mm, 5.43-8.89 mm distance and 4.0-8.0 mm, 3.5-8.0 mm, and 3.5-6.0 mm hole diameters. At the same vacuum value with the increasing the hole diameter, the picked up distance is also increased.

Key Words: precision pneumatic drill, picked up distance, vacuum, the rotating metering plate holes

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2001, 7 (4) 91-95
Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Its an Application
(Turkish)

Sıddık KESKİN
Ankara Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) is an exploratory (descriptive) technique designed to analyze simple two- way or multi-way tables containing some measurements of correspondence between the rows and columns. Multiple correspondence analysis may be considered to be an extension of simple correspondence analysis to more than two variables. Consequently, multiple correspondence analysis is a simple correspondence analysis carried out on an indicator (or design) matrix with cases as rows and categories of variables as columns. In this study, multiple correspondence analysis was described by the application of method to facilitate comprehensive of the matter.

Key Words: indicator (design) matrixs, Burt table, categoric variable, singular value, inertia

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2001, 7 (4) 96-101
The Colours Obtained from Leadwort (Plumbago europaea) Plant in Natural Dyeing and Their Colour Fastnesses to Light and Abrasion on Wool Carpet Yarns
(Turkish)

Sema ETİKAN and Mustafa ARLI
Ankara University, College of Home Economics-Ankara

Leadwort plant (Plumbago europaea) has a significant place in natural dyes. During dyeing process generally whole leadwort (root, stem, leaves, flowers) plant is used. This research was conducted to obtain different colours from this plant and to study the process of fastnesses to light and to abrasion on wool carpet yarns of these colours. By using some techniques on the leadwort plant the most ideal dyeing method, the fastness value, the mordant, the most appropriate mordant ratio and plant ratio were determined. In this research, amount of leadwort plant at the ratio 100 % and acid at the ratio 3 % according to wool were fixed. By using method A, wool carpet yarns were treated firstly with acid and then were treated together with mordant, at the and were dyed. By using method B, wool carpet yarns were treated with mordant firstly, acid was added to flotte during dyeing, in the method C acid and mordant were added together to flotte during dyeing. In this research, totaly 90 dyeing process were performed. The colours of the leadwort plant were labeled and type of these colours varied from dark yellow to dark green even to brown. On the other hand, the colour fastnesses to light and to abrasion on wool carpet yarns of this plant were studied. The colour fastness to light of this plant were found as 1 to 6, to abrasion 1 to 4-5.

Key Words: leadwort (Plumbago europea), colour fastness to light, colour fastness to abrasion

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2001, 7 (4) 102-105
Relationship Between Browning Level of Apple Juice and Natural Factors
(Turkish)

Feryal KARADENİZ and Aziz EKŞİ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering-Ankara

The ranges of browning levels (absorbance at 440 nm) found for apple juices produced from Amasya, Golden and Starking varieties, respectively, were as follows: 0.548-0.771 (average 0.435), 0.170-0.427 (average 0.306) and 0.219-0.461 (average 0.346). Cultivar and crop years significantly affected the browning levels of apple juices, while growing region did not have a significant effect. There has been a linear correlation between total polyphenol contents and browning levels of apple juice.

Key Words: apple, apple juice, browning index, polyphenol

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2001, 7 (4) 106-108
A Research on Some Physical Characteristics of Coarse Fiber Obtained from Hair x Angora (B1) Crossbred Goats
(Turkish)

Zeynep ERDOĞAN1, Gürsel DELLAL2 and Feryal SÖYLEMEZOĞLU1
1 Ankara University, College of Home Economics-Ankara
2 Ankara Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this research, the analysis of some physical characteristics of coarse fiber obtained from Hair x Angora (B1) crossbred goats was performed. Least squares means of fineness and natural length of fiber were calculated 72.67±1.18 micron and 13.68±0.68 cm respectively. In addition, the most intense (dense) color determined in this research is black (44.26 %). There is no significant difference between fineness and natural length of color groups.

Key Words: kıl x angora (B1) crossbred goat, fiber, physical characteristics

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2001, 7 (4) 109-113
Determination of Potato's Force-Deformation Characteristics
(Turkish)

Mustafa VATANDAŞ and Recai GÜRHAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, penetration characteristics were determined in three different axis and four different loading speeds for potato. For this purpose a 8 mm ? cylindrical indentier was used. The results of these experiments are : Differences between axis of deformation energy, stress and maximum force were not significantly according to differences of means. However, differences of means of stress and maximum force parameters were significantly according to x-x axis values for loading speed as a block.

Key Words: potato, penetration resistance, loading speeds, indentier

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2001, 7 (4) 114-120
Irrigation Scheduling of Pistachio in Irrigation Associations in Harran Plain
(Turkish)

Berna KENDİRLİ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

Recently, irrigation systems transfer to users was on the agenda in Turkey like other developing countries. Transfer of irrigation systems were accelareted until the year of 1993 and irrigation associations were established. The irrigation associations have been responsible for water delivery in project area. However, some problems related water delivery have been watched because of a new operating model. Achievement of a irrigation association depend on a good irrigation scheduling, water delivery program and application. The knowledge, skill and relations with irrigators of engineers, irrigation technicians and workers in the irrigation association have played a vital role for achievement. On the other hand it's required that to irrigate under control, to arrange irrigation timing and irrigation amount as not to create stress in the crop, i.e., irrigation scheduling. In this study evapotranspiration, irrigation water requirement, irrigation scheduling for different rainfall conditions and water-yield relations of pistachio were obtained by IRSIS computer software in irrigation associations of Harran Plain. It's expected that, the results will be helpful for the technic staff and particularly farmers in the irrigation associaltions of study area and contribute to decrease the problems about irrigation.

Key Words: irrigation scheduling, irrigation association, pistachio, IRSIS computer sofware

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2001, 7 (4) 121-128
An Application and Interpretation of the Second Order Response Surface Model
(English)

Zahide KOCABAŞ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this study, three artificial data sets were used to explain the second order response surface model. It was assumed that the data were collected from a 3x3 experiment with two replications. Fitting the second order response surface model showed that 92.51%, 83.93% and 85.41% of the total variation in YIELD1, YIELD2 and YIELD3, respectively, accounted for by the fitted model. When the lack of fit test was applied, the results clarified that the second order model was adequately described the response surface for all the three sets of data. Application of the canonical analysis confirmed that there was a stationary point of maximum response for YIELD1, a stationary point of minimum response for YIELD2 and a saddle point for YIELD3. After that, the data on the corrected sugar content of sugar beet were analyzed. The results showed that the fitted second order model accounted for 68.9% of the total variation in the sugar content. When the lack of fit test was applied, the results showed that the second order model adequately described the response surface of sugar content. The results of canonical analysis indicated that there was a saddle point for the sugar content.

Key Words: response surface, second order model, stationary point, saddle point, maxmum point, minimum point

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2001, 7 (4) 129-135
Land Assessment of the Field Plants Central Research Institute - İkizce Research Farm
(Turkish)

Mahmut YÜKSEL and Orhan DENGİZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

The aim of this research was carried out a land assessment of the Field Plants Central Research Institute - İkizce Research Farm. First of all land mapping units were described, land characteristics and qualities were determined, from 1:5.000 base soil map of working area. Land use types to be considered were described and their land requirement were determined. Land requirement of. land use types were compared with the land characteristics and land qualities of land mapping units. The result of the matching process combined with those of assessment, environmental impact, economic and social analysis, produced a classification, showed the suitability of each land mapping unit for each relevant land use type. Finally land suitability map was prepared.

Key Words: land evaluation, land use type, land characteristics and land qualities, land suitability classification

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2001, 7 (4) 136-140
Determination of Mechanical Behavior of Apricot
(Turkish)

Recai GÜRHAN, Mustafa VATANDAŞ and Metin GÜNER
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, under compression load of mechanical behaviours of Hacıhaliloğlu, Hasanbey and Çöloğlu apricot varieties that grown in Malatya region were determined. Apricot varieties were loaded at three axis and deformation speeds. From the experimental results, it was determined that deformation speed increases maximum force on the contrary decreases deformation energy.

Key Words: apricot, mechanical damage, deformation energy, defermation force

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2001, 7 (4) 141-147
The Effect of Seasonal and In-season Deficit Irrigations on Yield for the Crops Grown at the Amasya Gökhöyük State Farm
(Turkish)

M. Fatih SELENAY
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

The objectives of this research are obtaining the irrigation programs, comparison of irrigation programs for seasonal and in season restrictions and determination of equations expressing water-yield interactions for crops grown in Amasya Gökhöyük State Farm in sufficient and deficit irrigation water conditions. Crop water consumptions and irrigation scheduling plans in sufficient and deficit irrigation water conditions for crops evaluated in this research were obtained by using the IRSIS software.

Key Words: evapotranspiration, irrigation scheduling, IRSIS, deficit irrigation, yield

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2001, 7 (4) 148-152
Effects of Growth Regulators on Induction of Seed Trace Development and Germination Rate of Stenospermic Sultani Çekirdeksiz and Perlette Grape Cultivars
(Turkish)

Dilek DEĞİRMENCİ and Birhan MARASALI
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

In this research the effects of plant growth regulators, BAP (benzylaminopurine) and CCC (cycocel) on promoting seed trace development and germination of ovules in stenospermic grape cultivars Sultani Çekirdeksiz (Syn. Thompson Seedless) and Perlette, were investigated. Prebloom aplications of 500 ppm BAP and 500 ppm CCC and postbloom aplication of 500 ppm CCC were found to stimulate seed trace size in Sultani Çekirdeksiz. In Perlette , having bigger rudumenter seed size than Sultani Çekirdeksiz, full bloom application of 500 ppm BAP and prebloom application of 1000 ppm CCC treatments induced the development of seed trace formation. In vitro germination of induced and sinker seeds could not be succeeded at all. However, radicle emergence were observed in Perlette in postbloom treatments of 500 ppm BAP, 500 ppm CCC and 1000 ppm CCC, with 62.8%, 55.5% and 40.0% germination rate respectively on the other hand cotyledon did not show up.

Key Words: Vitis vinifera L., stenospermocarpy, seed race, benzylaminopurine, cycocel, germination

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