2001, Volume: 7, Number: 3
Contents
 
YURTSEVEN, E. and H. S. ÖZTÜRK, The Effect of Irrigation Water Salinity on Loamy Soil Profile Salinity Abstract
KIRKAĞAÇ, M. U. and S. PULATSÜ, A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Vegetation Elimination by Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844) on Water Quality, Zooplankton and Benthos Abstract
KIRNAK, H. and T. H. SHORT, Dynamic Transpiration of a Greenhouse Grown Potted New Guinea Impatiens Abstract
GÜLER, M. Effect of Water Stress on Some Quality Characteristics at Certain Growth Stages of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Abstract
KANGAL, A. and A. ÇOLAK, Determining the Mechanical Cleaning Efficiency of Sugar Beet Loading, Unloading and Cleaning Machines Abstract
BOZKURT, A. M., K. M. ÇİMRİN and N. ŞEKEROĞLU, The Effect of Nitrogenous Fertilization on Nitrogen Use Properties in Some Triticale Genotypes Abstract
KIZIL, S. and N. ARSLAN, A Research on Dyeing Carpet Wool Yarn with Some Woad Species (Isatis tinctoria L., Isatis constricta Davis) and Determination of Some Fastness Values of Obtained Colours Abstract
GÜRHAN, R. and M. VATANDAŞ, Developing a Programmable Pulsator Control Unite for Milking Machines Abstract
YILDIZ, Y.H. ve M. K. UZBİLEK, Çubuk Çayı'nda (Ankara) Bentik Makro Omurgasızların Yapısı Abstract
BULUT, İ. and B. ÇAKMAK, Comparison of Pre and Post Transfers of Irrigation System Performance in Mersin Irrigation Abstract
DELLAL, G. Effects of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Some Wool Characteristics (Finesess and Fiber Types) in Ile de France (IF) x Akkaraman (AK) First Back Cross (B1) Male Lambs Abstract
AĞAOĞLU, Y. S., and A. ERGÜL, Determination of Genemic Diversity Level in Mahalep (Prunus mahalep L.) Seedlings by RAPD Technique Abstract
DURAL, B. and N. DEMİR, Ecological, Anatomical and Morphological Studies on Ulva rigida C. Agardh (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) in the Coast of İzmir (Aegean Sea-Turkey) Abstract
FİLYA, İ., G. ASHBELL, Z. G. WEINBERG and Y. HEN, The Effects of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes on the Fermentation Characteristics, Cell Wall Contents and Aerobic Stabilities of Alfalfa Silages Abstract
ŞİMŞEK, M., E. BOYDAK, S. GERÇEK and H. KIRNAK, Determination of Water Use -Yield Relationship on Soybean Irrigated by Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation at Different Irrigation Intervals and Row Spacing in Harran Plain Conditions Abstract
DEMİREL, M., F. CENGİZ, S. ERDOĞAN and S. ÇELİK, A Study on Silage Quality and Degradability in Rumen of Sorghum and Hungarian Vetch Mixtures Grown Under Van Ecological Conditions Abstract
DURSUN, G. İ. Determination of Projected Area of Some Grain Products by Using Image Processing Abstract
ELMACI, C. A Study on Ceruloplasmin and Amylase Types in Native Hair Goat of Turkey Abstract
ÇAKMAK, B. Evaulation of Irrigation System Performance in Irrigation Associations, Konya Abstract
ÇOLAK, A. and A. İ. ACAR, Developing a Sensor to Determine the Some Agrotechnical Properties of Sugar Beet Abstract
ALPASLAN, M. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Using Efficiency of Wheat Genotypes Abstract
KAYABAŞI, N. and M. ARLI, The Colours Obtained from Buckthorn (Rhamnus petiolaris) Abstract
KARADENİZ, F. and A. EKŞİ, A Research on the Phenolic Composition of Apple Juice Abstract
ACAR, A. İ. Determination of the Effects of Some Parameters on Picked up in Precision Pneumatic Drills Abstract
SELENAY, M. F. Optimum Crop Pattern and Irrigation Scheduling with Adequate and Limited Water Supply in GAP-Fırat Irrigation District Abstract
Abstracts
 

2001, 7 (3) 1-8
The Effect of Irrigation Water Salinity on Loamy Soil Profile Salinity (Turkish)

Engin YURTSEVEN1 and Hasan S.ÖZTÜRK2
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

In this field study, the effect of different irigation water salinity and two Ca/Mg ratio of applied water on soil profile salinity changes were studied. Experiments were carried out in 24 parcels contained 4 salinities (control-1.3, 3, 4.5 and 6 dS/m) and two Ca/Mg ratios of water (3:1 and 1:3) with tree replications in randomized block with factorial design in 1998 and 1999. The changes of salinity through soil profile were investigated in between 0-90 cm depth in both year. Soil salinities increased in all experimental parcels in both year. The increaments were higher in which applied irrigation water salinity were greater. The changes of profile salinity were higher in 0-40 cm soil profile, and in 0-20 cm profile was the higest. There have not been observed any significant changes at the end of the experiment in the deph of 60-90 cm.

Key Words: salinity, profile salinity, Ca/Mg ratio, loamy soil

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2001, 7 (3) 9-12
A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Vegetation Elimination by Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844) on Water Quality, Zooplankton and Benthos
(Turkish)

Mine U. KIRKAĞAÇ and Serap PULATSÜ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

This study was conducted in an irrigation and recreation pond, Alaplı. In this study, some water quality parameters, zooplankton and benthos were examined during September 1998 - August 1999 in pond, ,Alaplı stocked with 480 grass carp for biological control. Grass carp consumed Myriophyllum sp., Potamogeton pectinatus and Ceratophyllum demersum during research period. Water quality parameters values are in acceptable limits for culturing grass carp. Zooplankton compositon was dominated by rotifers and was also composed of small cladocerans. On the other hand, benthic organisms composition consisted of Chironomid larvae and Tubifex.

Key Words: grass carp (Ctenopharygodon idella), aquatic vegetation, biological control, water quality parameters, zooplankton, benthos

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2001, 7 (3) 13-20
Dynamic Transpiration of a Greenhouse Grown Potted New Guinea Impatiens
(English)

Halil KIRNAK1 and Ted H. SHORT2
1 Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Şanlıurfa
2 The Ohio State University, Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Dep., Wooster-USA

Transpiration rates of New Guinea Impatiens (Impatiens X hb.) cv. 'Equinox' grown in a computer-controlled greenhouse were measured by using weighing lysimeter and evaluated according to solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and a combination model. The combination model was accurately estimated transpiration rate with an r2 of 0.92, RMSE of 0.11, and d of 0.95. The average transpiration rate of the plant was about 400 g/m2h for sunny days and 325 g/m2h for partly cloudy days. In the range of between 5 kPa and 20 kPa, tensiometer-based drip irrigation system was used to irrigate the plants automatically. During the daytime period, canopy leaf temperature was found considerably lower than greenhouse air temperature due to high transpiration rate.

Key Words: transpiration, new guinea impatiens, automation, solar radiation, vapor pressure dificit, drip irrigation

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2001, 7 (3) 21-28
Effect of Water Stress on Some Quality Characteristics at Certain Growth Stages of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
(Turkish)

Mustafa GÜLER
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

This study was conducted to determine the effect of water stress at various growth stages on some quality characteristics of winter wheat at Kenan Evren Research and Application Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University between 1993 and 1995. Winter wheat cv. Bezostaja 1, Gün 91 and Gerek 79 were used in the study. Irrigations concerning water stresses were applied as non-stressed (S1), stressed during grain filling (S2), stressed during before heading (S3), stressed during jointing (S4) and stressed during all growth stages (S5). According to the results of the research; statistical differences were determined between cultivars and particularly water stresses in regard to the quality characteristics. The highest values of quality characteristics were generally obtained from non-stressed applications and stressed during grain filling applications. The lowest values were obtained from the applications stressed during all growth stages. Statistical differences were determined among cultivars at all quality characteristics, and the highest values of those characteristics were generally obtained from Bezostaja 1 cv.

Key Words: winter wheat, water stress, quality characteristics

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2001, 7 (3) 29-34
Determining the Mechanical Cleaning Efficiency of Sugar Beet Loading, Unloading and Cleaning Machines
(Turkish)

Ayhan KANGAL 1 and Ahmet ÇOLAK2
1 Sugar Factories Ltd. - Ankara
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this research, it was aimed that determining the cleaning efficiency of sugar beet loading, unloading and cleaning machines in Sugar Factories and external sugar beet reception centers in Turkey. Furthermore, mechanical damage caused by the machines on sugar beet surface, was researched too. The end of research, the cleaning efficiency of the machines was determined as approximately 62,67 % and beet surface damage area was about 4,99 cm2/ beet. In the other side increasing the root breakage and the cracks on beet surface were determined.

Key Words: sugar beet, loading, unloading and cleaning machines, mechanical damage, surface damage, cleaning efficiency

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2001, 7 (3) 35-41
The Effect of Nitrogenous Fertilization on Nitrogen Use Properties in Some Triticale Genotypes
(Turkish)

Mehmet Ali BOZKURT1, K. Mesut ÇİMRİN1 and Nazım ŞEKEROĞLU2
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Van
2Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy - Ordu

Abstract: In this research, the effects of nitrogen fertilizer doses in four triticale genotypes (X Triticosecale Wittmack) on nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen harvest index were determined in Van ecological conditions. According to experiment results, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen harvest index decreased with nitrogen fertilization while nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake of straw and grain increased with nitrogen fertilization. The highest nitrogen concentration and uptake were obtained at 12 kg N/da nitrogen dose. With nitrogen fertilization, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen harvest index decreased from 46.4 to 37.0 and from 76.0 to 68.4, respectively. On the investigated all other characters, genotypes effect was not important except grain nitrogen concentration. Grain nitrogen concentration was found the lowest at number 9 genotype. The relationships between nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield were found very important at control (N0) and middle level nitrogen doses (4 and 8 kg N/da) but degree of this relationship decreased at high level nitrogen doses (12 and 16 kg N/da). Nitrogen use efficiency, and relationship between nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield decreased with increasing nitrogen doses. This results suggest that nitrogen use properties of triticale can changed significantly with nitrogenous fertilization.

Key Words: triticale, nitrogen, fertilizer, nitrogen use properties

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2001, 7 (3) 42-47
A Research on Dyeing Carpet Wool Yarn with Some Woad Species (Isatis tinctoria L., Isatis constricta Davis) and Determination of Some Fastness Values of Obtained Colours
(Turkish)

Süleyman KIZIL1 and Neşet ARSLAN2
1 Dicle University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Diyarbakır
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

In this research totaly, 54 dyeing processes were performed by using two different Isatis species. In the dyeings performed with Isatis species, the values obtained Isatis tinctoria for light fastness were found to vary between 2-5, for abrasion fastness between 3-4 and 4-5, for wet water spotting between 4-5 and 5, and for dry as 5; in addition, washing fastness values varied between 3-4 and 5 for flowing (into cotton and woollen yarn), and between 1 and 3 for fading. In Isatis constricta, light fastness values were determined to vary between 2-5, abrasion fastness values between 2-4, water spotting fastness values between 3-4 for wet and as 5 for dry. In addition, washing fastness values were found to vary between 3 and 4-5 and 3-4 and 5, respectively, for flowing (into cotton and woollen yarn), while the values varied between 1-3 for fading.

Key Words: woad, Isatis tinctoria L., Isatis constricta Davis, dyeing

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2001, 7 (3) 48-53
Developing a Programmable Pulsator Control Unite for Milking Machines
(Turkish)

Recai GÜRHAN and Mustafa VATANDAŞ
Ankara Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, a programmable pulsator control unit for milking machines was developed. The control unit was tested with a electromagnetic valve device. For the experiment, two difference pulsation control programs were created. It was determined that pulsation characteristics at different pulsation rate, pulsation ratio and vacuum levels were in accordance with international standarts.

Key Words: milking machine, programable pulsator, number of pulsation, pulsation ratio

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2001, 7 (3) 54-57
The Structure of Benthic Macro Invertebrate in Çubuk River (Ankara)
(Turkish)

Hijran YAVUZCAN YILDIZ and Mine KIRKAĞAÇ UZBİLEK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

The diversity and abundance of benthic macro invertebrates in relation to organic pollution in Çubuk river (Ankara) were investigated The individuals of families Tubificidae (Annelidae), Chironomidae (Diptera), Erpobdellidae (Hirudinea), Planorbidae (Mollusca) and Lymnaeidae (Mollusca) were identified in the study. The diversity and abundance of these organisms were changed throughout the seasons and the sampling locations. An increase in the abundance of the tolerant organisms against organic pollution and evaluated as an indicator such as Tubificidae and Chironomidae and in general, the decrease of organisms diversity occured as a response to pollution level. This situation, particularly was observed in the discharge of slaughter houses region ( The abundance of Tubificidae: 100%).

Key Words: river, pullution, benthic macro invertabrate

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2001, 7 (3) 58-65
Comparison of Pre and Post Transfers of Irrigation System Performance in Mersin Irrigation
(Turkish)

İlyas BULUT and Belgin ÇAKMAK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

The aim of this study was to compare pre and post transfer of irrigation system performance in Mersin Irrigation Scheme. The indicators which determine the level of water management performance can be grouped in terms of water use, agricultural, and economic efficiency. Water supply ratios were 1.431.69 in pre-transfer and 1.33-1.82 in post-transfer as to gross water requirement. Irrigation ratios were 85-93% in pre-transfer and 87-98% in post-transfer. Crop production ratios were 70-113% in pre-transfer and 72-117% in post-transfer. The ratio of financial efficiency, financial sufficiency, water fee collection and sustainable irrigated area were found to be as 145-320%, 42-93%, 40-54%, 81-93% in pre-transfer and 46-297%, 26-59%, 32-143% and 63-70% in post-transfer respectively in the scheme. Field application, conveyance, distribution and total irrigation efficiencies were as 70%, 92%, 82% and 53% respectively in existing conditions.

Key Words: irrigation association, irrigation system performance, water supply ratios, total irrigation efficiency

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2001, 7 (3) 66-69
Effects of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Some Wool Characteristics (Finesess and Fiber Types) in Ile de France (IF) x Akkaraman (AK) First Back Cross (B1)Male Lambs
(Turkish)

Gürsel DELLAL
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

This research was carried out on wool sampels from shoulder, last rib section and leg region in the Ile de France (IF)x Akkaraman (AK) (B1) male lambs. In the research, the effects of some environmental factors on the finesees, true, medullated and kempy fiber percentage were investigated and estimated of heritabilities of these characteristics. It was found that investigated environmental factors, only birth type had a important (p< 0.05) effect on the medullated fiber percentage from the shoulder region. The heritabilities (h2) of finesses, true, medullated and kempy fiber percentage of the wools sampels from shoulder, last rib section and leg region were estimated as 0.05±0.425, 0.41±0.490, 0.54±0.513, 0.01±0.417, 0.26±0.467, 0.80±0.542, 0.83±0.545, 0.60±0.519; 0.38±0.488, 0.60±0.519, 0.51±0.508 , 0.68±0.529, respectively.

Key Words: Ile de France x Akkaraman (B1) male lamb, wool characteristics, environmental factors, heritability

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2001, 7 (3) 70-73
Determination of Genomic Diversity Level in Mahalep (Prunus mahalep L.) Seedlings by RAPD Technique
(Turkish)

Y. Sabit AĞAOĞLU1 and Ali ERGÜL2
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara
2 Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, General Management of Agricultural Researches- Ankara

DNA polymorphism of Prunus mahalep L. was investigated among 17 plants that were grown from seeds collected from different region (Tokat, Ayaş, İnegöl). For this purpose, DNA extraction was performed using the modified method by Ağaoğlu et al. (1999) from Lodhi et al. (1994). Among the tested 15 primers for RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) analysis UBC 237, OPA20, PRA4 and 0-10 gave polymorphic bands. As a result, for next rerearchs in this species at DNA level, the fundamental technique such as DNA extraction was performed and the primers for polymorphism were determined.

Key Words: Prunus mahalep L., DNA extraction, RAPD

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2001, 7 (3) 74-80
Ecological, Anatomical and Morphological Studies on Ulva rigida C. Agardh (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) in the Coast of İzmir (Aegean Sea-Turkey)
(English)

Berrin DURAL1 and Nilsun DEMİR2
Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany-İzmir
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

A series of morphological, anatomical and ecological characters of Ulva rigida collected from six locations along the coast of İzmir were determined. The size and morphology of thallus, thickness of marginal, mid and basal regions showed variations according to the changes in season and location. U. rigida consisted of smaller thalli in nutrient limited rough water coast and produced larger, lobed thalli which was characteristic of spring summer growth in relatively stagnant coast rich in nutrients. Thallus length and thallus breadth varied between 2-360 cm and 3-160 cm, respectively. The increased concentrations of nutrients due to the pollution were effective on anatomic and morphometric characters.

Key Words: Ulva rigida, green alga, eutrophication, morphology, anatomy

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2001, 7 (3) 81-87
The Effects of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes on the Fermentation Characteristics, Cell Wall Contents and Aerobic Stabilities of Alfalfa Silages
(Turkish)

İsmail FİLYA1, Gilad ASHBELL2, Zwi G. WEINBERG2 and Yaira HEN2
Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Bursa
2The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Forage Preservation and By-Products Research Unit-Israel

This research was carried out to determine the effects of cell wall degrading enzymes using as silage additives on the fermentation characteristics, cell wall contents and aerobic stabilities of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) silages. Alfalfa was harvested at about 10-20 % bloom stage. Cellulase (Cellulast®, Novo Nordisk, Denmark) and hemicellulase and pectinase (Viscozyme®, Novo Nordisk, Denmark) were used as cell wall degrading enzymes. The enzyme activities stated by manifacturer's 1500 NCU ml-1 (Novo cellulase units) for cellulase and 120 FBG ml-1 (fungal ß-glucanase units) for hemicellulase and pectinase. The enzymes were applied to alfalfa at 0.025 % (0.0375 NCU Cellulast® and 0.03 FBG Viscozyme®), 0.05 % (0.075 NCU Cellulast® and 0.06 FBG Viscozyme®) and 0.1 % (0.15 NCU Cellulast® and 0.12 FBG Viscozyme®). Alfalfa was ensiled in 1.5 liter special glass jars equipped with a lid that enables gas release only. The jars were stored at 25±2 °C at laboratory conditions. Three jars from each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analyses on the days 2, 8, 15 and 50 after ensiling. All silages were opened at the end of the ensiling period (50 days) and subjected to an aerobic stability test for 5 days. As a result, cell wall degrading enzymes like cellulase (Cellulast®) and hemicellulase and pectinase (Viscozyme®) improved fermentation characteristics, decreased cell wall contents and did not effect aerobic stability of alfalfa silages.

Key Words: cell wall degrading enzymes, alfalfa, silage, fermentation characteristics, cell wall contents, aerobic stability

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2001, 7 (3) 88-93
Determination of Water Use -Yield Relationship on Soybean Irrigated by Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation at Different Irrigation Intervals and Row Spacing in Harran Plain Conditions
(Turkish)

Mehmet ŞİMŞEK1, Erkan BOYDAK2, Sinan GERÇEK1 and Halil KIRNAK1
1Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Şanlıurfa
2Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Şanlıurfa

This study was conducted to determine water use-yield relations on soybean irrigated by sprinkler and drip irrigation at four intervals (3, 6, 9 and 12 days) and four row spacing (50x30, 70x30, 80x40 and 70 cm) . Research was done at the agricultural research station of Harran University in the years of 1998-1999. In the first year, although 575-1295 mm irrigation water was applied by sprinkler system, 601-1369 mm water was given in the second year. Similar irrigation water were also used for drip irrigation system Total water use efficiency (TWUE) and irrigation water use (IWUE) were low for frequent irrigation intervals ( 3 day irrigation interval) and high for longer irrigation intervals (12 day irrigation interval) . The lowest TWUE and IWUE values were calculated as 1,98 and 2,10 kg/ha/mm at the 3 day irrigation intervals by sprinkler irrigation system respectively whereas the highest TWUE and IWUE values were as 5,30 and 6,44 kg/ha/mm respectively, at 12 day irrigation intervals by sprinkler system. There was no statistical significance between irrigation methods. Four different irrigation intervals and row spacing were significant based on LSD test at (p<0,001) level and formed different group. Average yield based on irrigation intervals for two years was 379,7 kg/da for 3 day irrigation interval and 269,2 kg/da for 12 day irrigation interval whereas average yield according to row spacing was ranged between 373,6 kg/da for 50x30 row spacing and 279,6 kg/da for 70 cm row spacing. Yield response factor (ky) between relative evopotranspiration deficit and relative yield loss was calculated as 0,52. A 10% of decrease in ET resulted in a reduction of 5,2 % in yield. The best combination of irrigation intervals and plant row spacing for soybean at the Harran Plain conditions were 3 day irrigation interval and 50x30 cm row spacing respectively. An alternative irrigation program recommended as 6 day irrigation intervals and 50x30 row spacing in order to save 10-15 % irrigation water. However, this alternative program would reduce yield to 28,2 kg/da.

Key Words: sprinkler, drip irrigation, irrigation interval, row spacing, soybean

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2001, 7 (3) 94-101
A Study on Silage Quality and Degradability in Rumen of Sorghum and Hungarian Vetch Mixtures Grown Under Van Ecological Conditions
(Turkish)

Murat DEMİREL1, Fırat CENGİZ1, Sibel ERDOĞAN1 and Savaş ÇELİK2
1 Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science- Van
2 Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, Gevaş District Management- Van

This study was conducted to determine of degradability degree in the rumen by naylon bag technique of some nutrient matters at 0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 hours and silage quality of sorghum (S), 75%sorghum+25% hungarian vetch (75S25HV) and 50% sorghum+50% hungarian vetch (50S50HV). Three diferent silage mixtures were prepared and incubated 70 days in jars. Three rumen fistulated Akkaraman lambs were used to determine degradability degree of silage in rumen. According to physical properties, satisfied silages were obtained. There was no significant difference between S and 75S25HV silages in point of view pH, asetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acid levels. The pH values p<0.01 and butyric acid levels p<0.05 of 50S+50HV silage were higher than S silage. The lowest pH and butyric acid levels as 4.65 and 0.34 g/kg DM in sorghum silage, respectively and the highest lactic acid level as 24.61 g/kg DM in 75S25HV silage. were obtained. The degradability of dry matter, crude protein and crude celulose of S, 75S25HV and 50S50HV at 48.hours in rumen were found as 61.41, 76.66 and 64.11%; 63.88, 82.21 and 63.32%; 70.23, 87.71 and 63.63% respectively. The differences among all the silage groups for crude protein, between 50S50HV and S, between 50S50HV and 75S25HV for dry matter were significant p<0.01, however, the differences among the all silage groups for crude cellulose and between S and 75S25HV for dry matter were found insignificant. As a result, in terms of silage qualityand degradability of some nutrient matters,up to 25% hungarian vetch (DM) can be added to sorghum for ensiling.

Key Words: silage quality, sorgum, hungarian vetch, degradability

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2001, 7 (3) 102-107
Determination of Projected Area of Some Grain Products by Using Image Processing
(Turkish)

İlknur GÖKNUR DURSUN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

Projected area is one of the important engineering parameters in the cleaning and classifying of agricultural products according to aerodynamic principles. Irregular features of products which are dissimilar known geometric forms make difficult determination of projected areas. In general, small size of grains also makes difficults this measurements. The objective of this research was to determine the projected areas of some grains such as wheat, barley, corn, chickpea, lentil, bean, kidney bean and soybean by using image processing method. Projected areas in three different position of products were determined by measurements. Moreover, the relationships between geometric dimensions such as length, width and thickness and projected areas were evaluated by regression analysis. According to the research results, projected areas of small size of grains can be determined sensitively by using image processing method.

Key Words: projected, area, grain product, image processing

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2001, 7 (3) 108-110
A Study on Ceruloplasmin and Amylase Types in Native Hair Goat of Turkey
(Turkish)

Cengiz ELMACI
Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Bursa

In this study Ceruloplasmin and Amylase types were investigated in hair goat raised in Bursa region by using 148 blood samples of hair goat. The seperation of ceruloplasmin and amylase types were carried out using the horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were found to be 0,973, 0,027, 0,983 and 0,017 for CpA, CpB, AmyA and AmyB , respectively. Differences between expected and observed number of ceruloplasmin and amylase genotypes were significant (p<0.05).

Key Words: hair goat, ceruloplasmin, amylase, electrophoresis

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2001, 7 (3) 111-117
Evaulation of Irrigation System Performance in Irrigation Associations, Konya
(Turkish)

Belgin ÇAKMAK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

Activities have been carried out related to irrigation system performance, recently and developing indicators, it is possible to compare performance among irrigation systems. In this study based on the 1995-1999 years data, output per unit command, output per cropped area, output per unit irrigation supply, output per unit water consumed, water supply and irrigation ratio indicators developed by International Water Management Istitute (IWMI) and provire comparable analysis of irrigation performance amanog irrigation schemes were applied on irrigation associations in Konya and system performance was evaluated. As a result of the study, output per unit command, output per cropped area, output per unit irrigation supply, output per unit water consumed, total water supply and irrigation ratio were determined 195-5391 $/ha, 359-6197 $/ha, 0.02-1.29 $/m3, 0.07-2.25 $/m3 , 0.30-7.83 and 36-104%, respectively.

Key Words: irrigation system performance, performance indicator, indicator, standardized gross value of production, water supply ratio, irrigation ratio, irrigation association

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2001, 7 (3) 118-121
Developing a Sensor to Determine the Some Agrotechnical Properties of Sugar Beet
(Turkish)

Ahmet ÇOLAK and Ali İhsan ACAR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

The aim of this study, before sugar beet harvesting, was to develop a sensor for measuring the data were belonging to sugar beet row. For this purpose, a sugar beet row had been simulated on the soil canal. The measurements had been done at the low velocity by using developed wooden sensor. Then, data had been saved on the PC by using inductive sensor and data acquisition system. Graphical image which saved on the PC depend on time and *.xls file had given the profile of sugar beet row.

Key Words: sugar beet harvesting, sensor, agrotechnical properties

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2001, 7 (3) 122-127
Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Using Efficiency of Wheat Genotypes
(Turkish)

Mehmet ALPASLAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

Nutrient efficiency in plants depending on biomass, nutrient uptake and nutrient content is very comlex. Various studies have showed that interactive effects may occur between genotypes and the use efficiencies of the nutrient. In this study effecient use of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium was examined in 24 wheat (19 bread and 5 durum) genotypes in a greenhouse experiment. According to the results, use efficiency of the N, P and K by wheat genotypes showed differences between wheat genotypes. Generally, potassium use efficiency of durum wheat genotypes was found to be higher than bread wheat genotypes.

Key Words: wheat, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium using efficiency

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2001, 7 (3) 128-134
The Colours Obtained from Buckthorn (Rhamnus petiolaris)
(Turkish)

Nuran KAYABAŞI and Mustafa ARLI
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, College of Home Economics-Ankara

Fruit of Buckthorn plant was prepared in the ratios of 25 %, 50 % and % 100 according to the weight of the wool carpet yarns. The samples were used to obtain hot extract by boiling ½ and 1 hour, and to obtain cold extracts by rested 24 hours of period with cold water.According to the weight of the carpet yarns, 14 mordants were added to these extracts in the ration of 1 %, 2% and 3 %. Dying process was done as 378 with mordants and 9 without mordants. The colours of Buckthorn were labeled and analysed by datacolor and the type of these colours varied from light yellow to bold green.

Key Words: vegetable dye, Buckthom (Rhamnus petiolaris), colours

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2001, 7 (3) 135-141
A Research on the Phenolic Composition of Apple Juice
(Turkish)

Feryal KARADENİZ and Aziz EKŞİ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering-Ankara

Fourty-five apple juice samples were produced from 3 different apple cultivars from five apple growing regions in three consecutive crop years and analysed for their phenolic composition. The main phenolic compound of apple juices was chlorogenic acid ranged from 62.3 to 342.6 mg/l. It was followed by epicatechin, phloretin glycoside, phloridzin and p-coumaric acid to be at levels 5.3-240.1 mg/l, 5.5-60 mg/l, 6.9-29.7 mg/l, 1.1-16 mg/l, respectively. Cultivar and crop years significantly affected phenolic composition of apple juice, while growing region did not have a significant effect.

Key Words: apple, apple juice, phenolic compounds

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2001, 7 (3) 142-148
Determination of the Effects of Some Parameters on Picked up in Precision Pneumatic Drills
(Turkish)

Ali İhsan ACAR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

Precision pneumatic drills is used in seed singling and it provides a decrease in the labour in thinning operation. Vacuum and peripheral velocity of seed metering device are two important factors which affect the quality of seeding. Hole diameters and numbers of holes on rotate seed metering plate are determined according to the physicomechanical properties of seeds and the distance of seed in the row. The aim of this research is, to determine the suitable vacuum level, hole diameters and peripheral velocity of rotate metering plate device for corn, sunflower, soybean, covered and uncovered sugarbeet seeds.In this study, proper forward speed of the precision pneumatic drills, distance of seed in the row and physicomechanical properties had been found for the mentioned seeds. Constructional values such as the diameter of wheel, transmititon ratio and diameter of rotate metering plate had been used to calculate linear velocity of rotate metering plate. The hole diameters were 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 mm; vacuum levels were -4, -6, -8, -10, -12 and -14 kPa; the linear velocity of rotate metering plate were 0.25, 0.38, 0.55 and 0.79 m/s in trials.As a result of this, the seeds had been holded in the significant hole diameterson the all vacuum and all linear velocity. In addition to this Besides the seeds could be holded as a single seed which is smaller than the hole diameters generally at the high vacuum level and low linear velocity level, however the seeds could not be holded in low vacuum levels and high linear velocities. The amount of single seeds decrease when the bigger hole diameter was used, since the seeds either holded multiply or run to the vacuum line.

Key Words: precision pneumatic drills, rotate metering plate, vacuum, linear velocity, hole diameter

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2001, 7 (3) 149-155
Optimum Crop Pattern and Irrigation Scheduling with Adequate and Limited Water Supply in GAP-Fırat Irrigation District
(Turkish)

M. Fatih SELENAY
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

GAP project area has a great agriculture potential according to its climate and soil properties. At the end of the project approximately 1.8 billion ha will be irrigated. For efficient use of the soil and water resources, it is important to determine the optimum crop patterns in the irrigated areas. The study aims to settle irrigation scheduling of crops and optimum crop pattern under adequate and limited water supply conditions at a small-scale farm in Fırat Irrigation District. For that purpose, irrigation scheduling and gross return values of each crop has been calculated. Linear programming has been used to determine optimum crop pattern for the farm.

Key Words: evapotraspiration, irrigation scheduling, IRSIS, gross retum optimum crop pattern, linear programming

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