2001, Volume: 7, Number: 2
Contents
 
DEMİR, İ. and M. ÖZÇOBAN, Effect of KNO3-Priming on Germination Percantege and Interim of Serially Harvested Watermelon, Melon and Cucumber Seed Lots at Low and Optimum Temperatures Abstract
KIRKAĞAÇ, M. U. and S. PULATSÜ, The Estimation of Phosphorus Retention by Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val. 1844) Fed Potamogeton pectinatus,L. Abstract
GÜRHAN, R. and M. VATANDAŞ, Development of a Proper Dosage Unit for Salt Iodisation Machine Abstract
ÖZDEMİR, A. and O. YILMAZ, A Research on Planting the Surface of the Buildings Abstract
BAŞPINAR, E., F. GÜRBÜZ and H. ÇAMDEVİREN, The Comparison of Analysis of Variance and Repeated Measurement Analysis Techniques for the Type I Error Rates Abstract
KIRNAK, H. and P. H. GOWDA, Using WEPP Model to Predict Sediment and Runoff From an Agricultural Watershed Abstract
TOGAY, Y. and N. TOGAY, Effect of Different Row Spaces on Some Agronomic Characters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)Abstract
AKMAN, Z. The Effects of Nitrogen Doses on Dry Matter Partitioning and Nitrogen Uptake in Different Grain Filling Periods in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Abstract
KEPENEKCİ, İ. Two New Species of Plant Parasitic Nematodes for Turkey; Pratylenchoides utahensis Baldwin, Luc & Bell and P. variabilis Sher (Nematoda:Pratylenchidae) Abstract
ALTUNTAŞ, E. Determination of the Effects on Some Soil Properties and Tuber Damage, Harvest Losses and Harvesting Efficiency of the Forward Speeds at Semi-Automatic Potato Harvester Abstract
KÖKSAL, A. İ., Y. OKAY and N. ARTIK, Enzymatic Determination of Carbohydrates on Hazelnut Grown in East-Blacksea Region Abstract
ERDEM, T. Evapotranspiration of Sunflower for Tekirdağ Conditions Abstract
İPTAŞ, S., A. R. BROHİ and A. AKTAŞ, Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Cutting Height on Forage Yield and Quality of Sorghum x Sudangrass Hybrid (Sorghum vulgare Pers. x Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.) Abstract
GÜLSER, F., Ş. TÜFENKÇİ and İ. ERDAL, The Effect of Different Sulphur Application Shapes and Phosphorus Fertilization on Copper, Manganese and Iron Contents of Corn Plant (Zea mays L.). Abstract
YALÇINKAYA, A. S. and A. İ. ACAR, Work Study on the Manufacturing of the Threshing Machine Depending on the Work Flow Chart Abstract
YILDIZ, Y. and A. ÇOLAK, Determination of Topping Knife Vibration in Sugar Beet Harvesters Abstract
KARABAŞ, H., A. ÇOLAK and İ. DEMİR, The Analyses of Mechanisation Possibilities in Some Kind of Vegetable Seed Treatment Abstract
ÇİMRİN, K. M., S. KARACA and M. A. BOZKURT, The Effect of NPK and Humic Acid Applications on Growth and Nutrition of Corn Plant (Zea mays L.) Abstract
KEPENEKCİ, İ. Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Tylenchida (Nematoda) Associated with Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) and Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Miller) Orchards in the Black Sea Region Abstract
ERENER,G., N. OCAK, E. ÖZTÜRK and A. ÖZDAŞ, Effects of Baker's Yeast By-product on Performance and Slaughter Traits of Broilers Abstract
FİLYA, İ., A. KARABULUT, H. KALKAN and E. SUCU, The Effects of Bacterial Inoculants on the Fermentation, Aerobic Stability and Rumen Degradability of Sorghum Silages Abstract
ÖZKAN, C. and M. O. GÜRKAN, The Effects of Different Temperatures on Biology of the Egg Parasitoids, Trichogramma turkeiensis Kostadinov and T. embryophagum (Hartig) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Abstract
TOGAY, N., Y. TOGAY and F. GÜLSER, Effect of Different Zinc Rates onYield and Yield Components of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) Varieties in Van Conditions Abstract
DELLAL, G. Determining of Suitability of Down Fibers Obtained from Hair Goats Raising in Antalya Province for Textile Industry Abstract
İNAL, A. Determination of Differences in Phosphorus Uptake and Phosphorus Efficiency Among Some Bread (T. aestivum) and Durum (T. durum) Wheat Genotypes Abstract
ERGÜL, A. and Y. S. AĞAOĞLU, Molecular Similarity Analysis of Some Grapevine Rootstocks from Different Nursery in Turkey Abstract
Abstracts
 

2001, 7 (2) 1-5
Effect of KNO3-Priming on Germination Percantege and Interim of Serially Harvested Watermelon, Melon and Cucumber
Seed Lots at Low and Optimum Temperatures
(English)

İbrahim DEMİR and Mustafa ÖZÇOBAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

The effect of KNO3 treatment (salt priming) on the germation of watermelen (Ciltrullus lanatus (Thunb.), Matsum & Nakai), melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed harvested 21,28,35 and 42 DAA (Days After Anthesis) at sub-optimum (l8 0C) and optimum (25 0C) temperatures was investigated. At 18 0C, treated watermelon seeds showed 35,15,15 higher total germination than control seeds when they were harvested 21,28, and 35 DAA. Whereas at 25 0C and 42 DAA the advantage of treatment was lost regarding total germination. But it was promotive on interim germation (percentage, 3rd day germation) regardiess of temperature and harvests. Treatment was found to be deleterios in the first (21 DAA) and the last (42 DAA) hervest of melon which decreased total germination by 14,19 %, respectively, in melon at 18 0C. Similar reductions at 25 0C were also observed as 40,15 % in the corresponding harvests of melon. In melon, treatment increased germination interim at 18 0C for all harvests (12,96,94 and 22 % higher at 21, 28, 35 and 42 DAA than control, respectively) while it was detrimental on interim germination of 21 and 42 DAA at 25 0C. No benefit of treatment was observed in cucumber in which treated seeds regardless of harvest date and temperature showed lower total interim germination percentages varying between 3 and 20 % and being more constpicuous at sub-optimal temperature and earlier than lated harvests. Less mature watermelon seeds harvested until 42 DAA can get benefit from salt priming but melon seeds must rather be harvested around 30 DAA (28-35 DAA). Treatment with the present concentration and period was found to be detrimental for cucumber seed lots.

Key Words: salt priming, watermelon, melon, cucumber, germination, temperature

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2001, 7 (2) 6-8
The Estimation of Phosphorus Retention by Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val. 1844) Fed Potamogeton pectinatus, L.
(Turkish)

Mine U. KIRKAĞAÇ and Serap PULATSÜ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

In this study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val. 1844) have fed with Potamogeton pectinatus,,L. for 72 hours in a laboratory experiment. The phosporus retention determinations were done in water, weed and feces.The release phosphorus from feces and consumed plant material were determined and retention by grass carp was estimated 74.4%.The results of this experiment supported that the utilization of grass carp in order to remove of phosphorus in aquatic systems might be an effective method

Key Words: ot sazanı (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val. 1844), phosporus retention, Potamogeton pectinatus, L.

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2001, 7 (2) 9-12
Development of a Proper Dosage Unit for Salt Iodisation Machine
(Turkish)

Recai GÜRHAN and Mustafa VATANDAŞ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, a dosage control unit which can be used with a mixture was developed to iodine salt. Potassium iodine was sprade into salt with an electronicaly controlled pump. In the experiment, nozle discharge and spray frequencies were determined. It was observed that final mixture has the consantrations required by the standarts.

Key Words: dosage control unit, iodine salt, potassium iodine

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2001, 7 (2) 13-18
A Research on Planting the Surface of the Buildings
(Turkish)

Ayşe ÖZDEMİR1 and Oğuz YILMAZ2
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Landscape Architecture- Ankara
2 Ankara University, Technical High School-Kalecik, Ankara

As the climbing and clinging ivy plants grow rapidly, it is rather practical and takes less time to donate the urban areas with ivy plants that grow by clinging to vertical surfaces, Ivies are practical in growing on the building facets which in turn is an ecologically efficient factor in greening the urban centers. We discussed the effects of dendrological features of the living climbing ivy plants in relation to the non-living vertical surface covers of the buildings on which the plants could be able to climb and cling there. We particularly emphasized the mutual interaction between such living and nonliving tissues occurring on vertical building facets. Consequently, the multi-dimensional functions provided by planting of vertical building surfaces and patterns of such planting systems are presented in order to encourage such systems. Also advises are given in order to avoid mistakes in such arrangements and information is provided in order to minimize problems that may be encountered in said effort.

Key Words: climbing and clinging plants, plant sticking element, vertical surface coverings

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2001, 7 (2) 19-23
The Comparison of Analysis of Variance and Repeated Measurement Analysis Techniques for the Type I Error Rates
(Turkish)

Ensar BAŞPINAR1, Fikret GÜRBÜZ1 and Handan ÇAMDEVİREN2
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Division of Biometry and Genetic-Ankara
2Mersin University, Medical Faculty, Basic Medical Sciences, Division of Biostatistics-Mersin

In this study, simple analysis of variance and repeated measurement analysis techniques were used for comparison of means in different group number-correlation coefficient-sample size combinations. Probabilities of Type I error which were observed empirically, were investigated comparatively. In each group number- correlation coefficient-sample size combinations were analyzed with the techniques of ANOVA and repeated measurement analysis and each simulation was repeated 100 000 times. The probabilities of Type I error were calculated at the end of these analysis. As a result, ANOVA technique was used when the correlation coefficient among the observations in-groups was different from zero, nominal Type I error probability deviated significantly

Key Words: repeated measurements, analysis of variance, dependent observations, simulation, Type I error

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2001, 7 (2) 24-31
Using WEPP Model to Predict Sediment and Runoff From an Agricultural Watershed
(English)

Halil KIRNAK1 and Prasanna H. GOWDA2
1University of Harran, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Structures and Irrigation-Şanlıurfa
2University of Minnesota, Department of Soil Water and Climate St. Paul, Minnesota-USA

The WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) model was used in conjunction with a GIS database to predict flow and sediment discharges for Rock Creek watershed-an agricultural watershed in Ohio, USA. Spatial data layers of slope, soil type, land use and tillage practices were combined with a Geographic Information System (GIS). Observed and predicted mean monthly values were compared from 1988 to 1990. The WEPP model was applied to Rock Creek watershed both by complying with size limitation of the model (less than 260 ha) and not. In case of not keeping watershed size limit, statistical results showed that model simulation for sediment and runoff were poor with an r2 of 0.59 and 0.51 respectively. In the second case, the WEPP watershed model was applied to Rock Creek watershed by dividing whole watershed into 41 subwatersheds (each watershed has approximately an area of 240 ha) and by using a watershed routing program. In case of obeying size limitation, statistical results between observed and predicted data for flow and sediment discharges were an r2 of 0.92 and 0.83, respectively. This result proved that scale issue is one of the important subject while applying models to watersheds.

Key Words: WEPP, GIS, hydrological modeling, scale issue

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2001, 7 (2) 32-35
Effect of Different Row Spaces on Some Agronomic Characters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
(Turkish)

Yeşim TOGAY and Necat TOGAY
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Van

Four different row spaces (15, 20, 25 and 30 cm) were applied using ILC-482 and Local Chickpea varieties in the research during years of 1997 and 1998 in Van ecological conditions. The study was conducted in the experimantal fields of Agricultural Faculty of Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversty by using randomized factorial blocks desing with the four replications. Effects of row spaces on plant height, first pod height, numbers of pod per plant and numbers of seed per plant, numbers of seed per pod, 1000 grain wieght, numbers of main branches, numbers of side branches, seed yield per area and harvest index were investigated for two chickpea cultivars. Except 1000 seed weight and numbers of seed per pod, effects of cultivars in all characters were found statisticaly significant. The wider row space becomes, numbers of pod per plant and numbers of seed per plant, numbers of main and side branches and seed yield per area quite increase. As to mean seed yield per area, the best yield was obtained in 30 cm row space (87.62 kg/da), lower yield was obtained from 15 cm row space (54.00 kg/da). According to this result, the most suitable row space is 30 cm in Van ecological conditions.

Key Words: nohut (Cicer arietinum L.), row spaces, yield and yield components

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2001, 7 (2) 36-41
The Effects of Nitrogen Doses on Dry Matter Partitioning and Nitrogen Uptake in Different Grain Filling Periods in Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
(Turkish)

Zekeriya AKMAN
Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Isparta

This study was carried out to determine the effects of nitrogen doses on dry matter partitioning and nitrogen content with grain filling periods in barley (cv. Tokak 157/37) at the experimental fields of the Süleyman Demirel University. The effects of the nitrogen doses and grain filling periods on total dry matter were found significant, and the highest dry weight was obtained with grain at the wax ripe stage (2.75 g/plant) and 16 kg N/da (2.89 g/plant). The partitioning of dry matter of plant parts was significantly changed according to grain filling periods and nitrogen doses. Except the other plant parts, nitrogen content of grain increased as late as grain filling periods, and the highest nitrogen content was determined with grain at the full ripening (% 1.55). Nitrogen doses increased nitrogen content of plant parts based on grain filling periods.

Key Words: barley (Hordeum vulgare), nitrogen doses, dry matter partitioning, nitrogen content

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2001, 7 (2) 42-46
Two New Species of Plant Parasitic Nematodes for Turkey; Pratylenchoides utahensis Baldwin, Luc & Bell and P. variabilis Sher (Nematoda:Pratylenchidae)
(Turkish)

İlker KEPENEKCİ
Plant Protection Central Research Institute-Yenimahalle, Ankara

In this study, 20 soil samples taken from rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted fields in Gönen (Balıkesir) and Kızılcahamam (Ankara) were examined. From the samples taken the species of plant parasitic nematodes belonging to Pratylenchoides Wislow (Nematoda:Pratylenchidae) genus were extracted, prepared, measurements and identifications of them were made. In the study, 2 species belonging to Pratylenchoides genus as P. utahensis Baldwin, Luc & Bell and P. variabilis Sher were determined. This species were the first record for nematoda fauna of Turkey. Identification, possible variations, biotopes, literature records, morphological and morphometric characteristics are given.

Key Words: plant parasitic, nematodes, taxonomy, rice, Balıkesir, Ankara

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2001, 7 (2) 47-53
Determination of the Effects on Some Soil Properties and Tuber Damage, Harvest Losses and Harvesting Efficiency of the Forward Speeds at Semi-Automatic Potato Harvester
(Turkish)

Ebubekir ALTUNTAŞ
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Tokat

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on soil properties, tuber damage, harvest losses and harvesting efficiency of the forward speeds of the digger and elevator type potato harvester in used Tokat province. The experiment field has been clay loam soil condition, potatoes has been drilled by using different potato planting shapes. The research was conducted at 2.09, 2.57 and 3.60 km/h forward speeds of the semi automatic potato harvester in 2000 year. As a result; forward speeds have significantly affected the soil properties, tuber damage, harvest losses and harvesting efficiency.

Key Words: semi automatic patato harvester, physical properties of the soil, tuber damage, harvest losses and harvesting efficiency

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2001, 7 (2) 54-61
Enzymatic Carbohydrate Determination of Hazelnut Grown in East-Blacksea Region
(Turkish)

A. İlhami KÖKSAL1, Yeşim OKAY1 and Nevzat ARTIK2
1Ankara Universtiy, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering-Ankara

The amount of fructose, glucose, sucrose and total carbohydrates which are in the bark tissues which selected previous years of Tombul, Palaz, Kalınkara, Çakıldak and Sivri cultivars grown in Giresun Hazelnut Research Institute were determined. Sugar analysis has been determined in Boehringer enzymatic method taking samples in each month during two years. The amounth of D-fructose, D-glucose, sucrose and total carbohydrates were lower during summer compared with winter period in all cultivars conserved in the experiments. D-fructose 0.347-0.434 g/L, D-glucose 0.068-0.581 g/L, sucrose 0.301-1.097 g/L were determined taking median of tree months of summer while D-fructose was 0.684-3.506 g/L, D-glucose was 0.855-1.769 g/L, sucrose was 0.809-3.584 g/L in the median of tree months of winter. Carbohydrate amounth has slightly increased but decreasing at some cultivars in spring times. This rate was low, could be regarded as stable in summer times, but started to increase in autumn. It has been observed that, this increase is high especially in the end of autumn, early winter and winter.

Key Words: hazelnut, carbohydrate, enzymatic method

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2001, 7 (2) 62-68
Evapotranspiration of Sunflower for Tekirdağ Conditions
(Turkish)

Tolga ERDEM
Trakya University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Tekirdağ

In this study, sunflower were irrigated by furrow irrigation method between the years of 1998- 2000 in Tekirdag and the decade evapotranspiration were measured and compared with the values calculated by some estimating methods of evapotranspiration. As a result, evapotranspiration of sunflower were measured 804.37 mm. In addition, ıt was found that the most suitable method was FAO modification of Penman and the crop coefficient curve was prepared for this method.

Key Words: sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), estimating methods of evapotranspiration, crop coefficient

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2001, 7 (2) 69-74
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Cutting Height on Forage Yield and Quality of Sorghum x Sudangrass Hybrid (Sorghum vulgare Pers. x Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.)
(Turkish)

Selahattin İPTAŞ1, A.Rashid BROHİ2 and Arif AKTAŞ2
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Tokat
2Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Tokat

This study was conducted to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and cutting height on yield and quality of sorghum x sudangrass hybrid cultivars grown as a first crop in the experimental plots of Field Crop Department, Faculty of Agriculture of Gaziosmanpaşa University. In this study, sorghum-sudangrass hybrid cv. Pioneer 988 was grown, using nitrogen dozes of 6, 12, 18 and 24 kgN/da and cutting height of 7, 14 and 21 cm. Field trials during the years 1995 and 1996 were conducted as factorial design with the three replications. N was applied as ammonium nitrate in 3 equal dressings at sowing, after first cutting and second cutting. Green fodder and dry matter yield decreased as cutting height increased. Harvesting at the stubble height of 7 cm and 14 cm gave higher herbage yield than 21 cm. Herbage and dry matter yield were not significantly affected by preplant aplication of N at the first cut. The green matter yield at the second cut was highest at the 8 kgN/da (4762.6 kg/da) and at the third cut it was highest with 8 kgN/da (3809.5 kg/da). Dry matter yield was significantly affected by nitrogen treatment at the second cut, and it was highest (911.8 kg/da) with 8 kgN/da. Although the nitrogen applications were significantly affected the crude protein content at the second cutting, however they have not significantly affected at the first and third cuttings.

Key Words: sorghum x sudangrass hybrid, nitrogen fertilizer, cutting height, forage yield

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2001, 7 (2) 75-77
The Effect of Different Sulphur Application Shapes and Phosphorus Fertilization on Copper, Manganese and Iron Contents of Corn Plant (Zea mays L.)
(Turkish)

Füsun GÜLSER, Şefik TÜFENKÇİ and İbrahim ERDAL
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Van

In this study, it was investigated the effects of different application shapes of sulphur with and without phosphorus fertilization on uptake of copper, manganese and iron by corn plants grown in acalcareous soil. Sulphur, applicated to soil surface with phosphorus increased copper, manganese and iron consentrations of plants with respect to the other applications forms.

Key Words: corn, sulphur, micro nutrients

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2001, 7 (2) 78-83
Work Study on the Manufacturing of the Threshing Machine Depending on the Work Flow Chart
(Turkish)

Suphi A.YALÇINKAYA and Ali İhsan ACAR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study work analyses had been searched at the manufacturing of the threshing machine. For this purpose, according to the work flow chart, performance had been evaluated by calculating the real times and standard times had been obtained by the calculation of the rest times. These calculated data had been assumed by using statistical methods. As a result, total basic and unit times had been determined at the threshing machine.

Key Words: work analyses, work flow chart, performance, standard time

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2001, 7 (2) 84-89
Determination of Topping Knife Vibration in Sugar Beet Harvesters
(Turkish)

Yelten YILDIZ and Ahmet ÇOLAK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

The subject of the study is to determine the vibration of topping knife on a sugarbeet harvesters. The results of the measurements under the field conditions indicated that the natural frequency of the topping knife was 17.59 rad/s. This level of frequency is lower than natural frequency was determined in laboratory as 452.38 rad/s and calculated analitically as 450.78 rad/s. Also the vertically displacement of topping knife was found as 0.325 mm.

Key Words: piezoelectric, accelerometer, vibration analyzer, resonance, natural frequency, harmonic movement

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2001, 7 (2) 90-94
The Analyses of Mechanisation Possibilities in Some Kind of Vegetable Seed Treatment
(Turkish)

Hülya KARABAŞ1, Ahmet ÇOLAK2 and İbrahim DEMİR3
1Sakarya University, Technical High School-Akyazı
2.Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara
3Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

In this work, using mechanism of produced seed treatment quality an osmotic priming application has been confirmed on onion and pepper seeds. The aim of this practise is to achieve good quality seeds which posses high germination percentage, speed in seedling emergence homogeneousness emergence and decrease in mean germination time. In some phases of the mechanism which is produced for osmotic priming application an automatic controller is being ensured. In the mechanism of treating good quality seedling, distilled water and PEG 6000 solution has been used to achieve osmotic priming application and this is confirmed by given air perpetually to the solution in uniform temperature and certain period. After providing stirring application the seeds are washed and dried in incubator. According to the results of DUNCAN test, which was made after the 14 days seedling tests of ISTA, it is approved that a homogeneousness emergence has been provided in onion and pepper seeds in the primed seeds in comparison with untreated seeds there is an increase in the speed of seedling performance and decrease in mean germination. A conformable priming time has been stated for onion and pepper seeds.

Key Words: osmotic priming, onion pepper, automatic control

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2001, 7 (2) 95-100
The Effect of NPK and Humic Acid Applications on Growth and Nutrition of Corn Plant (Zea mays L.)
(Turkish)

K. Mesut ÇİMRİN, Siyami KARACA and Mehmet Ali BOZKURT
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Van

In this study, it was investigated the effect of combination of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and humic acid applications on growth and mineral nutrition of corn plant. For this purpose, solid and liquid form of humic acid and two different fertilizer combination as NPK (300 mg N /kg +100 mg P /kg + 80 mg K /kg) and NPK/2 2 (150 mg N /kg + 50 mg P /kg + 40 mg K /kg) have been applied into the soil. Dry weight and N, P, K, Fe, Zn ve Mn content of corn plant were significantly increased by applications of fertilizer combination and humic acid, while Ca and Mg contents of plant was decreased. When only humic acid applied, K, Ca and Mg contents of corn plant were significantly decreased, but Fe content of plants was markedly increased. Humic acids with the fertilizer applications were significantly increased corn plant uptakes of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn compare to the control. Applications of humic acids were decreased uptakes of K, Ca and Mg but this was not statistically significant. The different among of liquid and solid humic acid applications were significantly affected K content of plant. The different among of liquid and solid humic acid with fertilizer applications were statistically affected only N and Mn contents.

Key Words: corn, humic acid, NPK, nutrition, uptake

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2001, 7 (2) 101-105
Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Tylenchida (Nematoda) Associated with Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) and Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Miller) Orchards in the Black Sea Region
(English)

İlker KEPENEKCİ
Plant Protection Central Research Institute-Yenimahalle, Ankara

In this study, plant parasitic nematodes species of Tylenchida in walnuts (Juglans regia L.) and chestnuts (Castanea sativa Miller) orchards in some provinces of the Black Sea Region are examined. With this, totally 21 species were determined of which this species belonging to 17 genus of 7 families of Tylenchoidea, Dolichodoridea, Hoplolaimoidea, Criconematoidea, Hemicycliophoroidea, Anguinoidea superfamilies of Tylenchina, Criconematina, Hexatylina (Tylenchina: Nematoda) suborder. It was not met any literature record about nematodes on walnuts and chestnuts in Turkey, in the end of this study 13 plant parasitic nematodes in walnuts and 10 plant parasitic nematodes in chestnuts were determined. Among them; Boleodorus (B.) acutus Thorne & Malek, Nagelus saifulmulukensis Maqbool & Shahina and Rotylenchus robustus (de Man) Filipjev are determined for the first time in the Nematoda fauna of Turkey.

Key Words: plant parasitic nematodes, new records, walnut, chestnut, Black Sea Region

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2001, 7 (2) 106-111
Effects of Baker's Yeast By-product on Performance and Slaughter Traits of Broilers
(Turkish)

Güray ERENER, Nuh OCAK, Ergin ÖZTÜRK and Aslı ÖZDAŞ
Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture-Samsun

This study was carried out to determine the effects of rations containing 50 and 100 % baker's yeast by-product as a substitute for soybean meal on final live weight, live weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, feed consumption and some slaughter trait of broilers. In the study, 450 daily Ross 308 male broilers were used. They were divided into three groups each containing 150 broilers (50 males for each replication). At the end of the experiment (42 days), differences among the groups in terms of final live weight (2328±27, 2169±55, 1754±35 g); live weight gain (2285±27, 2126.±55, 1711±35 g), feed efficiency ratio (1.93±0.03, 2.12±0.04, 2.58±0.09) and carcass weight (1658±15, 1540±37, 1201±20 g) were statistically significant (P<0.01). The differences concerning dressing percentage (71.21±0.63, 71.05±0.94, 68.17±0.90%) and edible viscera ratio (4.17±0.08, 4.11±0.09, 5.06±0.50%) were statistically significant (P<0.05). There were no differences (P>0.05) among the treatments in terms of feed consumption (4406±87, 4513±30, 4408±70 g), gut weight (184.1±10, 183.7±8, 163.4±7 g), gut length (231.3±12.5, 223.8±5.0, 220.6±9 cm) and abdominal fat ratio (1.15±0.08, 1.07±0.12, 1.07±0.08%). It is concluded that the addition of 50% and 100 % baker's yeast by-product as a substitute for soybean meal to broiler rations had negative effects on final live weight, live weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, carcass weight and dressing percentage.

Key Words: broiler, Baker's yeast by product, fattening, performance, slaughter traits

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2001, 7 (2) 112-119
The Effects of Bacterial Inoculants on the Fermentation, Aerobic Stability and Rumen Degradability of Sorghum Silages
(Turkish)

İsmail FİLYA, Ali KARABULUT, Hatice KALKAN and Ekin SUCU
Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Bursa

This research was carried out to determine the effect of bacterial inoculants using as silage additives on the fermentation, aerobic stability and rumen degradability of harvested and ensiled sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) at different stages of maturity. Sorghum was harvested at flowering and milk dough stages. Inoculant 1188 (Pioneer®, USA) and Sil-All (Alteck, UK) were used as bacterial inoculants. Inoculants were applied to silages 106 cfu g-1 levels. Sorghums were ensiled in 1.5 liter special glass jars equipped with a lid that enables gas release only. The jars were stored at 18±2 °C at laboratory conditions. Three jars from each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analyses on the days 2, 4, 7, 15 and 60 after ensiling. All silages were opened at the end of the ensiling period (60 days) and subjected to an aerobic stability test for 5 days. In addition rumen dry and organic matters degradabilities of the silages were determined. As a result, bacterial inoculants improved fermentation characteristics of sorghum silages. However, inoculants did not improve aerobic stability and rumen dry and organic matters degradabilities of sorghum silages. Depend on maturity of sorghum, aerobic stability impaired and rumen dry and organic matters degradability of the silages were increased.

Key Words: bacterial inoculants, sorghum, silage, fermentation, aerobic stability, rumen degradability

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2001, 7 (2) 120-125
The Effects of Different Temperatures on Biology of the Egg Parasitoids, Trichogramma turkeiensis Kostadinov and T. embryophagum (Hartig) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
(Turkish)

Cem ÖZKAN and M. Oktay GÜRKAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

In this study, the effects of different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30°C) on the biology of the egg parasitoids, Trichogramma turkeiensis ve T. embryophagum were studied on the eggs of Ephestia kuehniella at laborotory conditions. For T. turkeiensis, the following values were obtained. The average longevity of adult females was: 10.56, 19.74, 19.52 and 4.88 days, the average darkness time of the parasitized eggs was: 9.02 , 4.08, 4.17 and 3.02, the average development time from egg to adult was: 40.92, 17.39, 11.85 and 8.85 days, sex ratios of emerging adults (M: F) were: 1:0, 1:3.26, 1:2.96 and 1:3.81, the average number of parasitized eggs was: 20.16, 105.28 107.84 and 25.38, the averege number of progeny was: 22.40, 113.71, 112.24 and 26.92, the average number of emerging adults was: 19.44, 90.75, 94.80 and 24.68 at 15, 20, 25 and 30°C respectively. For T. embryophagum, the following values were obtained. The average longevity of adult females was: 11.32, 18.20, 22.96 and 5.86 days, the average darkness time of the parasitized hosts was: 10.1, 5.21, 4.10 and 3.08, the average development time from egg to adult was: 42.63, 16.22, 12.45 and 8.97days, sex ratios of emerging adults (M: F) were: 1:0, 1:2.51, 1:3.66 and 1:1.94, the average number of parasitized eggs was: 24.64, 81.16, 108.52 and 36.30, the average number of progeny was: 27.20, 83.43, 114.36 and 37.46, the average number of emerging adults was: 22.36, 72.19, 89.40 and 35.32 at 15, 20, 25 and 30°C respectively.

Key Words: biology, temperature, mass rearing, Trichogramma turkeiensis, T. embryophagum, Ephestia kuehniella

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2001, 7 (2) 126-130
Effect of Different Zinc Rates on Yield and Yield Components of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) Varieties in Van Conditions
(Turkish)

Necat TOGAY1, Yeşim TOGAY1 and Füsun GÜLSER2
1Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Van
2Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Van

This study was carried out to determine the effects of different rate of zinc application (0, 1, 1.5 ve 2 kg/da) on three cultivars (Sazak-91, Yerli Kırmızı ve Kışlık Kırmızı-51) of lentil yield and yield components in Van region. This experiment was carried out during the 1998-99 and 1999-00 winter season completely randomized block design with four replications. Effects of different zinc application on plant height, first pod height, numbers of main branches, numbers of side branches, numbers of pod per plant and numbers of seed per plant, numbers of seed per pod, 1000 seed wieght and seed yield per area were investigated for three lentil cultivars. The highest seed yield per area of both years (71.36 kg/da) was obtained in 2 kg/da zinc appplication and Sazak-91 cultivar. It was determined that while zinc rates were increacing, seed yield per area increased. The most suitable zinc aplication for all cultivars was 2 kg/da.

Key Words: lentil (Lens culunaris Medik), zinc, yield

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2001, 7 (2) 131-134
Determining of Suitability of Down Fibers Obtained from Hair Goats Raising in Antalya Province for Textile Industry
(Turkish)

Gürsel DELLAL
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this research, the suitability for some physical characteristics of down fibers obtained from Hair goat raising in Antalya province for textile İndustry was researched. The least-square means of finesess, single fiber nature length, single fiber true length and crimb number of down fibers were found as 16.2±0.16 mic, 2.2±0.10 cm, 4.0±0.13 cm and 9.9±0.57 number, respectively. It was determined that the most apparance colour types were yellow wish brown (48.46%), grey (20.31 %) and white (17.19 %)respectively. According to research findings, it was concluded that an important part of down fibers obtained from Hair goats raising in Antalya province were suitable for textile industry.

Key Words: hair goat, down fiber, physical characteristics, textile industry

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2001, 7 (2) 135-140
Determination of Differences in Phosphorus Uptake and Phosphorus Efficiency Among Some Bread (T. aestivum) and Durum (T. durum) Wheat Genotypes
(Turkish)

Ali İNAL
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

Selection of P efficient cultivars has great importance in efficient use fertilizer phosphorus. In order to compare P efficiency and uptake of wheat genotypes, the present study was conducted by growing 3 durum (Kunduru, Çakmak, Kızıltan) and 3 bread (Bezostaya, Gün 79, Gerek 79) in greenhouse conditions on soil to which P was applied at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mgP kg-1 soil. Wheat genotypes were compared by evaluating the dry weight, P concentration and uptake and by determining the phosphorus efficiency of wheat genotypes. However intra- and interspecific differences were found among the genotypes, the dry weights, P concentrations and P uptake of wheat genotypes increased as increasing P supply. Generally, the dry weights and agronomic P efficiency of bread wheat genotypes were higher than that of durum wheat genotypes. Similarly, P concentrations and P uptake of bread wheat were also higher than that of durum wheat genotypes, but the increases in P concentration and P uptake were found higher in durum than bread wheat genotypes. While physiological P efficiency as a function of P uptake was higher in bread than durum wheat genotypes, physiological P efficiency as a function of P concentration was differed according to the P supply rate. Wheat genotypes showed intra- and interspecific differences in P acquisition, P concentration, agronomic and physiologic P efficiency.

Key Words: wheat, genotypic differences, phosphorus efficiency, phosphorus uptake

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2001, 7 (2) 141-143
Molecular Similarity Analysis of Some Grapevine Rootstocks from Different Nursery in Turkey
(Turkish)

Ali ERGÜL1 and Y.Sabit AĞAOĞLU2
1 Ministry of Agriculture, General Directorate of Agricultural Research-Ankara
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

In this research, 5BB, 110R, 140Ru grapevine rootstcoks obtained from different nursery (University of Ankara Faculty of Agriculture, Kalecik Viticultural Research Station, Tekirdağ Viticultural Research Institute, Manisa Viticultural Research Institute, Sun Fidan Co. (Salihli)) were analyzed by RAPD technique to determine probable genetic diversty. Among samples of 5BB and 110R showed no polymorphism and gave unique band patterns for each rootstocks, while high polymorphism was reached 140Ru with OPP17 (5' TGA CCC GCC T 3') primer. Using this primer, there different genotypes (1st genotype: Tekirdağ-Kalecik, 2nd genotype: Manisa, 3rd genotype: Salihli) were determined in 140Ru rootstock.

Key Words: grapevine rootsocks (5BB, 110R, 140Ru), RAPD, genetic diversity/similarity

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