2001, Volume: 7, Number: 1
Contents
 
DEMİR, İ. and M. ÖZÇOBAN, The Effects of Combinations of Temperature and Seed Moisture Treatments on Hardseededness in Okra Abstract
GÜNER, M. ve İ. GEZER, Determination of Some Parameters of Hand Shaker in Apricot Harvesting Abstract
KAYA, M., EInvestigations on the biology of cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) Abstract
AKÇORA, A. ve S. PULATSÜ, The Effect of Overlying and Porewater Phosphorus on the Trophic Level of Sakaryabaşı West Pond Abstract
GÖKKAYA, Z. ve S. PULATSÜ, Seasonal Changes of Some Water Quality Parameters of Sakaryabaşı East Pond Abstract
İÇ, E., F. ÖZÇELİK ve A. Ö. ÖZÇELİK,Cucumber Fermentation in Low-Salt and Buffered Brine Abstract
KESKİN, R., R. ÖZTÜRK ve K. SAÇILIK, The Development of New Method to Determine Pressure Drops Occurred in Bed Depth During Aeration of Agricultural Crops Abstract
DEDE, Ö., Ş. M. KARA ve Ş. DERE, Heterosis and Combining Ability Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Components in a Diallel Maize Population Abstract
ALPASLAN, M., A. GÜNEŞ, A. İNAL ve M. AKTAŞ, Nutritional Status of the Plants Grown in Mediterranean Region Greenhouses II. Nutritional Status of Tomato, Cucumber, Pepper and Eggplant Abstract
DEMİR, N., A Phytoplankton Monitoring Study in Bivalvia Production Areas Abstract
KURUM, E. ve Y. ÖZTAN, A Research on the Determinatin of the Protection, Land Use and the Planning Principles of Beynam Forest and It's Surroundings for Ankara City Recreation System Abstract
ERDAL, M., Usage of Hybrid Varieties in the Improvement of Monogerm Hybrid Sugar Beet PopulationsAbstract
ERPUL, G. ve M. R. ÇANGA, Design Principles of a Rainfall Simulator and Characteristics of Simulated Rainfalls for Soil Erosion Studies Abstract
BİRSİN, A. M., Effect of Different Nitrogen Doses on Grain Yield, Protein Content and Protein Yield of Wheat Abstract
KIRKAĞAÇ, M. ve D. ATAY, The Reproduction of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, allenciennes,1844) Under Artificial Conditions and Rearing to Size that can be Utilized in Biological Weed Control Abstract
ORTA, A. H., Y. ERDEM, T. ERDEM ve M. ŞENER, Relations Between Evaporation and Evapotranspiration of Some Crops in Thrace Conditions Abstract
BOZKURT, M. A., İ. YILMAZ ve K. M. ÇİMRİN, The Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge as a Source of Nitrogen in Winter Barley Abstract
KÖKSAL, A. İ., Y. OKAY, N. ARTIK ve B. KUNTER, Determination of the Changes of Carbohydrate Levels of Some Hazelnut Cultivars Grown in West-Blacksea Region by Enzymatic Methods Abstract
ÜSTÜN, A. S. ve S. DOLAR, Changes in the Relative Water Content, Dry Matter and Proline Amount in the Ascochyta Blight ( Ascochyta rabiei ((Pass.) Labr.) Resistant and Susceptible Chickpea Cultivars Abstract
DUMAN, Ü. ve O. YILMAZ, The Ecological Planning Principles In The New Settlement Areas On The Example Of Ankara- Eryaman V. Stage Abstract
ÖNEN, N. ve O. YILMAZ, A Research on Arboretum Formation at Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Campus Abstract
KELEN, M. ve İ. DEMİRTAŞ, The Effects of Different Rooting Substrates and IBA Doses on Rooting and Root Quality in 5 BB and 420 A Grapevine Rootstocks Abstract
ERENER, G., B. Z. SARIÇİÇEK ve A. ÖZDAŞ, The Effect of Organic Acids Mixture Supplementation at Various Levels to Diets of Japanese Quails on Fattening Performance and pH of Intestinal Contents Abstract
BAŞPINAR, E., Type I Error and Power of Tests When Applying The Student's-t, Welch and Trimmed-t Tests to Two Samples of Various Sizes from Normal Populations Having Various Variance Ratios Abstract
GÜLER, M., Influence of Water Stress on Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) at Various Growth Stages under Central Anatolian ConditionsAbstract
KARACA, G. ve M. F. SELENAY, Economical Comparison of Furrow and Drip Irrigation Systems in Harran Plain Abstract
Abstracts
 

2001, 7 (1) 1-4
The Effects of Combinations of Temperature and Seed Moisture Treatments on Hardseededness in Okra
(English)

İbrahim DEMIR and Mustafa ÖZÇOBAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

This research was conducted to find out the effect of temperature and moisture combination (afterripening) treatments on occurrence of hardseededness in okra. Okra seed germination (loss of dormancy and hardseededness) was increased by afterripening (temperature and seed moisture treatments) seeds at 30, 40 and 50 °C, with moisture contents between 9.4 and 17.7 % for up to 28 days at 30 and 4 days at 40 and 50 °C. From the water isotherms constructed, it was found that this involves water binding region 2. Afterripening reduced percentage of hardseededness from 54 -63 % at the lowest to 15-30 % at the highest moisture contents of water isotherms. Okra seeds, can be afterripened, at 30, 40 and 50 °C, within the range of water-binding region 2 and germination be improved.

Key Words : okra, afterripening, hardseededness, germination, seed moisture, temperature

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2001, 7 (1) 5-8
Determination of Some Parameters of Hand Shaker in Apricot Harvesting
(Turkish)

Metin GÜNER1 and İbrahim GEZER2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara
2İnönü University, Techical High School-Malatya

In this research some parameters of hand shaker such as rate of work (kg/h and tree/h), fuel consumption (1/h) and harvesting rate (%) were determined. The results were compared with conventional apricot harvesting. The tests are carried out three replications and apricots are harvested a period of 1 h in the each replication. Both conventional harvesting and mechanical harvesting were done by the same person. Hand shaker has an amplitude of 60 mm and a frequency of 20-23 Hz. The hand shaker fastened to the side branches are operated at two intervals of 4 s on the maximum engine speed. The trees in the tests are about 8-12 old years and have a row width of 10 m. At the and of the tests it was found that the hand shaker increased the rate of work 38,6 % as kg/h and 48,48 % as tree/h. The power consumption and the harvesting rate are determined as 1,4 1/h and 99,7 % respectively.

Key Words : apricot harvesting, hand shaker, rate of work, fuel consumption, harvest efficient

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2001, 7 (1) 9-14
Investigations on the biology of cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae)
(Turkish)

Mehmet KAYA
Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Bursa

This study was carried out in Bursa between 1996 and 1997. The biology of Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) was investigated in the wheat fields of Faculty of Agriculture of the Uludağ University. According to the results, O. melanopus was determined in all of the wheat fields in Bursa. It overwintered in soil or in plant debris materials, the first adult emergence began on 26 and on 17 April in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Female insect began ovipositing after feeding and mating and oviposited 89.61±15.89 (66-112) and 97.93±14.73 (63-110) eggs, eggs hatching in the 97 % and 92 %, in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Period of the embriyonal development was in the same years at an average of 6.23±0.42 (5-7) and 7.18±0.56 (6-8) days. Development of larvae was at an average of 20.67±1.38 (17-24) days in 1996 and 21.82±1.41 (17-25) days in 1997. Period of pupa was averagely 11.62±0.62 (10-12) and 12.30±0.75 (10-13) days in 1996 and 1997, respectively. O. melanopus has given one generation in a year.

Key Words : Oulema melanopus, wheat, biology

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2001, 7 (1) 15-19
The Effect of Overlying and Porewater Phosphorus on the Trophic Level of Sakaryabaşı West Pond
(Turkish)

Akasya AKÇORA and Serap PULATSÜ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

In this study, phosphorus fractions (total filterable phosphorus, total filterable orthophosphate) and pH values were measured in pond water, overlying water and pore water in West Pond which supplies water to the Sakaryabaşı Fish Culture and Research Station. In this research, the changes of parameters depending on seasonal variations and trophic state of the pond were investigated.

Key Words : Sakaryabaşı fish culture and research station, west pond, phosphorus fractions, pH

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2001, 7 (1) 20-26
Seasonal Changes of Some Water Quality Parameters of Sakaryabaşı East Pond
(Turkish)

Zeynep GÖKKAYA and Serap PULATSÜ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

In this research seasonally, some water quality parameters of East Pond which is one of two sources of Sakaryabaşı were determined. The research was conducted at two stations of pond in January, April, July, October 1999. In pond water, phosphorus and nitrogen fractions, chlorophyll a concentrations and some physico-chemical characteristics were undertaken. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH values of pond water were observed within the acceptable standard limits for recreational use of the pond.

Key Words : eastern pond, Sakarya river, water quality, phosphorus and nitrogen fractions, cholorophyll a concentration

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2001, 7 (1) 27-33
Cucumber Fermentation in Low-Salt and Buffered Brine
(Turkish)

Erhan İÇ1, Filiz ÖZÇELİK2 and A.Özfer ÖZÇELİK3
1Nuclear Agriculture, and Animal Sciences Research Center-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering-Ankara
3Ankara University, College of Home Economics-Ankara

Cucumbers were fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum in brines which contained 3 and 4 % NaCl and were buffered with 0, 0,025 and 0,05 M Ca-acetate. Chemical and microbiological changes in the brines were determined during fermentation period of 17 days. Addition of Ca-acetate positively affected the pH stability, therefore the fermentation of sugar was completed in a short time (7 days). The values of pH and titratable acidity were measured between 3,72-3,98 and 1,26-1,64 %, respectively, at the end of the fermentation. The number of lactic acid bacteria reached to the highest value in 4 th and 7 th days of fermentation in the brines with 3 and 4 % NaCl, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae declined from initial numbers (104 CFU/mL) to zero after 4 days, but a remarkable yeast growth (106 CFU/mL) was observed at the end of the fermentation. Results indicated that addition of Ca-acetate for pH control, also, helped to reduce the need for salt to insure cucumber firmness.

Key Words : fermented cucumber, Lactobacillus plantarum, low-salt, Ca-acetate, firmness

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2001, 7 (1) 34-40
The Development of New Method to Determine Pressure Drops Occurred in Bed Depth During Aeration of Agricultural Crops
(Turkish)

Rahmi KESKİN, Ramazan ÖZTÜRK and Kâmil SAÇILIK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, it have been let develop a new method to determine pressure drops that is occurred in bed depth during aeration of agricultural crops. For this purpose, a measuring unit was constructed. The difference between discharge and charge of fan were expressed as pressure drop per unit depths in bulk. Bed depth was separated into the smallest unit, which were termed "layer". It has determined pressure drops and power consumption according to certain principles. Soybean and corn which is planted as second crop in Turkey have been used as experiment materials. Experiments were taken place at five air velocities such as 2.70, 3.12, 3.49, 3.82 and 4.13 m/s. Moreover, 7 layers height of which is 5 cm was chosen as test parameters. The effects of each crop, air velocity and layer of 3 factors on pressure drop and power consumption were found to be significant (p<0.01) in analysis of variances. The obtained results showed that if air velocity and bed depth increases, pressure drop and power consumption will increase. This growth in corn is higher than soybean. It has been obtained both reliable results and simplicity in experiments that the variations in total pressure were used as pressure drop and bed depth was separated into layers.

Key Words : agricultural crop, air velocity, pressure drop, power consumption

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2001, 7 (1) 41-46
Heterosis and Combining Ability Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Components in a Diallel Maize Population
(Turkish)

Özbay DEDE, Ş. Metin KARA and Şahin DERE
Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ordu

The data for yield and yield components in a population consisting of seven inbred lines of maize along with their 21 F1 hybrids were analyzed in order to study the general and specific combining ability and heterosis. Average heterosis was significant for all characters studied and positive, except days to tasseling, with the average yield of hybrids was 88.56 % above that of the parents. Heterosis was also high for ear kernel number and row kernel number. The parental lines YUZ P709 and FR 64A were identified as being the best combiners in the experiment for grain yield and yield components. Combining ability analysis showed that GCA effects were significant for all attributes, except grain yield, and SCA effects were significant for all raits evaluated, except ear row number. With respect to inheritance of grain yield, non-additive gene action was more pronounced as compared to additive gene action, whereas additive gene action was predominant for ear row number. Both additive and non-additive gene effects were significant in the inheritance of the other traits.

Key Words : maize, Zea mays L., heterosis, diallel analysis, gene effects, combining ability

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2001, 7 (1) 47-55
Nutritional Status of the Plants Grown in Mediterranean Region Greenhouses II. Nutritional Status of Tomato, Cucumber, Pepper and Eggplant
(Turkish)

Mehmet ALPASLAN1, Aydın GÜNEŞ1, Ali İNAL1 and Mehmet AKTAŞ2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Forestry-Çankırı

This study was conducted to evaulate the nutritional status and determine the nutritional problems of the tomatoes, cucumber, pepper and eggplant grown under greenhouse in Mediterranean Region. For this purpose, leaf samples of tomateos, cucumber, pepper and eggplant were collected from 314 representative greenhouse. Leaf samples were analysed for their N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, and B contents. Nutritional status of surveyed plants was evaluated by comparing the results of analyses with the interpretative values for the nutriens. According to the results, N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn contents of tomatoes leaf samples were found sufficient or high, but K and B contents low, and most of the leaf samples showed sufficient and low P and Zn contents respectively. Nitrogen content of cucumber leaf changed in range between low to high, and P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn contents were found sufficient, but K contents of the most of the samples and B contents of the almost all samples were found insufficient. Most of the samples of the pepper were classified as sufficient or high according to their N, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn contents. Potassium contents of the pepper leaf were changed in the range between low to high, but all the pepper samples were showed B deficiency. While the N, K, Mg, and Cu contents of the eggplant samples changed in the range between low to high, all samples showed B deficiency. Eggplant leaf samples were found to be sufficient for their P, Ca, and Fe contents. Leaf samples of the eggplant showed changes between low to high for their Zn and Mn contents.

Key Words : Mediterranean Region, tomatoes, cucumber, pepper, eggplant, nutritional status

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2001, 7 (1) 56-62
A Phytoplankton Monitoring Study in Bivalvia Production Areas
(Turkish)

Nilsun DEMİR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture

Abstract: Phytoplankton producing paralitic, diarretic and amnezic shellfish poisons were monitored at 23 bivalvia production areas in between June and September of 1999 in biweekly taken samples. For that aim, phytoplankton were identified and counted. Results showed that 59 of Bacillariophyceae and 34 of Dinophyceae species were identified. PSP and ASP producing phytoplankton were not encountered in any of the sample. Whereas, Dinophysis species causing DSP, which of dinoflagellata were found.

Key Words : bivalvia, toxin, quantitative distribution, dinoflagellata, diatom

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2001, 7 (1) 63-70
A Research on the Determinatin of the Protection, Land Use and the Planning Principles of Beynam Forest and It's Surroundings for Ankara City Recreation System
(Turkish)

Ekrem KURUM and Yüksel ÖZTAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture-Ankara

The aim of this research is the determination of the protection areas and the recreation potential of the Beynam Forest and it's surroundings that was remained as a unique place near Ankara city. The study for the research area was mainly formed of three stages following one another. At the first stage, natural and cultural resources of the area were determined, analysed and evaluated wheras at the second stage, an inquiry was made directed to the potential determination and the visitor demands of Ankara city and Beynam Forest. And at the last stage, landuse decisions and the administrative implementation for the research area were set under the light of the data obtained from the first two stages. Computer media was used for the evaluation and the preperation of the geographical maphs of the natural resources. As a result of the research, Beynam Forest area was offered to be planned as natural protection area and the other areas showing recreative potential were suggested as agriculture dependent recreation areas.

Key Words : Beynam, recreation planning

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2001, 7 (1) 71-74
Usage of Hybrid Varieties in the Improvement of Monogerm Hybrid Sugar Beet Populations

Mustafa ERDAL
Institute of Sugar Factory-Etimesgut,Ankara

Monogerm sources-main materials of monogerm hybrid sugar beet varieties -should continuously be improved. The main source of variation in plant breeding is cross breeding. Yield and quality level of the plant selected from the segregation after crossbreeding is closely related to the yield and quality level of the parent plants. In this research, monogerm sugar beet population is crossed with current monogerm diploid hybrid varieties to improve the yield and the quality, and 95 single plants selected from F1 generation are tested with mother, father and three controls in a progeny testing trial. Based the results of yield and quality in the trial,10 single plant not statistically different from the control at p<0.01 level interms of the yield per unit area were selected for the family production .

Key Words : sugar beet, monogerm, crossbreeding, genotype ,hybrid

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2001, 7 (1) 75-83
Design Principles of a Rainfall Simulator and Characteristics of Simulated Rainfalls for Soil Erosion Studies
(Turkish)

Günay ERPUL and Mustafa R. ÇANGA
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

The objectives of this research are both to describe design principles and technical properties of a rainfall simulator constructed at the Research Laboratory of Soil Science Department, Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University, and to examine characteristics of simulated rainfalls. Main elements of the simulator were explained. Details of drop formers and a plan of drop formers within the application tank at which a uniform distribution of simulated rainfall was well attained were given. As rainfall characteristics, intensity, drop size, drop fall velocity and kinetic energy were investigated. Uniform intensity distributions of rainfalls in the catchment basin were evaluated by the uniformity coefficient (Cv). Cv values were mostly found more than 80%, and uniform rainfall distribution was determined in the catchment basin. At different water height in the application tank, drop sizes were measured with drop formers having 3 mm and 5 mm tip diameter. Bigger drops were obtained with 5 mm drop formers, and drop sizes at either tip diameters were getting smaller with increasing water height. Under these conditions, drop sizes of the simulator were between 4.38 mm and 5.25 mm. Using drop diameters and fall heights of drops, drop fall velocities were estimated. Since drop sizes and related fall velocities did not significantly change, it is observed that changes in kinetic energies of rainfalls were directly dependent upon the changes in rainfall intensities. A linear relationship was established between rainfall intensity and kinetic energy.

Key Words : rainfall simulator, drop former, intensity, drop size and fall velocity, kinetic energy

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2001, 7 (1) 84-88
Effect of Different Nitrogen Doses on Grain Yield, Protein Content and Protein Yield of Wheat
(Turkish)

Melahat AVCI BİRSİN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

This research was carried out in the experimental field of The Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University between 1995-1997. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer applications on grain yield, grain protein content and protein yield of wheat cultivars. According to results obtained; grain yield, grain protein content and protein yield increases depend on higher nitrogen doses. The highest grain yield was determined at fifth dose ( 15 kg/da N) and Gün-91 cv. At the same time the highest grain protein content and protein yield were obtained at fifth dose and Kunduru-1149 cv.

Key Word: wheat, nitrogen fertilizer, protein, yield

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2001, 7 (1) 89-96
The Reproduction of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, allenciennes,1844) Under Artificial Conditions and Rearing to Size that can be Utilized in Biological Weed Control
(Turkish)

Mine KIRKAĞAÇ and Doğan ATAY
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

In the reproduction study, 4 female and 4 male spawners were used. The amount of stripped eggs from female spawners changed between 91.8 g/kg body weight and 105.1 g/kg body weight also between 60965± 2460 eggs/kg body weight and 71881±2842 eggs/kg body weight; the volume of stripped sperm from male spawners were differed between 4.0 ml/kg body weight and 6.1 ml/kg body weight; the fertilization rate was determined as 94.0 ± 0.56 % and 98.6 ±0,52 %, while the hatching rate was between 83,7±1,63 % and 90,84±0.48 %. The larvae feeding experiment was conducted with two experimental group with three replicates. For the first 9 days, the starter feed including 51% raw protein, than for 14 days the feed including 43 % raw protein were given to the first experimental group. However, the natural food including zooplankton (Rotifers and cladocerans etc.) were given to the second experimental group. It was determined that larvae feeding 51% of raw protein was found to be superior to natural food in the first 9 days of the experiment. But, 43 % of raw protein feeding gave lower growth values compared to natural food in subsequent 14 days of the experiment. In feeding experiment of fry, raw protein contents of feeds were as,20%; 37% and 43% to the experimental groups, respectively. The best growth was observed in the experimental groups that fed with the feed including the highest raw protein.It was followed by 37 % and 20 % raw protein, contents of feeds.

Key Words : Ctenopharyngodon idellus, The artificial propogation of grass carp, grass carp larvae raising, grass carp fry raising

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2001, 7 (1) 97-104
Relations Between Evaporation and Evapotranspiration of Some Crops in Thrace Conditions
(Turkish)

A. Halim ORTA, Yeşim ERDEM, Tolga ERDEM and Mehmet ŞENER
Trakya University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Tekirdağ

In this research, the possibilities of using the free water surface evaporation data were investigated to determine irrigation scheduling of apple trees, onion, sunflower, watermelon and wheat in Thrace conditions. To do this, the free water surface evaporation (Eo) values were compared with the measured evapotranspiration (ET). As a result, the ratio of ET/Eo could be used for estimation evapotranspiration and the correction factors for apple trees (under the surface and drip irrigation), onion, sunflower, watermelon and wheat were found as to be 1.56, 0.63, 0.84, 1.37, 0.84 and 1.75 respectively. Moreover, the monthly ratios of ET/Eo have been determined to estimate amount of irrigation water needed. In addition, evaporation coefficient (kpc) curves were prepared to use for different growing periods.

Key Words : wheat, sunflower, watermelon, onion, apple trees, irrigation scheduling, evapotranspiration, evaporation

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2001, 7 (1) 105-110
The Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge as a Source of Nitrogen in Winter Barley
(Turkish)

Mehmet Ali BOZKURT1, İbrahim YILMAZ2 and K. Mesut ÇİMRİN1
1Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Van
2Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Van

This research was conducted to compare inorganic nitrogen fertilizer with sewage sludge in Van ecological conditions. In the experiment, Tokak winter barley cultivar was used and inorganic nitrogen doses consisted of 0-3-6-9-12 kg N/da while sewage sludge applications consisted of 0-400-800-1200-1600 kg/da. As a results, nitrogen content and uptake of plant were increased by applications of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer and sewage sludge. Sewage sludge applications affected nitrogen content and uptake of plant more than inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. This results indicated that some of nitrogen requirement of plant can be provided by using sewage sludge. While sewage sludge increased P, Fe, Mn and Cu contents of grain, it didn't affect other heavy metal contents of grain. Sewage sludge applications caused to increase on total Zn and Cu contents of soil. However, heavy metal contents of soil were found to be very below toxicity level.

Key Words : sewage sludge, barley, fertilizer, nitrogen source, heavy metal

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2001, 7 (1) 111-118
Determination of the Changes of Carbohydrate Levels of Some Hazelnut Cultivars Grown in West-Blacksea Region by Enzymatic Methods
(Turkish)

İlhami KÖKSAL1, Yeşim OKAY1, Nevzat ARTIK2 and Burak KUNTER3
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering-Ankara
3Nuclear Agriculture and Animal Science Research Center-Sarayköy, Ankara

In this research, the amount of fructose, glucose, sucrose and total carbohydrates which are in the bark tissues of Tombul, Palaz, Kalınkara, Çakıldak, Mincane, Foşa and Sivri cultivars grown Düzce region were determined. Bark tissue samples were taken at monthly intervals during two years of experiments. The amount of fructose, glucose, sucrose and total carbohydrates were lower during summer while they were observed higher in winter period in all cultivars conserved in the experiments. As a general observation, carbohydrate level slightly decreased during spring, stayed low and stable through summer, started to increase in the middle of autumn and this increase continued untill winter period.

Key Words : hazelnut, fructose, glucose, sucrose, total carbohydrate

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2001, 7 (1) 119-124
Changes in the Relative Water Content, Dry Matter and Proline Amount in the Ascochyta Blight ( Ascochyta rabiei ((Pass.) Labr.) Resistant and Susceptible Chickpea Cultivars
(Turkish)

A. Sülün ÜSTÜN1 and F. Sara DOLAR2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Depertment of Biology-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

In this study, the effect of Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. ) Labr.) disease stress on the relative water content ( RWC %) and dry matter ( D. W %)content of susceptible( Canıtez 87) and resistant (ILC 195) cultivars were investigated. Proline amount alternations in the leaves, stems and roots of the same cultivars were also studied. RWC % was higher in the leaves of susceptible cultivar than of resistant cultivar. RWC % was found to be less in both cultivar leaves which were infected. The amount of dry matter content increased in the infected leaves of both cultivars in the 8 th day. The amount of proline was higher in leaves than stems and roots. In infected resistant and susceptible cultivars the amount of proline increased as the water content decreased. In susceptible cultivar the amount of proline was found to be highest in the 8 th day, however, the amount of proline accumulation was higher than 11 th day. The changes in the amount of proline could be a determinative factor in resistance to the disease.

Key Words : chickpea, Ascochyta rabiei , relative water content, dry matter, prolin

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2001, 7 (1) 125-133
The Ecological Planning Principles In The New Settlement Areas On The Example Of Ankara- Eryaman V. Stage
(Turkish)

Oğuz YILMAZ1 and Ülkü DUMAN2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture-Ankara
2Gazi University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Landscape Architecture-Kastamonu

The increasing speed of urbanization day by day, is causing a lot of environmental problems with the negative impacts on the nature. Particularly, where the urbanization is high but the areas for the settlement is limited, the agricultural areas have turned rapidly to urban areas. Cities have become areas where the negative impacts of environmental problems are dense and drinking water, sewerage, infrastructure are unhealthy. In this reason, a new planning system has developed that can minimize the pollution and protect the ecological balances so ecological planning has formed. In this work, ecological planning principles for new settlement areas was determined by studying the examples in the world and in our country. By these principles Ankara-Eryaman 5. Stage new settlement area was evaluated and a design project was made.

Key Words : new settlement areas, ecological planning, principles of ecological planning, urban ecology, Ankara-Eryaman 5. Stage new settlement area

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2001, 7 (1) 134-141
A Research on Arboretum Formation at Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Campus
(Turkish)

Oğuz YILMAZ and Nurcan ÖNEN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture-Ankara

The damage to the nature is being large with upgrading technology. The green areas is formed for protect the nature and remove the people from their speedy life. Protection of nature starts with loving it and also loving the nature is start with recognizing it. The Arboretums that introduce the plants like trees and shrubs are most important establishments for introducing the plants to the people. The arboretums are also the establishes that scientific research education and recreation works are made. As a case study, the campus of Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture are chosen. The aim of this study is the form an arboretum in the campus. The choices of worthy plants and to recognize them to the people are the aim of the Arboretums. So they must be formed and widespread in our country this subject is main purpose of this thesis.

Key Words : arboretum, Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Campus

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2001, 7 (1) 142-146
The Effects of Different Rooting Substrates and IBA Doses on Rooting and Root Quality in 5 BB and 420 A Grapevine Rootstocks
(Turkish)

Mustafa KELEN1 and İsmail DEMİRTAŞ2
1Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Isparta
2Horticultural Research Institute-Isparta

This research was carried out in Horticultural Research Institute of Egirdir in 1999. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different rooting substrates (perlite, perlite+sand (1:1), perlite+sand+soil (1:1:1)) and IBA doses (control, 1000, 2000, 3000 ppm) on rooting and root quality of 5 BB and 420 A grapevine rootstocks. As the main parameters, rooting rate (%), root number (n), root length (cm), and root weight (g) were determined. According to the results, for 5 BB roootstock, the best results in respect of rooting rate (88.7%), root number (19.2), root length (26.7 cm), and root weight (5.13 g) were obtained in perlite and 1000 ppm, perlite+sand and 3000 ppm, perlite and 1000 ppm, perlite and 1000 ppm applications, respectively. For the 420 A rootstock, perlite and 1000 ppm, perlite+sand and 3000 ppm, perlite and 1000, 2000 ppm, perlite and 1000 ppm applications gave the best results in respect of rooting rate (82.7%), root number (11.5), root length (26.5 and 26.2 cm), and root weight (3.54 g), respectively. Generally, 5 BB rootstock gave better results than 420 A rootstock in respect of rooting rate, and root number, but 420 A rootstock gave better result than 5 BB rootstock in respect of root length. Root weight was found statistically insignificant between 5 BB and 420 A rootstocks.

Key Words : grapevine rootstock, rooting, root quality, hormone, rooting substrate

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2001, 7 (1) 147-150
The Effect of Organic Acids Mixture Supplementation at Various Levels to Diets of Japanese Quails on Fattening Performance and pH of Intestinal Contents
(Turkish)

Güray ERENER, B.Zehra SARIÇİÇEK and Aslı ÖZDAŞ
Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Samsun

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic acids mixture (formic acid+propionic acid) supplementation at various levels to diets of Japanese quails on fattening performance and pH of intestinal contents. Three hundred Japanese quails, raised on ground, were used. In the experiment, 4 treatment groups were established with a basal ration (1st Group) supplemented with 0.1 (2nd Group), 0.2 (3rd Group) and 0.3% (4th Group) OA mixture. Differences among the groups in terms of final liveweight, liveweight gain, feed efficiency ratio and feed consumption were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Intestinal pH were effected by organic acids treatment (P<0.01). The results showed that organic acid mixture supplementation did not have a significant effect on fattening performance of Japanese quails.

Key Words : Japanese quail, organic acid, formic acid, propionic acid

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2001, 7 (1) 151-157
Type I Error and Power of Tests When Applying The Student's-t, Welch and Trimmed-t Tests to Two Samples of Various Sizes from Normal Populations Having Various Variance Ratios
(Turkish)

Ensar BAŞPINAR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this study, Type I Error and Power of Tests were examined in two samples of various sizes from normal populations with various variance ratios when the Student's-t, Welch and Trimmed-t Tests with 5 percent trimming were applied. For this aim, the 10000 simulation experiments were run for each combinations of differences of the populations which differ from each other by di=0.0,1.0,1.5,2.0 standard deviation. Each of these experiments was taken with samples of equal and unequal sample sizes and applied different tests. At the end of these procedures, Type I error rates and power of the tests was observed empirically. The 10000-simulation tests show that when the population variances are homogenous all of the tests when they are heterogeneous Welch and Trimmed-t Test would be used confidentially. On the other hand, when the sample sizes were increased, Welch and Trimmed-t Tests were not influenced from the heterogeneity of populations variance.

Key Words : student's-t test, Welch test, Trimmed-t test, winsorized mean, comparison of means, Type I error, power of test

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2001, 7 (1) 158-165
Influence of Water Stress on Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) at Various Growth Stages under Central Anatolian Conditions
(Turkish)

Mustafa GÜLER
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture-Ankara

The influence of water stress on yield and yield components of durum wheat at various growth stages was examined in this research carried out at Kenan Evren Research and Application Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University during 1993-1995. Kunduru 1149, Kızıltan 91 and Çakmak 79 cultivars were used in the study. Irrigations were applied as non-stressed (S1), stressed during heading (S2), stressed during jointing (S3) and stressed during all growth stages (S4). According to the results of the research; statistical differences were determined among water stresses in regard to the characteristics. The highest values were obtained from non-stressed applications in regard to yield and yield components. The lowest values were obtained from the applications stressed during all growth stages. The cultivars used in the study have shown various abilities at both growth years with regard to the characteristics. In addition, the data of the second year were generally higher than the data of the first year.

Key Words : durum wheat, water stress, yield, yield components

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2001, 7 (1) 166-176
Economical Comparison of Furrow and Drip Irrigation Systems in Harran Plain
(Turkish)

Gonca KARACA and M. Fatih SELENAY
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

In this study, drip and furrow irrigation systems were compared based on irrigation water requirements, systems discharges and different costs for different land sizes (3 da, 15 da, 35 da, 74 da and 130 da) and for different crops (tomato, pepper, eggplant and cotton) in demonstration areas of Fırat Irrigation District - Harran Plain - Şanlıurfa which was determined as the pilot area of Management, Operation and Maintenance of GAP Irrigation Systems. For this reason, soil properties of the working plots of Fırat Irrigation District were determined, consumptive use of water and irrigation water requirements for each crop were computed, irrigation systems were designed, systems discharge were calculated, systems component were dimensioned and project costs were calculated based on the year 2000 costs. Economic analyses were made by calculating different costs such as contraction costs for each systems, repair and maintenance costs, energy costs, costs for irrigation labour, annual permanent costs, annual operation costs and annual total costs. Based on the results of this research, total annual irrigation water need was to be 1224.5 - 1473.3 mm for drip irrigation system and 2066.9 - 2489.1 mm for furrow irrigation systems. Total irrigation water needed for drip irrigation was found to be approximately 40 % less than furrow irrigation. Drip irrigation was the most economic in the biggest plot (130 da) according to the annual total costs, but furrow irrigation was the most economic for the other plots (3, 15, 35 and 74 da). According to the theses results, it was recommended that if there is enough water supply furrow irrigation system can be applied for small and medium plots and drip irrigation system for big plots, drip irrigation system should be choose.

Key Words : Harran plain, drip irrigation system, furrow irrigation system, systems costs

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