2000, Volume: 6, Number: 3
Contents
 
AKDOĞAN S. and İ. ÖZKAN, Effect of Water Stress Applied at Various Growing Stages on Salt Tolerance of Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L.) Abstract
ERZURUM K., Investigations on the Causes of Melon Wilt in Central Anatolia Region Abstract
KARACA A. and K. HAKTANIR Effects of Sewage Sludges on Available Lead and Dehydrogenase Enzyme Activity in Soil Abstract
ATAY D., S. BEKCAN, M. ÖLMEZ and H. H. ATAR The Effect of Different Pressure Shocks on The Early Life Stages of Gynogenetic Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)Abstract
AVCI BİRSİN M., Effect of Different Nitrogen Doses on Grain Yield, Protein Content and Protein Yield of Wheat Abstract
TOGAY Y. and M. ENGİN, Effect of Sowing Time on Yield and Yield Components of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) Varieties in Van ConditionsAbstract
GÖKNUR DURSUN İ. and E. DURSUN Development of Cone Index Prediction Model for Medium Heavy Soil by Using Dimensional AnalysisAbstract
ÖZKAN M. and H. ÇAMDEVİREN, Logistic Regression Analysis and an Application to Genetic Studies Abstract
AYDINALP C. and H. BAŞAR, Classification of Soil Great Groups in the Ege Basin, According to Different Soil Taxonomy Systems Abstract

GÜNEŞ, E. and M. Economic and Financial Analysis of Fruit and Vegetables Processing Industry in BursaAbstract

TABAN, S., H. ÖZCAN and Ö. KOÇ, Potassium Status and Adsorption in The Rice Growing Soils of Central AnatoliaAbstract
ÇİMRİN, K. M., F. GÜLSER and M. A. BOZKURT, The Effect of Iron Application to Soil and Leaf on Leaf Mineral Content and Growth of Apple Trees Abstract
ONURBAŞ, A. and H. H. A. ALİZADEH, Investigation of Domestic and Imported Agricultural Tractors Motor Characteristics and Tractor Efficiency Abstract
SAÇILIK, K. and R. ÖZTÜRK, The Determination of Resistance to Airflow Through Screens Used in Bin Having Plenum Chamber for Aeration Abstract
KOVANCI, B., N. S. GENÇER, M. KAYA and B. AKBUDAK, Investigations on the Adult Population Fluctuations of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) in Uludağ University Agricultural Faculty Apple Orchard Abstract
ERDAL, İ., M. A. BOZKURT and K. M. ÇİMRİN, The Effect of Humic Acid and Phosphorus Applications on Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu Contents of Maize Plant (Zea mays L.) Abstract
AYGÜN, T. ve O. KARACA, The Relationships Between Serum Testosterone Concentrations and Testis Characteristics of Karakaş Male Lambs Abstract
GÜRHAN, R., M. ÇETİN, ve F. Ö. KARAKOÇ, Development of an Electronic Pulsator for Milking Machine Abstract
ORTA, A. H., A. N. YÜKSEL and T. ERDEM, Effect of Different Irrigation Methods on Evapotranspiration of Apple Trees in Tekirdağ Environments Abstract
SÜRÜCÜOĞLU, M. S. and F. P. ÇAKIROĞLU, The Research on Fast Food Preferences of University Students of Ankara Abstract
ALTINOK, S. and B. H. HAKYEMEZ, The Forage Yield and Quality on Some Woolypod Vetch (Vicia villosa spp. Dasycarpa (Ten) Cav.) Lines on Central Anatolia Conditions Abstract
GÜLER, M. Effects of Ethephon Applied at Various Doses and Time on Grain Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Abstract
ELİBOL, O. The Effects of Short Term Storage in Plastic Bags on Hatchability of Eggs from Old Broiler Breeders Abstract
DURSUN, E., Y. KARAHAN and İ. ÇİLİNGİR, The Determination of the Orifice Diameter and Correctness of Some Cone Nozzle Orifice Plates Produced in Turkey Abstract
BAŞPINAR, B. and F. GÜRBÜZ, The Comparison of the Completely Randomized Designs in Which the Experimental Units with Balanced and Random Means Allotted to Groups Abstract
GÜNEŞ, A. Determination of Phosphorus Deficiency Resistant Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes Abstract
DELLAL, G., A. ELİÇİN and A. M. TATAR, The Phenotypic and Genetic Parameters of Slaughtering and Carcass Characteristics in Ile de France x Akkaraman (G1) Crossbred Male Lambs Abstract
DELLAL, G. Some Structural Characteristics of Hair Goat Rearing in Antalya Province I.Working Power, Production Systems, Source of Roughage and Shelter Characteristics Abstract
SABAHOĞLU, Y., R. ÖZTÜRK and A. ÇOLAK, Determination of Penetration Forces for Different Punces Used on Punch Planters Abstract
 
Abstracts
 

2000, 6 (3), 1-8
Effect of Water Stress Applied at Various Growing Stages on Salt Tolerance of Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L.)
(Turkish)

Saliha AKDOĞAN1 and İlhami ÖZKAN2
Ministry of Forestry-Ankara
2Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara


In this research it was attempted to determine the effect of water stress applied at various growing stages on salt tolerance of pepper plant growth in soils with three different salt level under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, a clay-loam soil with EC=0.598 mmhos/cm and samples from the same soil to which different amount of NaCl solution has been given to create 4 and 7 mmhos/cm electrical conductivity were used and water stress was applied in this growing stages: a) Tenth day after planting of seedlings in the pots, b) Flowering and c) Being fruit. Soils of the control and the treatments which were not under stress were moistened up to the level of 60 percent of available water. On the other hand, the soils of the other groups were not irrigated until the water content reduced to 15 percent of available water, then transpired water was added to the pots everyday and those levels of water were maintained until the next growing stage. The application of water stress in all growing stages mentioned above caused decreases in dry matter and yield production with increasing the salinity levels. Plant was more effected from the water stress at flowering stage in the soil with 7 mmhos/cm electrical conductivity than the other stages.

Key Words: Water stress, plant growth, salinity, growing stages

 

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2000, 6 (3), 9-12
Investigations on the Causes of Melon Wilt in Central Anatolia Region
(Turkish)

Kudret ERZURUM
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

In order to determine the fungal causal agents of melon wilt in Central Anatolia surveys were made in the most widely melon grown provinces of Ankara, Çankırı, Kırıkkale, Konya and Yozgat and as a result the following fungi were obtained in the following percentages from the wilted plants; Fusarium oxysporum 44.8 %, Fusarium equiseti 25.6 %, Fusarium solani 7.1 %, other Fusarium spp 14.1 %, Macrophomina phaseoli 10.1 %, Verticillium dahliae 7.9 %, Pythium spp. 6.9 &, Rhizoctonia solani 3.0 %, Alternaria spp. 20.0 %, Acremonium spp. 7.3 % the other agents 5.5 %.

Key Words : Central Anatolia Region, Melon, Wilt disease, Fungal agents

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2000, 6 (3), 13-19
Effects of Sewage Sludges on Available Lead and Dehydrogenase Enzyme Activity in Soil
(Turkish)


Ayten KARACA and Koray HAKTANIR
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science- Ankara

In this research, effects of these sludges of DUSA (Industrial Yarn Manufacturing) and SEKA (Paper and Cellulose Production) on soil available lead and dehydrogenase activity in soil, taken from İzmit Alikahya village, were searched. For this purpose, soil-sludge mixtures were kept at 70% field capacity during incubation period at 280C. Applied waste sludge (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 tonha-1) soil samples were analyzed at 7 different incubation periods ( 1., 5., 15., 30., 60., 120., 240.) to determine available Pb and 5 different incubation periods (1., 3., 7., 14., ve 30.) to determine dehydrogenase activity. Applying of both sludges have significantly increased available Pb content in the soil (P<0.01). However, that increasing in soil applied SEKA sludge was higher than applied DUSA sludge in all doses. The effects of DUSA and SEKA sludges on dehydrogenase activty are different. Dehydrogenase activities were increased in high doses of both sludges, especially in DUSA sludge. Dehydrogenase activity of soil applied DUSA and SEKA were found 55.56 mgTPF g-1 and 38.90 mgTPF g-1 at dose of 160 tonha-1 in 30th day , respectively.

Key Words: Sewage sludge, soil, available lead, dehydrogenase activity

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2000, 6 (3), 20-26
The Effect of Different Pressure Shocks on The Early Life Stages of Gynogenetic Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)
(Turkish)

Doğan ATAY, Süleyman BEKCAN, Murtaza ÖLMEZ, Hasan H. ATAR
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aguaculture- Ankara

In this research, different pressure shocks ( 7000, 8000 and 9000 psi) applied 300,320 and 330 min after insemination for 3 min duration to eggs fertilized by genetically inactivated sperm to produce gynogenetic rainbow trout (O. mykiss). The best result regarding eyed eggs, yolk-sac larvae, feed started fry were obtained at 300 min after insemination and 7000 psi pressure as 44.9%, 36.1% and 32.8%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest result were obtained at 320 min after insemination and 9000 psi pressure as 6.4%, 1.8% and 1.1%, respectively (P<0.05). Same data in control groups were as 82.7-87.9%, 73.3-75.7%, 62.7-67.31% respectively and higher than all other treatments and the differences were statistically important (P<0.05). It was conluded from the experiments that increases in treatment time and pressure reduced the achievement ratio.

Key Words: Rainbow trout (O. mykiss), gynogenesis, pressure shocks, inactivated sperm, hatching

 

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2000, 6 (3), 27-31
Effect of Different Nitrogen Doses on Grain Yield, Protein Content and Protein Yield of Wheat.
(Turkish)

Melahat AVCI BİRSİN
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy- Ankara

This research was carried out in the experimental field of The Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University between 1995-1997. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer applications on grain yield, grain protein content and protein yield of wheat cultivars. According to results obtained; grain yield, grain protein content and protein yield increases depend on higher nitrogen doses. The highest grain yield was determined at fifth dose ( 15 kg/da N) and Gün-91 cv. At the same time the highest grain protein content and protein yield were obtained at fifth dose and Kunduru-1149 cv.

Key Word: Wheat, nitrogen fertilizer, protein, yield.



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2000, 6 (3), 32-36
Effect of Sowing Time on Yield and Yield Components of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) Varieties in Van Conditions
(Turkish)

Yeşim TOGAY and Müjgan ENGİN
Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science- Van


The aim of this work is to determine the most suitable sowing date for lentil in Van ecological conditions. Three cultivars of lentil (Malazgirt-89, Kışlık Kırmızı-51, Yerli Kırmızı ) were sown at four different sowing dates (October 9, 19, 29 and November 9). The study was conducted in the experimental fields of Agricultural Faculty of Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversty by using randomized factorial blocks desing with the four replicates in years of 1996-97 and 1997-98.Effects of sowing dates on plant height, first pod height, numbers of pod per plant and numbers of seed per plant, 1000 grain wieght, grain yield, harvest index and protein ratio were investigated for three cultivars. The highest grain yield of both years (84.28 kg/da) was obtained in second sowing date (October, 19) . The most suitable sowing time for all cultivars was October 19, 1996. It was followed by third sowing time (October, 29). Grain yields decreased in first and fourth sowing times.

Key Words : Lentil, sowing time, yield and yield components

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2000, 6 (3), 37-41
Development of Cone Index Prediction Model for Medium Heavy Soil by Using Dimensional Analysis
(Turkish)

İlknur GÖKNUR DURSUN and Ergin DURSUN
Ankara Üniversity, Department oo Department Machinery- Ankara

Cone index is a measure of the penetration resistance of a soil and affected by many factors such as bulk density, moisture content, soil type, diameter of cone base, apex angle, roughness of cone and cohesion. When a penetrometer with standart size of cone is pushed into the soil at a certain rate, the resisting force exerted by the soil on the penetrometer. The cone index is described as the force per base area of cone required to penetrate this cone into the soil at a standard rate. Cone index is used for various applications including prediction of draft force, assesment of soil compaction, determination of resistance to root penetration and seedling emergence. In this study, a prediction model with R2 value of 0,90 was developed for the cone index of medium heavy soil by using dimensional analysis. It was determined that there was no difference statistically between cone index values measured in the field and predicted from the model.

Key Words: Cone index, penetrometer, dimensional analysis, prediction model

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2000, 6 (3), 42-48
Logistic Regression Analysis and an Application to Genetic Studies
(Turkish)

Muhip ÖZKAN and Handan ÇAMDEVİREN
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Soil Science- Ankara


In this study, technical expressions, calculating steps and application of polychotomous logistic regression analysis to genetic data are illustrated. Interpretation of results are further discussed. Genetic differences among different quail lines were determined using frequences obtained from a cross table formed by four different quail lines (S, K, B, W) and three different Pgi genotypes (PgiAA, PgiAB , PgiBB ). It was also confirmed that logistic regression analysis can be used in determining the possible genetic differences among populations.

Key Words : Logistic regression, odds ratio, regression model, contingency tables, Japanese quail, phosphoglucose isomeraze

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2000, 6 (3), 49-53
Classification of Soil Great Groups in the Ege Basin, According to Different Soil Taxonomy Systems
(Turkish)

Cumhur AYDINALP and Haluk BAŞAR
Uludağ Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science- Bursa


The basin reports accomplished by General Directorate of Soil and Water were classified according to the soil classification system developed by Thorp et. all.,(1949). Many soil classification systems have been developed on the basis of observable and measurable morphological features with identification horizons to replace Thorp et. all's (1949) classification system. Presently, the Anonymous (1990), FitzPatrick (1988), and Anonymous (1994) systems are being widely used as well as Turkey and in many countries. Thus, seven profiles of seven great soil groups were classified by the Anonymous (1990), FitzPatrick (1988), and Anonymous (1994) systems in order to briefly discuss and conceptual approach yielding style and variable points.

Key Words: Ege basin, soil genesis, taxonomy

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2000, 6 (3), 54-61
Economic and Financial Analysis of Fruit and Vegetables Processing Industry in Bursa
(Turkish)

Erdoğan GÜNEŞ and Mehmet BÜLBÜL
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics- Ankara


Fruit and vegetables processing industry which has very important place in food industry developed in Marmara Region especially in Bursa province in Turkey. In this research 13 fruit and vegetables firms were considered and capacity, capital, financial structure, productivity, profitability situation and marketing activities of these firms were investigated.
As a result of this research, it was determined that firms produced tomatoes sauce, canned and frozen fruit and vegetables and these firms used a capacity of 75,2% for tomatoes sauce, 57,3 % for canned and and 58,0 % frozen fruit and vegetables. Firm has exported at least 60 % of their products. Active capital consists of 74 % working assets and 26 % real assets in this firms. Own capital and short term credits has taken place at high rate in passive capital. In this research, profitability, multi and total factor productivity rates of firms were also calculated for 1994-1996 years. According to these calculations, firms have worked at high profitability level and 50-70 % of productivity rate. In addition, it is determined that average rate of current was 1,35, liquidity rate was 0,74, leverage rate was 0,61 and own capital/active capital rate was 0,39. Profitability of these firms was higher than the average of Turkey's fruit and vegetables processing industry.

Key Words: Industry business, fruit and vegetable, productivity, profitability, liquidity, financial

 

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2000, 6 (3), 62-67
Potassium Status and Adsorption in The Rice Growing Soils of Central Anatolia
(Turkish)

Süleyman TABAN, Hesna ÖZCAN, Özlem KOÇ
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara


In this research, amount of total, exchangeable and extractable potassium, and potassium adsorption capacity were determined for evaluating potassium status of rice growing soils in Central Anatolia. In order to determine the potassium adsorption, 780 mg kg-1 potassium was applied as KCl to soil samples. After mixing solution with soil samples, soil-solution suspensions were left to rest in the laboratory for 1 day, 4 days and 8 days. And of this time, the potassium adsorption was calculated from the potassium removed from the solution. The potassium adsorption in the experimental soils varied between 48.11% and 79.97% of the applied potassium. Soil samples showed significantly different reactions on the potassium adsorption. The effect of the time on adsorption was found to be statistically highly significant and amount of adsorbed potassium decreased the depending on the time. The correlation between exchangeable potassium and extractable potassium was found to be statistically highly significant in the rice growing soils of Central Anatolia. On the other hand, the correlation between exchangeable and extractable potassium, clay, pH, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable calcium and magnesium and the absorption of potassium were also found to be statistically highly significant in the soil samples Increasing amounts of ammonium added to the soil with potassium lead to decrease the adsorption of potassium in all the soil samples.

Key Words: Potassium status, adsorption of potassium



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2000, 6 (3), 68-72
The Effect of Iron Application to Soil and Leaf on Leaf Mineral Content and Growth of Apple Trees
(Turkish)

Kerim Mesut ÇİMRİN, Füsun GÜLSER and Mehmet Ali BOZKURT
Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science- Van


The aim of this work is to determine the effect of increasing iron application to soil (0, 6, 12 and 18g Fe /tree) and leaf (0, 1, 2 and 3g Fe /tree) on some fruit properties and nutrient content of leaf of apple trees. While the increasing iron application to soil and leaf were not significantly important determined on diameter, length and weight of apple fruit. The increasing of plant shoot length was significantly important. Total and water soluble iron content of apple leaf increased significantly depending on the increasing amount of the iron applications. The leaf application of iron was much more effective than that of soil application. Positive and statistically significant (p<0.001) relation was found between apple leaf total iron content and water soluble iron content. Negative and statistically significant (p<0.05) relation was found between water soluble iron content and total zinc content.

Key Words: Apple, iron, fertilizer, nutrient content, growth


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2000, 6 (3), 73-79
Investigation of Domestic and Imported Agricultural Tractors Motor Characteristics and Tractor Efficiency
(Englihs)

Ayten ONURBAŞ1 and Hossein. H. A. ALİZADEH2
1 Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery,-Ankara
2 Bu-Ali Sina Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery,- Hamadan/


In this research, recently used 31 domestic and 31 imported tractor motor characteristics in our country investigated and tractor efficiency has determined by using the tractor test reports. From the characteristics calculating stroke/bore ratio, torque elasticity and specific power value for domestic and imported tractors has investigated by comparing each other. For domestic and imported tractors, conversion of engine power to power take off and drawbar power along with general tractor efficiency were calculated. According to the results, general tractor efficiency was evaluated in domestic tractors, % 22,5-32,0 and % 19,4-32,4 in imported tractors.

Key Words: Tractor, stroke/bore ratio, torque elasticity, specific power, general tractor efficiency.

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2000, 6 (3), 80-84
The Determination of Resistance to Airflow Through Screens Used in Bin Having Plenum Chamber for Aeration
(Turkish)

Kâmil SAÇILIK and Ramazan ÖZTÜRK
Ankara Üniversity, Department of Department Agricultural Machinery- Ankara


İn this study, the resistance to airflow through wire square weaved screens used in plenum chamber was measured. For this purpose, a measuring unit was constructed. 5 screens with different fabric diameter have been tested in experiments. 7 agricultural crops with different physical properties have been occurred at five airflow velocities. The effects of each level of three factors on airflow resistance were found to be significant (p<0.01) in analysis of variances. Results show that the resistance to air flow standart screens were found to decrease as fabric diameter increased, whereas airflow resistance was observed to increase gradually as airflow velocity increased. Moreover, it has been raised significantly airflow resistance in system that smaller screens than particle size of agricultural crop placed in plenum chamber. The airflow resistance was decreased that E5 coded screen in chickpea (Eser 87), soybean (SA-88), lentil (Pul 11) and corn (Pioneer 3394); E4 coded screen in Kunduru 1149 and Gerek79; E3 coded screen in rapeseed (Westarn) should be used.

Key Words : Plenum chamber, screen, airflow resistance, agricultural crop

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2000, 6 (3), 85-90
Investigations on the Adult Population Fluctuations of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) in Uludağ University Agricultural Faculty Apple Orchard
(Turkish)


Bahattin KOVANCI, Nimet Sema GENÇER, Mehmet KAYA and Bülent AKBUDAK
Uludağ Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department Plant Protection - Bursa

This study was carried out in Uludağ University Agricultural Faculty apple orchard in Bursa between 1998 and 1999. Adult population fluctuations of Cydia pomonella (L.) were monitored by using INRA BIOPROX type traps and pheromone capsules and the number of the adults caught in traps evaluated weekly. At the end of the study, it was determined that C. pomonella of the major pest in the Agricultural Faculty apple orchard. The first C. pomonella adults were observed on 8 May and 30 April in 1998 and 1999, respectively, while earliest ripening apple varieties were at little green fruit stage whereas middle-late, late and latest ripening varieties were at the beginning of fruit stage. The total flight period lasted from May to mid-Septemper and the total duration of flight ranged from 126 to 140 days in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In this orchard, C. pomonella had three generations both in 1998 and 1999.

Key Words: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, population fluctuations, Bursa

 

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2000, 6 (3), 91-96
The Effect of Humic Acid and Phosphorus Applications on Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu Contents of Maize Plant (Zea mays L.)
(Turkish)

İbrahim ERDAL, Mehmet Ali BOZKURT and Kerim Mesut ÇİMRİN
Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy- Van


In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of different humic acid and phosphorus levels on Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations of maize plant (Zea mays L.) and compare with the residual micro nutrients amount in a calcareous soil. For this 3 levels of humic acids (0, 250, 500 mgkg-1 ) and four levels of P (0, 20, 40, 80 mgkg-1) were applied to the soils. At the and of the experiment, it was seen that, the effect of humic acid applications were not statistically significant but the effect of P applications showed positive effect on plan dry weight. The effect of humic acid applications on plant Fe, Zn and Mn concentrations and nutrients taken from the soil was positive, but plant Cu concentration was effected negatively. In generally, phosphorus applications increased plant Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations, increase observed was higher with lower P doses than that of the highest P dose. With humic acid application, in generally, soil Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations decreased and it was seen that, the reducing role of lower doses of humic acid was higher than that of higher doses. With P applications soil Fe concentration increased and Zn and Cu concentrations decreased but Mn concentration was not effected.

Key Words: Humic acid, phosphorus, micro elements, availability, corn

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2000, 6 (3), 97-101
The Relationships Between Serum Testosterone Concentrations and Testis Characteristics of Karakaş Male Lambs
(Turkish)

Turgut AYGÜN1, Orhan KARACA2
1Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science- Van
2Adnan Menderes Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Aydın


This study was carried out to determine the relationship between serum testosterone concentrations and testis characteristics of 22 Karakaş male lambs, known as a variety of Akkaraman breed, maintained in intensive farm conditions. Serum testosterone concentrations and testis characteristics of Karakaş male lambs were measured in age of 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Significant (P<0.01) differences were found among serum testosterone concentrations of male lambs in age of 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Serum testosterone concentrations showed a minimum value in age of 90 days (58.180±34.422 mIU/ml on the average) and a maximum value in age of 180 days (181.701±34.350 mIU/ml on the average). Results indicated that there were statistically significant (P<0.01) correlations between serum testosterone concentrations and testis characteristics. In addition, significant (P<0.01) correlations between live weight (kg) and age (day) in experiment periods and serum testosterone concentrations and testis characteristics were determined. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between concentrations of serum testosterone and testis diameter, testis length, scrotal circumference, scrotal length, live weigth and age in experiment periods were found as 0.717, 0.750, 0.741, 0.650, 0.750 ve 0.755, respectively. It may be concluded that it's worth investigating the relationships between serum testosterone concentrations and testis characteristics.

Key Words: Serum testosterone concentration, testis characteristics, male lambs, Karakaş

 

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2000, 6 (3), 102-108
Development of an Electronic Pulsator for Milking Machine
(Turkish)

Recai GÜRHAN1, Mustafa ÇETİN1, F. Özgür KARAKOÇ2
1 Ankara Üniversity, Department of Department of Agricultural Machinery- Ankara
2 Master of Science in Agricultural Engineering-Ankara


There is an increasing use of milking machines in dairy farms in Turkey. Hence, milking machines should meet the requirements of milking in operation parameters. Pulsator characteristics of milking machines are higly important, notably in aspects of milking performance, efficiency and teath health. Further indicate neccessary criteria to be considered in the constraction of appropriate pulsator. In thıs study, an electronic pulsator was developed for milking machine. Electronic control unıt consists of an IC monostable multivibrator and time delay circuits as well as a valve system. The parameters of electronic pulsator were determined and compared with respect to international and national standards.According to the test results, high stability was determined at pulsation rate and pulsator ratio.

Key Words : Electronic pulsator, number of pulsation, pulsation ratio

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2000, 6 (3), 109-115
Effect of Different Irrigation Methods on Evapotranspiration of Apple Trees in Tekirda? Environments
(Turkish)

A. Halim ORTA, A. Nedim YÜKSEL and Tolga ERDEM
Trakya Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation- Tekirdağ


In this study, Starking Delicious apple trees in the experimental area of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty were irrigated by drip and surface methods during the years of 1997 and 1999. The decade evapotranspiration values were measured and compared with the values calculated by some estimating methods of evapotranspiration. As a result, the measured evapotranpiration values were lower 60.5 - 64.9 % (avg. 62.7 %) in drip irrigation than those in surface irrigation. In addition, it was found that the most suitable estimation method was FAO modification of Penman. So, the crop coefficient curve was prepared for this method selected.

Key Words : Apple, irrigation method, irrigation scheduling, evapotranspiration, crop coefficient

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2000, 6 (3), 116-121
The Research on Fast Food Preferences of University Students of Ankara
(Turkish)

Metin Saip SÜRÜCÜOĞLU and Funda Pınar ÇAKIROĞLU
Ankara Üniv. Collage of Home Economic - Ankara


This research was conducted to determine fast food and traditional meals preferences of 886 under graduate students (414 male and 472 female) in Ankara University. The mean age of the male and female students were21.63±2.27 and 20.62±1.85 years respectively. It was determined that tend to go to traditional restaurants instead of fast food restaurants when the frenquency of preferences are concerned. First choice was "etli pide" for both groups. Second choice was "french fries" for females and "döner" for males. The third choice of both groups were "hamburger". When the beverages were concerned it was found that the first preferable one was "coke".

Key Words: Graduate students, fast food preferences, fast food meals, fast food beverages

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2000, 6 (3), 122-125
The Forage Yield and Quality on Some Woolypod Vetch (Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Ten) Cav.) Lines on Central Anatolia Conditions
(Turkish)

Suzan ALTINOK and B. Hakan HAKYEMEZ
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy - Ankara

In this research which was conducted on experimental field of Agronomy Department of Agricultural Faculty, Ankara University between 1996 and 1998, the woolypod vetch lines of 2562 (originated from Syria), 2437 (originated from USA), 2441 (originated from Turkey), 2457 and 2446 (originated from Italy) and hairy vetch cv. L-1437 TARM as a control were used as materials. In the research, according to the means of two years, the highest plant height (av. 82 cm), maximum green yield (av. 2352 kg/da) and crude protein yield (av. 87 kg/da) were obtained from the woolypod vetch line of 2562 which was originated from Syria, the maximum dry matter yield (av. 510 kg/da) was obtained from the woolypod vetch line of 2446 which was originated from Italy. Plant height and forage yields of hairy vetch cv. L-1437 TARM which was used as a control were lower than woolypod vetch lines.

Key Words: Woolypod vetch, hairy vetch, plant height, green yield, dry matter yield, crude protein yield

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2000, 6 (3), 126-131
Effects of Ethephon Applied at Various Doses and Time on Grain Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
(Turkish)

Mustafa GÜLER
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy- Ankara


The effects of ethephon applied at various doses and time on grain yield of barley were examined in this study carried out at the Experimental Field of the Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara between 1997 and 1999. Tokak 157/37, Bülbül 89 cultivars of two-rowed barley, and six-rowed barley cultivars Yıldırım and Erginel-90 were used in the experiment. 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 g/da ethephon doses were applied at shooting, booting and post-anthesis stages. The results regarding both years were evaluated separately for each growing season. According to the results of the research; significant differences were determined with the application of various doses and time of ethephon on four barley cultivars in regard to grain yield. The greatest grain yield was obtained from Tokak 157/37 cv. in the first year of experiment and the greatest grain yield was obtained from Bülbül 89 cv. in the second year of experiment. In both years, the greatest grain yields were obtained from the application of 30 g/da ethephon dose at before heading.

Key Words: Two-rowed barley, six-rowed barley, ethephon, grain yield

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2000, 6 (3), 132-134
The Effects of Short Term Storage in Plastic Bags on Hatchability of Eggs from Old Broiler Breeders
(Turkish)

Okan ELİBOL
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara


The experiment was conducted to study the effect of storing eggs in plastic bags during short-term storage(0 and 4 days). The trial involved a total of 4500 hatching eggs from broiler breeder flock aged 57th wks. The eggs kept for 4 days were divided into 2 groups, one of them was stored in plastic bags(Group 1), other was stored without plastic(Group 2). Hatchability of fertile eggs, group 1 and group 2 were 90.9% and 86.7% respectively whilst this figure was 90.7% for stored 0 days (group 3). Group 2 gave significantly lower hatchability than the other two groups(P< 0.05) This data suggests that for optimum hatchability, eggs from older hens should be set as soon as possible, if it is not available, even short-term stroge periods, eggs might be stored in plastic bags

Key Words: Broiler breeder, egg stroge period, plastic bag, hatchability

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2000, 6 (3) 135-140
The Determination of the Orifice Diameter and Correctness of Some Cone Nozzle Orifice Plates Produced in Turkey
(Turkish)

Ergin DURSUN1, Yurdaer KARAHAN2 and İbrahim ÇİLİNGİR1
1 Ankara Üniversity, Department of Department of Agricultural Machinery- Ankara
2 Harran Üniversity, Department of Department of Agricultural Machinery-Şanlıurfa


Cone nozzles have five parts including body, filter, swirl plate, orifice plate and cap. Orifice plate is the most important nozzle part effecting spray distribution, flow rate and droplet size. In this study, orifice diameters and correctness of orifice edges of the sprayer orifice plates were determined produced by four different company in Turkey. Moreover, flow rate and volumetric spray distribution measurements were performed for examined orifice plates. According to the research results, orifices of the plates were inccorrect and not perfect circle. Orifice diameters of the same group plates were different. The important differences were determined between measured orifice diameters and company's diameter values. The roughness of orifices and the differences of orifice diameter resulted in variations at flow rate and volumetric spray distributions.

Key Words : Orifice plate, orifice diameter, orifice correctness

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2000, 6 (3), 141-143
The Comparison of the Completely Randomized Designs in Which the Experimental Units with Balanced and Random Means Allotted to Groups
(Turkish)

Ensar BAŞPINAR and Fikret GÜRBÜZ
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science- Ankara


This study, dealt with how affected first type error, power of test, the variances of the between and within groups and sample sizes with respect to two groups having differences between the means d=0.0, d=1.0, d=1.5 and d=2.0 standard deviation respectively. The empirical results were found out at the end of the 100 000 simulation experiments for every sample size and d differences combinations. The results show that, the balanced designs will seriously overestimate the variances of treatment means. On the other hand, it needs fewer experiment unit than unbalanced (randomized) designs.

Key Words: Completely randomized design, balanced design, unbalanced design, I type error, power of test

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2000, 6 (3), 144-148
Determination of Phosphorus Deficiency Resistant Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes
(Turkish)

Aydın GÜNEŞ
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science- Ankara


Genotype screening and selection for tolerance to low-phosphorus stress conditions is an important strategy for the development of cultivars growing on soils low in available P. In this study, phosphorus efficiency of maize cultivars, Furio, Riogrande, Sele, DK 743, Helix, Missouri, Betor, and Poker was investigated. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Phosphorus was applied to the soil 0, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 levels as KH2PO4. Fresh and dry weights and P concentration and P uptake of plants were determined at the end of experiment. P-efficiency was determined from the relationship between fresh and dry weights and P concetration and P uptake rate parameters of the cultivars. According to experiment results the genotypes Furio, Sele, DK 743, Helix and Missouri were selected as tolerant to low-P.

Key Words: Maize genotypes, P deficiency, P use efficiency

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2000, 6 (3), 149-152
The Phenotypic and Genetic Parameters of Slaughtering and Carcass Characteristics in Ile de France x Akkaraman (G1) Crossbred Male Lambs
(Turkish)

Gürsel DELLAL1, Ayhan ELİÇİN1 and Ali Murat TATAR2
Bu araştırma Ankara Üniversitesi Araştırma Fonu Müdürlüğü tarafından desteklenmiştir.
1 Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science- Ankara
2 Dicle Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science- Diyarbakır


In this research, the phenotypic parameters and heritabilities of slaughtering and carcass characteristics were calculated in the Ile de France (IF) x Akkaraman (AK) (G1) crossbred male lambs. According to data, the phenotypic parameters of slaughtering and carcass characteristics were sufficient level, the heritabilites were estimated near zero or out of theory (<0;>1) for most of the traits.

Key Words: Sheep, male lambs, slaughtering and carcass characteristics, heritability

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2000, 6 (3), 153-158
Some Structural Characteristics of Hair Goat Rearing in Antalya Province I.Working Power, Production Systems, Source of Roughage and Shelter Characteristics
(Turkish)

Gürsel DELLAL
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science- Ankara


In this research, The characteristics with structural compenents as situation of population numbers of animal working power, production systems, source of roughage and shelter characteristics of the Hair goat farms in the district of Centre, Korkuteli, Elmalı, Kaş, Manavgat, Gündoğmuş and Gazipaşa in the Antalya Province were researched. According to findings of research, the household population, the age of farm manager and the managing time of goat raising were 6.3+0.26 person, 51.66+1.14 years and 33.6+5.27 years, respectively. Total cultivated area size and the number of goats were 34.5+11.58 da and 213.3+33.4 head, respectively. The source of roughae essentially consisted of scrub areas (%49) and pasture in the forest area (%47). The number of sheepherd Per farm was 2.36+0.33.

Key Words: Antalya province, hair goat rearing, structural characteristics

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2000, 6 (3), 159-162
Determination of Penetration Forces for Different Punces Used on Punch Planters
(Turkish)

Yasemin SABAHOĞLU, Ramazan ÖZTÜRK and Ahmet ÇOLAK
Ankara Üniversity, Department of Department of Agricultural Machinery- Ankara


A technique for high precision of seeds either in tilled or untilled soils is punch planting. This technique provides a favorable enviroment for seeds, which could result in higher, faster and uniform germination and emergence of seedling than conventional methods of planting. In addition, good contact between seed and soil occurs and seeds are deposited a uniform depth and in-row spacing over the surface of the field. These conditions are achieved by forming holes in the soil and placing individual seeds into the holes. Thus, seed placed deeper in the soil where it is not subjected to rapid drying, extremely high or low temperature and accumulation of salt on the soil surface. Mechanical elements that have different shape mounted on the periphery of a wheel on the punch planters can form holes in the ground for seeds. In this study, penetration forces for four different punches used on the punch planters were evaluated for clay soil at different bulk density levels. Experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions simulated with field conditions. At the end, penetration forces were determined with respect to changes in shape of the punches and bulk density of the soil. According to the tests, it was concluded that the least penetration force occured at the punch have the smallest projection area. Also, it was determined that the penetration force increased with increasing bulk density of soil.

Key Words : Punch planting, penetration force, punch

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2000, 6 (3), 159-162
Determination of Penetration Forces for Different Punces Used on Punch Planters
(Turkish)

Yasemin SABAHOĞLU, Ramazan ÖZTÜRK and Ahmet ÇOLAK
Ankara Üniversity, Department of Department of Agricultural Machinery- Ankara


A technique for high precision of seeds either in tilled or untilled soils is punch planting. This technique provides a favorable enviroment for seeds, which could result in higher, faster and uniform germination and emergence of seedling than conventional methods of planting. In addition, good contact between seed and soil occurs and seeds are deposited a uniform depth and in-row spacing over the surface of the field. These conditions are achieved by forming holes in the soil and placing individual seeds into the holes. Thus, seed placed deeper in the soil where it is not subjected to rapid drying, extremely high or low temperature and accumulation of salt on the soil surface. Mechanical elements that have different shape mounted on the periphery of a wheel on the punch planters can form holes in the ground for seeds. In this study, penetration forces for four different punches used on the punch planters were evaluated for clay soil at different bulk density levels. Experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions simulated with field conditions. At the end, penetration forces were determined with respect to changes in shape of the punches and bulk density of the soil. According to the tests, it was concluded that the least penetration force occured at the punch have the smallest projection area. Also, it was determined that the penetration force increased with increasing bulk density of soil.

Key Words : Punch planting, penetration force, punch

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