1999, Volume: 5, Number: 3
Contents
YANMAZ, R., N. HALLORAN, M. U. KASIM and Y. S. AĞAOĞLU, The Effect of Different Storage Conditions and Package Size on Storage Duration of Carrots Abstract
ÖZDÜVEN, M. L., F. KOÇ and İ. Y. YURTMAN, Effect of Microbial Inoculants on Quality and Aerobic Stability of Maize Silage Abstract
lGENCER, H. V. and Ç. FIRATLI, Comparison of Structural Characters of Honey Bee Queens (A. m. anatoliaca) Reared from One and Two Day Old Larvae Abstract
GÜLER, M. Effects of Various Herbicide and Nitrogen Doses on Grain Protein Content of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Abstract
YILMAZ, M. and N. HALLORAN, Effects of Storage Temperature and Polyethylene Packaging on Storage Duration of Celeriac (Apium graveolens L. var. Rapaceum Abstract
YURTSEVEN, E., M. PARLAK, K. DEMİR, A. ÖZTÜRK and C. KÜTÜK, Study on Different Irrigation Water Salinity and Ca/Mg Ratio on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L.): I. Effect on Some Yield Parameters Abstract
ÖZTÜRK, A. K. and G. DELLAL, The Effects of Different Doses of PMSG Treatment During Aneoestrus Period on Fertility in Border Leicester x Booroola (ff) x Merino Crossbred Ewes Abstract
KARAGÖZ, Y. and G. KEÇECİOĞLU, A Research on the Breakage Reasons of the Weldeng Points of the Knife Connection Ears of the Stem Cutting Machine to the Main Pipe Abstract
UĞUR, F. The Effect of the Different Weaning Ages on the Growth Characteristics of Holstein Friesian Calves Abstract

KENDİR, H. Determination of Seed Yields of Some Ochrus Vetch (Lathyrus ochrus (L.) DC.) Lines in Ankara Conditions Abstract

KÖROĞLU, M. and A. İ. KÖKSAL, Accumulation and Variation of Fat and Fatty Acids During Embryo Development of Pistachio Nut (Pistacia vera L.) Abstract
KÖROĞLU, M. and A. İ. KÖKSAL, Determination of Kernel Development Characteristics of Some Pistachio Nut (P. vera L.) Varieties Abstract
KENDİR, H. Seed Yields and Components of Common Chickling (Lathyrus sativus L.) Lİnes Abstract
YAVUZCAN, H. Y., S. PULATSÜ and D. ATAY, Some Blood Parameters in Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) With Pescept to Water Quality Parameters Abstract
YURTMAN, İ. Y., M. L. ÖZDÜVEN and F. KARAAĞAÇ, Usage of the Protected Fats in Flushing Rations: 1. Effects on Live Weight, Body Condition Score and Litter Size Abstract
ERDOĞAN, Z., G. DELLAL, S. ETİKAN and F. SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Wool Characteristics of White Karaman Ewes Abstract
PULATSÜ, S., D. ATAY and B. KARAHAN, The Impact of Sea-Bream (Sparus aurata L. 1758) and Sea-Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. 1758) in Cage Culture on Water Quality Abstract
ÖZTÜRK, A. and Ö. ÇAĞLAR, Relationships Among Nitrogen Efficiency Indexes, Grain Yield and Grain Protein Content in Barley Genotypes Abstract
DUMANOĞLU, H. In Vitro Screening for Root Lesion Nematode (Pratylenchus vulnus Allen and Jensen) Tolerance of Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Some Walnut (Juglans spp.) Genotypes Abstract
BAŞPINAR, E., H. ÇAMDEVİREN and F. GÜRBÜZ, Power of Student t-Test and ANOVA Technique Determining Suitable Sample Size Abstract

BAŞPINAR, E., E. ÖĞÜŞ and F. GÜRBÜZ, The Realized Probalities of Type I Errors in the Samples Taken from the Sinary Combinations of the Normal, Beta, Gamma and Weibull Distributions Abstract

Abstracts
 

1999, 5 (3) 1-6
The Effect of Different Storage Conditions and Package Size on Storage Duration of Carrots
(English))

Ruhsar YANMAZ, Nilgün HALLORAN, M. Ufuk KASIM and Y. Sabit AĞAOĞLU
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Horticulture-Ankara

The effects of different storage temperatures and packing size on the storage period of the Nandor F1 carrot cultivar ane reported. Storage temperatures were at a controlled 00 and 50 C and at ambient temperature with assisted ventilation. Product was stored in 2, 5-, 10-, and 20-kg perforated polyethylene (PE) bağs for these experimens; control carrots were placed in each of the three temperatures but were not packed. At monthly intervals the stored carrots were evaluated for the following, total soluble solids, carotene content, weight loss, sprouting, rooting, and sensory quality. Results show that the unpacked carrots placed in 5oC refrigeration colud be stored for up to two months. Unpacked controls stored in ventilated conditions or at 00C could be stored for as long as three months. Carrots packed in PE bags and placed in ventilated conditions could bu stored for up the four months, while plastic-packed product placed in 0oC refrigeration lasted for as long as six months. Sprouting and weight loss were found to increase as storage temperature increased, whereas TSS was observed to decrease in contrast. For all storage conditions the carotene content of carrots stored in PE bags was uniformly higher at the end of the storage period than at the beginning of the storage period.

Key Words: carrot, storage, packaging, spouting, rooting, caroten content

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1999, 5 (3) 7-12
Effect of Microbial Inoculants on Quality and Aerobic Stability of Maize Silage
(Turkish))

M. Levent ÖZDÜVEN, Fisun KOÇ and İ. Yaman YURTMAN
Trakya Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Tekirdağ


Effects of microbial inoculants on quality and aerobic stability of maize silage were investigated in this study. Treatments were control (K), Pioneer 1174 (Lactobacillus plantarum 1 Enterococcus faecium) and HM/F (Lactobacillus plantarum 1 Enterococcus faecium/Pedicoccus acidilactici) Inoculants were applied according to producer guide (Pioneer 1174 1.0 g/t FM, HN/F 11.3 g/t FM). After application of the inoculants, samples were kept in the laboratory type PVC silos with three replications for each treatments. After 60 days they were opened and left for seven days. During this seven days period temperature changes in the samples were monitored for determining aerobic stability. NH3-N, lactic acid contents and pH values of the silage samples were found as 61.09 + 1.471, 52.59 + 0.499, 64.87 + 0.899 g/kg TN; 2.46 + 0.065; 2.15 + 0.065 %; 3.86 + 0.028, 3.73 + 0.028 and 3.92 + 0.028 for the group of K, Pioneer 1174 and HM/F, respectively. The differences between the groups were significant for ail parameters. (P<0.01). There were no significant differences between the silage temperature of the groups during the aerobic period of the study (P>0.05).

Key Words: maize silage, microbial inoculant, quality, aerobic stability

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1999, 5 (3) 13-16
Comparison of Structural Characters of Honey Bee Queens (A. m. anatoliaca) Reared from One and Two Day Old Larvae
(Turkish)

H. Vasfi GENCER and Çetin FIRATLI
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this research, several internal and external characteristics of honey bee queens (A. m. anatoliaca) reared from 1 and 2 days old larvae were compared. The weight at emergence, weight after one week of storage as well as spermatheca diameter, spermatheca volume, 3rd and 4th tergite width, femur, tibia and metatarsus length, metatarsus width and hind leg length of queeens were measured. The length and volume of queen cells were also determined. Of investigated characters, queen cell volume (1.238 + 0.0194 ml ve 1.151 + 0.0145 ml; P <0.01), spermatheca diameterı (1.063 + 0.0077 mm ve 1.027 + 0.0053 mm; P<0.01), spermatheca volume 0.631 + 0.0139 mm3 ve 0.569 + 0.0089 mm3; P<0.01), tibia length (3.753 + 0.0101 mm ve 3.709 + 0.0090 mm P < 0.01) and hind leg length (9.460 + 0.0292 mm and 9.368 + 0.0253 mm; P<0.05) were greater in queens reared from 1 day old larvae than those from 2 days old larvae. Heavlier queens emerged from larger cells. It can be concluded that it is possible to select quality queens by using the measurement of queen cell volume.

Anahtar Kelimeler: honey bee, A. m. anatoliaca, queen, larva age, structural characters

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1999, 5 (3) 17-22
Effects of Various Herbicide and Nitrogen Doses on Grain Protein Content of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)
(Turkish)

Mustafa GÜLER
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Ankara

This study was conducted to determine the effects of different herbicide and nitrogen fertilizer on grain protein content of durum wheat at Kenan Evren Research and Application Farm, Faculty of Agricultue, University of Ankara During 1994-1996. Çakmak 79 cultivar of durum wheat was used as material and 0, 125, 155 and 185 cc/da herbicide (2,4 Isopropopylester) doses and also 0,5 and 10 kg/da nitrogen doses were applied. According to the results of research, significant increases on grain protein content were determined statistically in regard to exceeding nitrogen and herbicide applications. Despite the highest grain protein content values were obtained from different nitrogen fertilizer and herbicide applications in both two years; they were generally obtained from high herbicide doses with the combination of high nitrogen doses.

Key Words: durum wheat, Triticum durum Desf., nitrogen fertilizer doses, herbicide doses, grain protein content

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1999, 5 (3) 23-27
Effects of Storage Temperature and Polyethylene Packaging on Storage Duration of Celeriac (Apium graveolens L. var. Rapaceum)
(Turkish)

Mehmet YILMAZ ve Nilgün HALLORAN
Ankara Ünivesity, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Horticulture-Ankara


This research was carried out to determine the effects of storage temperature and packaging materials on postharvest quality changes of celeriac. Roots of İzmir cv. were stored in the cold stores set at 00 and 50C at 85-90% RH and in ventilated store. Roots were placed into stroge areas in open trays and in 5 kg-sized perforated polyethylene bags. Weight loss, color changes, skin and core thickness, rooting and sprouting ratio, hallowness, loss due to infections, respiration rate, total solible solids and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity were evaluted during storage period at monthlyintervals. The results shoved that color change can not be used as an indicator of postharvest storage duration. However, weight loss is a useful index for determination of storage period since 8% weight loss causes shrivelling in roots. Mycroorganism caused losses were found to be dependent upon to packaging application and storage temperature. When the all data and observations taken into consideration together, the best condition for storing celeriac was determined as 7 months within perforated PE bags at 00C temperature and 85-90% RH.

Key Words: cold storage, celeriac, quality, infections, packaging

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1999, 5 (3) 28-34
Study on Different Irrigation Water Salinity and Ca/Mg Ratio on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L.): I. Effect on Some Yield Parameters (Turkish)

Engin YURTSEVEN1, Mehmet PARLAK2, Köksal DEMİR3, Ahmet ÖZTÜRK1 ve Cihat KÜTÜK2
1Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara
2Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara
3Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara


In this greenhouse study, irrigation water salinity and different Ca/Mg ratid of irrigation water were investigated. The experiments were held on lisimeters made by PVC pipe of 350 mm in diameter and 650 mm in length using 5 different salinity (0.4, 1.5, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 dS/m) and 2 different Ca/Mg ratio of water (3:1 and 1:3) in fully randomised design with factorial experiments The fresh weight of radish and green plant, the radius and height of radish were obtained and assessed as well as the salinizationof soil profiles. As the results, the salinity levels of irrigation water affected all the yield parameters assessed by 1% of significant level. The Ca/Mg ratio of water, however, not simply effected the yield parameters studied but the interaction effects of th eratio with the salinity were significant on radish fresh yield and radish radius.

Key Words: salinity, irrigation, Raphanus sativus, yield parameters, Ca/Mg ratio

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1999, 5 (3) 35-39
The Effects of Different Doses of PMSG Treatment During Aneoestrus Period on Fertility in Border Leicester x Booroola (ff) x Merino Crossbred Ewes
(Turkish)

Ali Kemal ÖZTÜRK1 and Gürsel DELLAL2
1Dicle University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Diyarbakır
2Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science -Ankara

In this research, it was investigated that the effects of different doses of PMSG treatment on the reproductive traits in Border Leicester x Booroola (ff) x Merino ewes in aneoestrus cycle. In the result of research, it was found that 400 I.U. PMSG of treatment had a significant (P<0.01) effect on pregnancy and fertility rates. Although it was not a significant, it was determined that 600 I.U. PMSG of treatment had a positive effect on multiple birth rate.

Key Words: Booroola merino (ff), PMSG, reproductive traits

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1999, 5 (3) 40-47
A Research on the Breakage Reasons of the Weldeng Points of the Knife Connection Ears of the Stem Cutting Machine to the Main Pipe
(Turkish)

Yaşar KARAGÖZ1 and Galip KEÇECİOĞLU2
1Ege University, Mühendislik Faculty Mühendislik Bölümü-İzmir
2Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery -İzmir

It was been found out that the knife connection ears to the main pipe of the stem cutting machine, manufactured in a workshop, have been broken from the welding points even with a small stroke, and it has been requested that the breakage reasons are to be searched and the matter is to be solved. After studying carefully, it was determined that the source of the main reason causing this problem was the welding of the knife ears to the main pipe, which didn't permeated to the main connection pipe. To eliminate this matter, fırstly the proplem has been studied scientifically and then tried to be solved by applying a welding technique which removes the problem.

Key Words: stem cutting machine, knife ear, connection pipe, welding technique

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1999, 5 (3) 48-52
The Effect of the Different Weaning Ages on the Growth Characteristics of Holstein Friesian Calves
(Turkish)

Feyzi UĞUR
Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science -Çanakkale


In this research, Holstein-Friesian calves reared in the research of Atatürk University were weaned at 21 and 30 days of ages and the amount of milk fed the calves was calculated as %7 of the birth weights of calves. The average weight gains determined between birth and six month of age for the calves weaned at 21 and 30 of ages were 0.48+0.03 and 0.51+0.03 respectively. The differences among the groups were found to be insignificant. Birth weights of calves weaned at 21 and 30 days of ages were 36.7+1.02 and 35.5+1.05 kg, respectively. The weaning weights of calves for 21 and 30 day groups were 42.6+1.43 and 43.6+1.48 kg respectively. Four month weights of calves fed milk for 21 and 30 days were 94.5+2.43 and 87.0+2.53 kg, respectively. The six month weights of calves weaned at 21 and 30 days of ages were 131.2+3.7 and 128.0+3.8 kg respectively.

Key Words: hHolstein Friesian, early weaning, growth characteristics

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1999, 5 (3) 53-60
Determination of Seed Yields of Some Ochrus Vetch (Lathyrus ochrus (L.) DC.) Lines in Ankara conditions (Turkish)

Hayrettin KENDİR
Ankara Üniversity, of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Ankara


The area sown to forage is not adequate in Turkey. Introducing new species and cultivars to farming system would help develop forage production. In this research 15 ochrus vetch lines obtained from different countries were tested for their seed yield and some agronomic characters in Ankara conditions over 2 years. The experiment was conducted at the experimental fields of Field Crops Department of Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University. In the study, plant height and stem number varied between 47.62-61.87 cm, 2.95-4.78 while pod number Per plant and first pod height varied between 6.12-10.60 and 30.42-35.45 cm, respectively. Pod length and seed number Per pod were between 3.67-4.77 cm, and 3.98-5.65 Biological yield, seed yield, harvest index were changed between 333.28-542.28 kg/da, 109.21-215.35 kg/da, % 31.83-40.08, respectively. It is also found that thousand seed weights were between 88.22-121.42 g. All the lines used in the experiment had maturity in 88 days. The results showed that ochrus vetch as a new species to Turkish agriculture had a potential to be grown in our farming system and Line 546, 548, 541 had superiority to the other lines

Key Words: ochrus vetch, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, plant characteristics

 

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1999, 5 (3) 61-66
Accumulation and Variation of Fat and Fatty Acids During Embryo Development of Pistachio Nut (Pistacia vera L.)
(Turkish)


Mehmet KÖROĞLU and A.İlhami KÖKSAL
Ankara Üniversity, of Agriculture Department of Horticulture-Ankara

Accumulation and variation of fat and fatty acid content were determined in Uzun, Kırmızı, Halebi, Siirt and Ohadi varieties grafted on P.vera L. Samples were taken in every 15 days starting in early embryo development stage (at the and of June to the beginning of July) through maturity. 10 seeds from each variety were randomly selected, pericarps removed and the kernels are analyzed. For oil extraction, a 100 mg sample of kernel were used 1 % of Heptadecanoic acid was used as internal standard. Oil extraction and fatty acid methyl esters were done in one step according to the method of Farces and Mancha (1). Fatty acid amounts and rates were determined as Palmitik (16.0), Palmitoleik (18.1), Stearik (18.0), Oleik (18.1), Linoleik (18.2) ve Linolenik (18.3). Fat and fatty acid amound and variation same as maturity, before 7-10 days from maturity period.

Key Words: fat, fatty acid, Pistacia vera L., embryo

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1999, 5 (3) 67-72
Determination of Kernel Development Characteristics of Some Pistachio Nut (P. vera L.) Varieties
(Turkish)

Mehmet KÖROĞLU and A. İlhami KÖKSAL
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Horticulture-Ankara

Kernel development characteristics of Uzun, Kırmızı, Halebi, Siirt and Ohadi pistachio varieties grafted on P. vera L. were determined in this research. Pistachio kernels reach their normal size approximately 45 to 50 days prior to maturity. On the other hand the increase in fresh weight continues until harvest maturity. Fast growing period started in the embryo, while fast growing terminated in the pericarp for the varieties exemined in the research. Embryo showed a (S) type growing curve. In all varieties, the avarage fresh weight of pistachio nuts showed a fast increase during the first period of growing. Fast growing period started to slow down at the beginning of embryo development than started to increase again. 15-20 days prior to physiological harvest maturity stage, increase in fresh weight slowed down reached to normal weight at harvest time. Pistachio nuts showed a fast increase in length from small nut period to beginning of embryo development period. After wards changes in the length was very small. Although embryo development varied between among the varieties it started in the period between the end of June and beginning of July. During the two years of this study, growing rate was very slow in the first 10-15 days of embryo development then, beginning from mid July increase in length was found to be fast within 20-25 days. At the end of this period development decreased and a week before harvest maturity it significantly slowed down or completely stopped.

Key Words: pistachio, growth, embryo development

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1999, 5 (3) 73-81
Seed Yields and Components of Common Chickling (Lathyrus sativus L.) Lİnes
(Turkish)

Hayrettin KENDİR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Ankara


To produce the feed in abundant and cheap, which livestock sector needs it is necessary to introduce new foragespecies into our farming system. In this research 16 common chickling lines obtained from different countries were tested for their seed yield and some agronomic characters in Ankara conditions over 2 years. The experiment was conducted at the experimental fields of Field Crops Department of Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University. In the study, plant height and stem number varied between 90.83-132.83 cm, 5.50-7.50 while pod number Per plant and first pod height varied between 12.17-20.83 and 19.33-30.83 cm, respectively. Pod length and seed number Per pod were between 30.00-35.67 mm and 3.00-3.83. Biological yield, seed yield, harvest index were changed between 529.42-891.52 kg/da, 153.87-277.77 kg/da, 23.27-32.93%, respectively. It is also found that thousand seed weights were between 105.42-170.69 g. All the lines used in the experiment needed 94 days to maturity except the check line which needed 98.5 days. The results showed that Line 456, 560, 471, 565, 453, 563 had superiority to the other lines.

Key Words: common chickling, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, plant characteristics

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1999, 5 (3) 82-86
Some Blood Parameters in Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) With Pescept to Water Quality Parameters
(English)

Hijran Yıldız YAVUZCAN, Serap PULATSÜ and Doğan ATAY
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara


This study was conducted to determine the seasonal values of some blood parameters (hematocrit, hemoglobin, the numbers of erythrocyte, leucocyte and trombocyte as well as Wintrobe erythrocte indices) in clinically healthy sea bass reared at a commercial farm, Bodrum (Turkey) with respect to water quality parameters including water temperature pH, dissolved oxygen and ammonia-nitrogen. The results showed that water temperature and dissolved oxygen had an impact on hematocrit, hemoglobin and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) (p<0.01). Erytrocyte, leucocyte and trombocyte counts were not statistically affected by water quality parameters detected. Whereas, there is a little statistically significant effect of ammonia-nitrogen on haematological parameters.

Key Words: blood parameters, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), water quality parameters

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1999, 5 (3) 87-92
Usage of the Protected Fats in Flushing Rations: 1. Effects on Live Weight, Body Condition Score and Litter Size
(Turkish)

İ. Yaman YURTMAN, M, Levent ÖZDÜVEN and Fevzi KARAAĞAÇ
Trakya University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Tekirdağ

Thirty five Türkgeldi ewes were allocated into three trial groups as a control (K), flushing I (FI) and flushing II (FII) in the beginning of the study. Two trial concentrates (concentrate F1: 142.6 g CP/kg DM, 2984 kcal ME/kg DM, no fat concentrate F11: 143.9 g CP/kg 2978 kcal ME/kg DM, with fat) were used in the trial groups during the 5 weeks. Animals were fed daily as a group base at the levels of 0.8 kg/head in the group K 1.6 kg/head in the group F1 and 1.6 kg/head in the group F11. Animals in the K and F1 groups were fed with concentrate F1. The group F11 were fwith concentrate F11. Live weight gain and changes in the body condition score during the research were 0.09+0.018, 0.20+0.014, 0.20+0.018 kg/day; 0.20+0.134, 0.52+0.071 and 0.54+0.080 for the group of K, F1, F11, respectively. The group K was significantly different from group F1 and F11 in terms of live weight gain (P<0.01) and body condition score changes (P<0.05) however there were no significant differences between the group F1 and group F11. Litter size were 1.27+0.272, 1.66+0.284 and 1.75+0.217 for the group K, F1 and F11, respectively. Differences between the groups were not significant (P < 0.05).

Key Words: flushing, producted fat, litter size

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1999, 5 (3) 93-98
Wool Characteristics of White Karaman Ewes
(Turkish)

Zeynep ERDOĞAN1, Gürsel DELLAL2, Sema ETİKAN1 and Feryal SÖYLEMEZOĞLU1
1Ankara University Collage of Home Economics-Ankara
1Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this research, some physical characteristics such as greasy fleece weight, clean fleece percentage, stable length, single nature fiber length, single true fibre length, first, nature fibre length after single true fibre length, resistanece, elongation rate related resistance, fibre diameter, resillence, quality number and uniformity were studied on wool from White Karaman ewes. According to findings of research, it was conciuded that wool from White Karaman was suitable for carpet manufacturing.

Key Words: white Karaman, Wool characteristics

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1999, 5 (3) 99-101
The Impact of Sea-Bream (Sparus aurata L. 1758) and Sea-Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. 1758) in Cage Culture on Water Quality
(Türkish)

Serap PULATSÜ, Doğan ATAY and Behice KARAHAN
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

In 1997 seasonally, at six stations water quality was monitored, to determine short-term effects of sea-bream (Sparus aurata L. 1758) and sea-bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. 1758) in cage culture in the marine environment. Of the sea water quality parameters such as, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand and transparency values at choosen six stations meet the norms of recreation, swimming and cage culture. During the course of the study differences between the total inorganic nitrogen and ortophosphate values belonging to the stations far away from the cages and cage were not statistically significant. Neverheless, long-term environmental impacts should be taken into consideration in the bays where aquaculture farms are present.

Key Words: cage culture, sea-bream, sea-bass, water quality

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1999, 5 (3) 102-109
Relationships Among Nitrogen Efficiency Indexes, Grain Yield and Grain Protein Content in Barley Genotypes
(Türkish)

Ali ÖZTÜRK and Özcan ÇAĞLAR
Atatürk University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Ankara

This research was carried out using 15 barley genotypes at Erzurum in 1996 and 1997. Relationships among N efficiency indexes, grain yield and grain protein content were investigated using correlation, stepwise regression and path coefficient analysis. Grain yield was positively correlated with plant height, spike number per m2, 1000-kernel weight, agronomic efficiency, physiological efficiency, N uptake efficieny, straw yield, harvest index and negatively with kernel number Per spike and grain protein content. Grain protein content was negatively correlated with physiological efficiency, but positively with N translocation efficiency. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that 95 % of the variation in grain yield depended on N uptake efficiency and harvest index, and 98 % of the variation in grain protein content on physiological efficiency and N transiocation efficiency. N uptake efficiency (P=0.303) had positive and high effect on grain yield. Grain protein content was a co-function of negative effect of physiological efficiency (P<0.982) and positive effect of N translocation efficiency (P=0.869). The results showed that increases in N uptake efficiency may enhance grain yield and increases in N translocation efficiency might increase grain protein content without reducing grain yiemo.

Key Words: N efficiency indexes, grain yield, grain protein content, stepwise regression analysis, path analysis, barley

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1997, 5 (3) 110-115
In Vitro Screening for Root Lesion Nematode (Pratylenchus vulnus Allen and Jensen) Tolerance of Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Some Walnut (Juglans spp.) Genotypes
(Turkish)

Hatice DUMANOĞLU
Ankara Ünivesity, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Horticulture-Ankara


In this study, the root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus vulnus Allen and Jensen 1951) tolerance of some walnut (Juglans spp.) genotypes in in vitro were determined using excised roots from transgenic and non-transgenic somatic embryo lines. Dual cultures of roots and nematodes on DKW (1/2 N) and Gamborg's B5 basal medium were maintained for 2 months. According to results of research, both basal media were favorable for root growth and P. vulnus reproduction. Specially, in the second experiment, because of no significantly differences in root growth between the control (45.7±14.4 mm) and the nematode treatment (44.2±14.0 mm) in spite of a large increase in the population (average 1503.6±549.0) of P. vulnus in inoculated cultures, BG P4 5-4-1 transform embryo line contained genes kanamaycin resistance, beta-glycuronidase (GUS) activity and the cryIA (c) gene expressing insecticidal crystallline proteins (ICPs) from Basillus thuringiensis were found to be P. vulnus-tolerant walnut genotype.

Key Words: walnut, transgenic somatic embryo line, Pratylenchus vulnus, tolerance, in vitro

1999, 5 (3) 116-123
Power of Student t-Test and ANOVA Technique Determining Suitable Sample Size
(Turkish)

Ensar BAŞPINAR, Handan ÇAMDEVİREN and Fikret GÜRBÜZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Ankara


The purpose of this study was to determine the suitable sample size to achieve the necessary power for Student's t-Test and ANOVA, using a simulation model in which six normal populations with equal variances and unequal means were simulated. Samples were taken from these populations using two different approaches namely, a. samples were taken from each possible pair combinations of these six populations and sample means were compared using Student's t-Test. This process was repeated for 10 000 times and the power of the test was calculated empirically on different samples sizes with equal and unequal number of observations. Consequently, it was found that samples having equal number of observations are more effective for reaching the desirable power. b. samples having equal and unequal number of observations were taken randomly from nine different mean combinations using tree of the above mentioned populations each time. These mean combinations were compared 10 000 times using ANOVA. The power of F-Test was calculated empirically then. It was found that the desirable power can be achieved with a few number of total observations, if the middle group mean contains lesser number of observation, than other two groups.

Key Words : type I error, Type II error, power, sample size, t-test, analysis of variance

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1999, 5 (3) 124-131
The Realized Probalities of Type I Errors in the Samples Taken from the Sinary Combinations of the Normal, Beta, Gamma and Weibull Distributions
(Turkish)

Ensar BAŞPINAR, Ersin ÖĞÜŞ and Fikret GÜRBÜZ
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this studry, we investigated how much the probabilities of Type I Errors are affected when the assumption of Normal Distribution in the ANOVA technique is not satisfied for one reason or another. For this purpose, populations showing normal, beta, gamma and weibull distributions were simulated from which the probabilities of type I errors were calculated using 100 000 samples taken from the binary combinations of these populations. The result showed that the expected probabilities of type I errors were approached the number of observations in the samples were as high and equal as possible and the shape of distributions were relatively symmetric.

Key Words: I Type Error, Type I Error, Normal Distribution, Beta Distribution, Gamma Distribution, Weibull Distribution

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