1999, Volume: 5, Number: 2
Contents
DAYIOĞLU, M. A., H. SİLLELİ, M. VATANDAŞ and R. GÜRHAN, Computer Aided Pulsator Control in Milking Systems Abstract
KÖROĞLU, M. and Y. OKAY, The Effect of Post Harvest Processing on Pistachio Nut Quality Abstract
DURSUN, E. and Ö. KARAÇALI, Effects of Basic Disc Parameters of Disc Ploughs Forward Speed and Working Depth on the Soil Mixturing Abstract
GÜNER, M. and A. KAFADAR, Determination of the Performance Characteristics Abstract
DURSUN, E. and M. GÜNER, The Effect of A Mower-Conditioner Machine on Drying Rate of Alfalfa in the Field Abstract
PULATSÜ, S. and H. ÇAMDEVİREN, Water Quality Parameters in Inflow and Outflow of Sakaryabaşı Trout Farm Abstract
KAYABAŞI, N. and S. ETİKAN, The Use of Some Grape Varieties and Rootstocks Leaves with Different Meturaties in Natural Dyes Abstract
ACAR, Z., C. SANCAK and İ. AYAN, Determination of Yield and Some Characteristics of Lesser Burnet (Sanguisorba minor Scop.) Grown in Different Nitrogen Dozes and Row Spacings Abstract
AYGÜN, A. and H. DUMANOĞLU, Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Cotyledons in Quince (Cydonia vulgaris Pers.) Abstract

ELİVAR, D. E., and H. DUMANOĞLU, The Comparison of Fall and Spring Budding for One-Year-Old Nursery Tree Production of Apple, Pear and Quince in Ayaş (Ankara) Abstract

YILDIZ, M. A., H. ÇAMDEVİREN and T. KESİCİ, Determination of the Possibility of Usage of Arylesterase Types in the Description of Quail Lines Abstract
KOÇ, F., M. L. ÖZDÜVEN and İ. Y. YURTMAN, Studies on The Quality Characteristics and Aerobic Stability of Wet Brewers Grains-Maize Mixture Silages Abstract
AYANOĞLU, F. and A. MERT, The Effects of Different Stratification Duration and Chemical Treatments on the Emergence of the Seeds of Two Caper Species (Capparis spinosa L. and Capparis ovata Desf.) Abstract
BİLGİÇ, N. and S. M. YENER, Some Milk And Breeding Characteristics of Holstein Friesian Cows Raised At The Dairy Farm of The Department of Animal Science of Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University Abstract
KENDİR, H. Determination of Some Yield Components of Winter Vetch Species (Vicia spp.) Grown in Ankara Conditions Abstract
KARAGÖZ, Y. and G. KEÇECİOĞLU, A Research on Dynamic and Static Strength of Single and Double Crimped Spring Cultivator Legs Abstract
UĞUR, F., M. YANAR and N. TÜZEMEN, Weight and Weight Gains of Early Weaned Female Brown Swiss and Female Holstein Friessian Cattle Abstract
KÖROĞLU, M. and A. İ. KÖKSAL, Determination of Harvesting Time for Pistachio Nut Abstract
KENDİR, H. Seed Yields and Some Plant Traits of Different Originated Bitter Vetch Lines [Vicia ervilia (L.) Wild. ] Abstract
BİLGİÇ, N. and S. M. YENER, Effects Of Bovine Somatotropin Treatment On Milk Yield In Brown Swiss Cows Abstract
 
Abstracts
 

1999 5 (2), 1-6
Computer Aided Pulsator Control in Milking Systems
(English)

Mehmet Ali DAYIOĞLU, Hasan SİLLELİ, Mustafa VATANDAŞ and Recai GÜRHAN
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery - Ankara


In this study, a computer based system was developed for controlling the electronic pulsators used in milking. By changing parameters of the pulsation rate and pulsator ratio, pulsation characteristics were measured at different vacuum pressures using a written software. The pulsation rate between 40 - 70 min-1, pulsator ratio between 50 - 75 % and vacuum pressure between 40-60 kPa were altered in experiments. The limping was remained in the level of 0.1 % in nominal operating conditions (50 kPa, 60 min -1 and 70 %). The greatest limping value was measured as 2.9 % in determined trial intervals. As a result, the pulsation characteristics of the control system were obtained as mentioned in international standard.

Key Words: pulsator, computer aided control, pulsation ratio, pulsation rate, limping.

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1999 5 (2), 7-9
The Effect of Post Harvest Processing on Pistachio Nut Quality
(Turkish)

Mehmet KÖROĞLU1 and Yeşim OKAY2
1Köy Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü APK Daire Başkanlığı Araştırma Şube Müdürlüğü-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara


In this study the changes of quality characteristics during the stage of roasted and salted pistachio nut processing were investigated. During processing, pistachio nut samples were taken from each each processing stages as follow: (a) from dry red hull fruit after harvest before processing, (b) from the stage of unhulling on dry hull fruit, (c) from the stage of drying after unhulling, (d) after roasting with salt at 85-950C, (e) from dry red hull fruit from simply storaged during one year. Samples were investigated for the moisture content, oil, protein, free acidity, peroxide and salt percentage in the kernel. Specially free fatty acidity and peroxide value changed importantly during the process stages.

Key Words: Pistacia vera L., fatty acid, harvest, processing, roasting


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1999 5 (2), 10-14
Effects of Basic Disc Parameters of Disc Ploughs Forward Speed and Working Depth on the Soil Mixturing
(Turkish)

Ergin DURSUN1 and Özgül KARAÇALI2
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery - Ankara
2Master of Science in Agricultural Engineering


In this research, the soil mixturing effect of three disc plough which has different basic disc parameters were determined. The position and direction angle, forward speed and working depth were taken as variable factors in the tests. Bean, maize and chickpea seeds were used as labelled material to asses the mixturing effect. After the soil cultivation, the positions of the labelled materials which located in different soil depth was determined with soil grinder. In the evaluation of the results, a mixturing coefficient (K) was used. This coefficient is the ratio of the theoretical standart deviation in zero mixturing to the standart deviation obtained after the soil cultivation. According to the research results, the soil mixturing effect increased with
the increasing disc position and direction angle for experimented ploughs. Also, the soil mixturing effects of the ploughs increased with the increasing forward speed.

Key Words: Disc plough, soil, mixturing, position angle, direction angle, forward speed, working depth

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1999 5 (2), 15-22
Determination of the Performance Characteristics of Forage Harvesters
(Turkish)

Metin GÜNER1 and Ali KAFADAR2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara
2TİGEM-Ankara


The aim of this research is to determine the performance characteristics such as power consumption, area and crop energy requirement, area and crop rates of work, fuel cansumption, percentage mass in each length classification, theoritical length of cut, geometric and arithmetic mean length of four forage harvesters which two of them are cylinder type and two of them are flail type. Maize, alfalfa and the mixture of barley and vetch are used as silage material. One of the cylinder forage harvesters has a conveying fan and the another harvester has a direct cut and deliver unit. Forage harvester with direct cut and deliver was used only for maize harvesting, while another type was used for the harvesting of the alfalfa and the mixture of barley and vetch. One of the flail forage harvesters is direct-cut and deliver type with 16 cutters. The another harvester has a conveying fan and a rotor with 32 cutters. Both of them were used for the harvesting of the alfalfa and the mixture of barley and vetch. When we took the cylinder type forage harvesters into consideration, we found that there wasn't important difference between the characteristics of two cylinder type. But, the cylinder forage harvester with conveying fan used for all kinds of silage material had higher power and energy consumption, higher percent mass distribution below 40 mm, smaller geometric and arithmetic mean length of particles during the harvesting of maize crop. If the performance characteristics of flail types are compared between themselves, it is seen that the harvester with conveying fan has the advantage of the better performance characteristics consisting of chopping degree, area and crop energy consumption, area and crop rates of work in harvesting of the alfalfa and the mixture of barley and vetch.

Key Words: silage, forage harvester, rate of work, fuel consumption, power consumption, energy consumption, chopping length

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1999 5 (2), 23-29
The Effect of A Mower-Conditioner Machine on Drying Rate of Alfalfa in the Field
(Turkish)

Ergin DURSUN and Metin GÜNER
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara


The purpose of this of this research is to determine the effect of a mover conditioner on drying rate of alfalfa in the field. This mover-conditioner consists of two major units, one of them is mover unit and the another is conditioner unit. Mover unit is disc type. Conditioner unit consists of two ribbed rollers with chevron shaped profiles on their surfaces. The effect of mover-conditioner on drying rate of alfalfa were determined for different roller revolution number, roller pressure, forward speed and swath width. The field tests done in second cutting of alfalfa have showed that drying rate of conditioned alfalfa were increased and drying time were decreased with increasing roller revolution number, roller pressure and swath width. Whereas drying rate were decreased and drying time were increased with increasing forward speed. Drying time of conditioned alfalfa by mover-conditioner was decreased at the range of 11.8-32.3 % according to unconditioned alfalfa depending on working conditions.

Key Words: mover-conditioner, alfalfa, drying rate, roller revolution number, roller pressure, forward speed, swath width

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1999 5 (2), 30-35
Water Quality Parameters in Inflow and Outflow of Sakaryabaşı Trout Farm
(English)

Serap PULATSÜ1 and Handan ÇAMDEVİREN2
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Statistics and Genetics


This research was conducted to determine the suitability of the Batı Pond (inflow) in terms of water quality standards for trout production and to evaluate its impact on the River Sakarya. For this purpose, several water quality parameters were measured in inflow and outflow of a land-based trout farm over a 12-month period. The results were compared with the literature data. With the exception of total ammonia nitrogen (0.487±0.15 mg/L) and total phosphorus (461.1±81.34 mg/L) values, the measured some physical and chemical parameters (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, organic matter, total hardness, bicarbonate alkalinity) of inflow were within the acceptable standard limits for trout production. In the outflow, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved reactive phosphorus were within the standard effluent limits. The mean of total phosphorus concentration at the outflow was during the study period averaged (518.5±90.1 mg/L) and the highest total phosphorus concentration was found in May (994.64±4.44 mg/L). High value of total phosphorus was also observed in the inflow, suggesting that water quality control and management of inflow becomes an essential concern.

Key Words: land-based trout farming, inflow and outflow, water quality parameters.

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1999 5 (2), 36-40
The Use of Some Grape Varieties and Rootstocks Leaves with Different Meturaties in Natural Dyes
(Turkish)

Nuran KAYABAŞI and Sema ETİKAN
Ankara University, Colllege of Home Economics

In this study, it is planned be determined the colours they give together with the light and abrasion fastness characteristics of their colours because grape leaves will no longer be wasted by being used in the natural dyes. In this research mature and young leaves of Pinot noir and Kalecik Karası which are varieties of winegrapes, reddish leaves at the falling stage of Alicante Boushchet, and mature and young leaves of the Rootstocks were used. Totaly 35 dyeing were done using mordant with 3 %. Light and abrassion fastness degrees of the colours obtained were determined. The colours of the grape leaves were labeled and type of these colours varied from beige to dark brown. On the other hand, the colour fastnesses to light and to abrasion on wool carpet yarns of this plant were studied. The colour fastness to light of this plant were found as 3 to 6, to abrasion 1 to 3-4.

Key Words: Winegrapes varieties, rootstocks, leaves dyestuffs, wool carpet yarn, colour fastness to light, colour fastness to abrasion.

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1999 5 (2), 41-49
Determination of Yield and Some Characteristics of Lesser Burnet (Sanguisorba minor Scop.) Grown in Different Nitrogen Dozes and Row Spacings
(Turkish)

Zeki ACAR1, Cengiz SANCAK2 and İlknur AYAN1
1Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Samsun
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy -Ankara


This study was conducted to determine appropriate of row spacing, nitrogen dozes and some characteristics of lesser burnet in a "Split Plots in Randomized Block" design with 3 replications grown on shallow and slopy lands in Samsun Province from 1995 to 1997. In this study 0, 4, 8, 12 kg/da nitrogen dozes and 30, 45 cm row spacings were applied to plots. Two cuttings were taken both 1996 and 1997 under rainfed conditions. In the second year (1997), the yields were increased significantly. Average 1970.4 kg herbage yield, 746.0 kg hay yield and 131.7 kg crude protein yields Per decar were obtained. The highest yields were obtained from the plots with 30 cm row spacing and 8-12 kg/da nitrogen fertilization program.

Key Words: sheeps burnet, nitrogen, row spacing, yield

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1999 5 (2), 50-57
Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Cotyledons in Quince (Cydonia vulgaris Pers.)
(Turkish)

Ahmet AYGÜN1 and Hatice DUMANOĞLU2
Blacksea Technical University, Ordu Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ordu
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara


In this study, immature cotyledons of open-pollinated seeds from 'Limon' quince cultivar (Cydonia vulgaris Pers. cv 'Limon') were excised at 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 weeks after anthesis and cultured on Modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing ½ macroelements and iron supplemented with 250 mg/l L-glutamine, 500 mg/l casein hydrolysate , 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA). The cotyledons were incubated for 4 weeks in darkness, prior to subculturing on hormone-free MS medium containing ½ macroelements and iron supplemented with 250 mg/l L-glutamine, 500 mg/l casein hydrolysate in darkness for three times. Percentage of embryonic cotyledon (%) and number of somatic embryos (number per cotyledon) were determined after each subculture. In this research, the highest percentage of embryonic cotyledons (53.3 - 80.0%) and number of somatic embryo (1.07±0.07 - 2.53±0.79) were obtained with 0.0 mg/l BA + 2.0 mg/ NAA, 0.5 mg/l BA + 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l NAA, 1.0 mg/l BA + 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D or 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l NAA combinations in induction medium and with cotyledons cultured at 7 and 11 weeks after anthesis.

Key Words: quince, somatic embryogenesis, benzyladenine, naphthalene-acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, L- glutamine, casein hydrolysate.

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1999 5 (2), 58-64
The Comparison of Fall and Spring Budding for One-Year-Old Nursery Tree Production of Apple, Pear and Quince in Ayaş (Ankara)
(Turkish)

Dilek Erdin ELİVAR and Hatice DUMANOĞLU
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

In this research, usage possibilities of fall and spring T-budding were investigated for one-year-old nursery tree production of apple, pear and quince in Ayaş (Ankara) conditions between 1996-1998 years. In this study, 'Starkspur Golden Delicious' and 'Starkrimson' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), 'Akça' and 'Ankara' pear (Pyrus communis L.) and 'Eşme' quince (Cydonia vulgaris Pers.) cultivars were used. Apple cultivars were budded on MM 106, pear and quince cultivars on Quince A clone rootstocks. At the end of the research, damaged shoot rate because of spring late frosts in fall budding and fall early frosts in spring budding was determined as 0.0%. Fall budding caused generally better results compared with spring budding for investigated all characteristics. Rate of budding success were 66.7% and 99.5% in apple; 74.5% and 96.1% in pear; 38.3-78.3% and 100.0% in quince; rate of shooting in succeeded budding were 52.2% and 92.2% in apple; 67.9-92.9% and 59.7-95.0% in pear; 62.0% and 91.6% in quince; average nursery tree length were 0.5-54.09 cm and 52.10-97.15 cm in apple; 11.91-67.56 cm and 74.89-82.24 cm in pear; 0.5-85.70 cm and 125.85-158.93 cm in quince; average nursery tree diameter 2.0-23.2 mm and 21.0-37.2 mm in apple; 10.4-34.1 mm and 30.5-44.6 mm in pear; 2.0-32.1 mm and 38.5-43.7 mm in quince; one-year-old nursery tree in class I were 0.0% and 0.0-3.3% in apple; 0.0% and 0.0-3.7% in pear; 0.0-12.5% and 38.1-80.8% in quince; one-year-old nursery tree in class II were 0.0-1.3% and 0.0-14.9% in apple; 0.0% and 0.0-5.5% in pear and 4.2% and 16.1% in quince, in the spring and fall budding, respectively.

Key Words: apple, pear, quince, nursery tree production, spring T-budding, fall T-budding.

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1999 5 (2), 65-68
Determination of the Possibility of Usage of Arylesterase Types in the Description of Quail Lines
(Turkish)

Mehmet Ali YILDIZ1, Handan ÇAMDEVİREN2 and Tahsin KESİCİ2
1 Selçuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Konya
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this study arylesterase types were determined and EsA+ phenotypes were high in four different Japanese quail lines. Arylesterase system can also be used for determined phenotype and genotype groups of quail populations by using log-linear model.

Key Words: Japanese quail, arylesterase, log-linear model

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1999 5 (2), 69-76
Studies on The Quality Characteristics and Aerobic Stability of Wet Brewers Grains-Maize Mixture Silages
(Turkish)

Fisun KOÇ, M. Levent ÖZDÜVEN and İ. Yaman YURTMAN
Trakya University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science -Tekirdağ

This study was carried out to examine some quality characteristics and aerobic stability of wet brewers grains(WBG) and maize (M) mixture silages. Effects of different additives (AIV, microbial inoculants) on the pH changes of the mixtures also were monitored during the initial phase of the anaerobic fermentation. Treatments were WBG, M, mixture 1 (K1) and mixture 2 (K2). Fresh WBG and fresh M materials were mixed with the ratio of 1/1 and 1/3 for the group of K1 and K2, respectively. The samples of treatments were stored for 75 days in the laboratory type PVC silos. After 75 days they were opened and left for seven days. During this seven day period temperature changes in the samples were monitored for determining aerobic stability. Crude protein, NH3-N, lactic acid content and pH value of the silages were found as 19.92 ± 0.033, 9.50 ± 0.009, 14.71 ± 0.103, 12.30 ± 0.048 %; 15.17 ± 0.033, 31.63 ± 0.219, 23.68 ± 0.015, 19.69 ± 0.035 g/ kg TN; 0.89 ± 0.035, 3.18 ± 0.035, 2.36 ± 0.035, 2.45 ± 0.035 %; 3.57 ± 0.034, 3.46 ± 0.034, 3.29 ± 0.034 and 3.40 ± 0.034 for the group of WBG, M, K1 and K2, respectively. Differences between the treatments for all parameters were significant (P<0.01). There were significant differences between the average temperature changes in the treatments during the aerobic phase of the study (P<0.01).

Key Words: wet brewers grains- maize silage, quality, aerobic stability

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1999 5 (2), 77-80
The Effects of Different Stratification Duration and Chemical Treatments on the Emergence of the Seeds of Two Caper Species (Capparis spinosa L. and Capparis ovata Desf.)
(Turkish)

Filiz AYANOĞLU and Ahmet MERT
Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy -Hatay


In these studies which were carried out in 1996 and 1997 the effects of stratification duration, stratification temperature, chemical application and the combination of these treatments on the emergence of the seeds of two caper species (C. Spinosa L. and C. ovata Desf.) were investigated. In the first year eight different treatments which were the stratification at 40C for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days, stratification at room temperature for 50 days, chemical application with no stratification and control (no stratification and no chemical treatment) were experimented on the seeds of C spinosa. In the second year ten different treatments which were the stratification at 4 0C for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days, chemical application + stratification at 4 0C for 50 days, stratification at room temperature for 50 days, chemical application + stratification at room temperature for 50 days, chemical application with no stratification and control were experimented with C. spinosa and C. ovata seeds. Chemical applications were done as the seeds were soaked for 20 minutes with concentrated H2SO4 and then they were placed into 100 ppm GA3 for one hour. After all treatments in the first year the seeds were sown on the 14 th of March and on the 7 th of April in the second year and the emergence of seeds were determined. The emergence ratio of the seeds of C. ovata were higher compared to C. spinosa. Among the treatments the highest emergence ratio were obtained from the stratification at room temperature for 50 days treatment with 52.50 % emergence.

Key Words: caper, C. spinosa, C. ovata, emergence, stratification duration, chemical treatment, GA3

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1999 5 (2), 81-84
Some Milk and Breeding Characteristics of Holstein Friesian Cows Raised at the Dairy Farm of the Department of Animal Science of Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University
(Turkish)

Neriman BİLGİÇ and S. Metin YENER
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science -Ankara


The aim of this research is to determine the milk yield and breeding characteristics of the Holstein Friesian cows raised at the Dairy Farm of the Department of Animal Science of Agricultural Faculty of Ankara Unıversıty. The averages for the dairy characteristics studied were found as below: Actual lactation milk yield 4493 ± 132 kg; 305 days milk yield 4537 ± 122 kg; length of lactation 296.6 ± 5.39 days. The means for the breeding characteristics were estimated as follows: Calving interval 394.1 ± 6.91 days; length of pregnancy 278.3 ± 1.58 days ;days open 94.6 ± 5.11 days; dry period 79.1 ± 7.09 days; the number of inseminations per pregnancy 1.4 ± 0.05 ; calving rate 92 % as a function of mated cows and pregnancy rate 68 % as a function of cows at 1 st mating; abortion rate 4.5 %; still birth rate 3.3%.

Key Words: Holstein Friesian, dairy characteristics, breeding characteristics.

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1999 5 (2), 85-91
Determination of Some Yield Components of Winter Vetch Species (Vicia spp.) Grown in Ankara Conditions
(English)

Hayrettin KENDİR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara


Vetch is one of the most widespread annual legume cultivated in our country. This research was conducted to determine seed yields and to be observe important characteristics of 3 winter vetch species (Vicia spp.) in Ankara conditions from 1996-1998. Common vetch (Vicia sativa), Hungarian vetch (vicia pannonica) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), grown for seed and hay in Central Anatolia, were sown in autumn and grown using standard agricultural practices. The study incorporated a randomized plot design with 3 replications. The following results were obtained: plant height achieved, 104.00-140.85 cm; number of branch, 2.85-3.76; days to flowering, 146-+53; first pod height, 58.1-71.5 cm; number of pods Per plant, 16.78-29.51; number of seed per pod, 4.2-5.8; pod length, 2.64-5.00 cm; seed yield 126.35-162.53 kg/da; thousand seed weight, 39.77-44.54g; harvest index, 24.30-28.05%.

Key Words: common vetch, Hungarian vetch, hairy vetch, yield components

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1999 5 (2), 92-99
A Research on Dynamic and Static Strength of Single and Double Crimped Spring Cultivator Legs
(Turkish)

Yaşar KARAGÖZ1 and Galip KEÇECİOĞLU2
1Ege University, Mühendislik Fakültesi Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü-İzmir
2Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-İzmir

Various type of cultivator legs are exposed to dynamic and static loading trials in order to determine the ideal case. The cultivator legs which were exposed to static and dynamic loadings are made of 60SiMn5 spring steel. The legs are rectengular in cross section and sized 33x13 mm and 45x9 mm. The three of therm are double crimped (rau type) and six of them are single crimped. In dynamic loading trials the double crimped legs had not been broken at the 200 000 vibration which is the limit of world standarts. In static loading trials, the roching values were determined as high as 217 mm. The single crimped legs were broken, however, at verh low levels. It was also determined that the roching of them was also very low at static loadings. According to the results of the trials. It was determined that they must be made of high strength steel having a pulling strength hig her than 100 kg/mm2 in order nat to be broken when they are teased to obstacles. They also must be made of spring steel specially, in order not to be deformed.

Key Words: cultivator, dynamic, static, steel, cultivator leg, spring

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1999 5 (2), 100-103
Weight and Weight Gains of Early Weaned Female Brown Swiss and Female Holstein Friessian Cattle
(Turkish)

Feyzi UĞUR1, Mete YANAR2 and Naci TÜZEMEN2

1Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Çanakkale
2Atatürk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Erzurum

In this research. Brown Swiss and Holstein Friessan calves reared in the research Farm of Agricultural College at Atatürk University were weaned at 30, 45 and 60 days of ages and the amount of milk fed the calves was calculated as %7 of the birth weights of calves. The birth weights of female Brown Swiss and Holstein Friesian calves were 33.6+0.9 and 32.6+1.6 kg, respectively. Twelve month weights of heifers fed milk for 30, 45 and 60 days were 205.9+8.0, 204.9+7.4 and 211.3+5.1 kg, respectively. The eighteen month weights of cattle weaned at 30, 45 and 60 days of ages were 289.9+7.8, 283.6+7.2 and 297.0+4.9 kg, respectively. The average weight gains determined between birth and eighteen months of age for the heifers weaned at 30,45 and 60 days of ages were 0.47+0.008, 0.46+0.008 and 0.49+0.015 kg, respectively. The differences among the groups were found to be insignificant.

Key Words: cattle, Brown Swiss, Holstein Friesian, early weaning, growth characteristics, heifers.

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1999 5 (2), 104-109
Determination of Harvesting Time for Pistachio Nut
(Turkish)

Mehmet KÖROĞLU1 and A. İlhami KÖKSAL2
1Köy Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü, APK Daire Başkanlığı, Toprak ve Su Kaynakları Araştırma Şubesi-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Horticulture-Ankara


This study was carried out to determine harvesting time for Uzun, Kırmızı, Halebi, Siirt and Ohadi pistachio nut varieties grafted on P. vera L. In addition to be effective heat summation, pomological characteristics (splitting rate, nut size, kernel weight), total fat content and fatty acid rates were investigated to determine the harvest maturity. In order to determine fat and fatty acid variation during embryo development all measurements were carried on fresh pistachio nut. After randomly selected 10 seed from each variety, pericarps were removed and the kernels were analyzed. For oil extraction, 100 mg sample of kernel were used. Heptadecanoic acid 1% was used as internel standard. Oil extraction and fatty acid methyl esters were done in one step according to the method of Garces and Mancha(1). Palmitik(16:0), Palmitoleik(18:1), Stearik (18:0), Oleik(18:1), Linoleik(18:2) and Linolenik (18:3) acid contents and rates were analized. Results of the study showed that total fat content could be used for determination of harvesting maturity. Variation of fatty acid content and rates were found to be reach at the level of mature pistachio nut approximately 7-10 days before maturation. It was determined that splitting rate, pistachio size, kernel weight values were important criteria for determining harvest maturity. These characteristics also showed a parellel increasing to total fat accumulation. Effective heat summation of varieties were determined to be 2715 days-degree for Kirmızı and Halebi, 2750 days-degree for Uzun, and 2803-2861 days-degree for Siirt and Ohadi.

Key Words: Pistacia vera L., Harvesting time, Maturity, Fatty acid, Spliting

 

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1999 5 (2), 110-117
Seed Yields and Some Plant Traits of Different Originated Bitter Vetch Lines [Vicia ervilia (L.) Wild. ]
(Turkish)

Hayrettin KENDİR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Ankara

Dryland agriculture is still widely applied in Turkey where various climatic and soil conditions prevail. The area devoted to forage is limited in Turkey. Forage species used are not adequate. Introducing new plant species and cultivars to farming system would help develop forage production. In this research 16 bitter vetch lines obtained from different countries were tested for their seed yield and some agronomic traits in Ankara conditions over 2 years. The experiment was conducted at the experimental fields of Field Crops Department of Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University. In the study, plant height and stem number varied between 33.27-47.53 cm 2.27-2.33 while pod number per plant and first pod height varied between 30.67-56.77 and 10.14-17.17 cm, respectively. Pod length and seed number Per pod were between 19.03-21.87 mm and 2.56-3.30. Biological yield, seed yield, harvest index were changed between 237.15-457.68 kg/da, 82.88-215.95 kg/da, %25.41-45.27, respectively. It is also found that thousand seed weight and days to maturity were between 35.11-43.70g and 86-92.

Key Words: bitter vetch, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, plants traits

 

1999 5 (2), 118-121
Effects Of Bovine Somatotropin Treatment On Milk Yield In Brown Swiss Cows
(Turkish)

Neriman BİLGİÇ and S. Metin YENER
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara


In thıs study, the effect of recombinant bovine somatotopin(r-bst,trade name=Somatech) on milk yield was examined in Brown cows at raised at Altınova State Farm. Animals were divided into two groups. Sometech was injected 500 mg/14 days one of the goup (n=19), during 10 weeks. Milk yield increased by 2.19lt/day during the experimental period. However, this increase caused by the Somatech treatment was statistically non significant.

Key Words: bovine somatotropin , milk yield, Brown Swiss

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