1999, Volume: 5, Number: 1
Contents
KAYGISIZ, A. Lactation Curve Traits of Native Buffaloes Abstract
GÜNAL, M., D. GÖKÇEYREK, E. YENİCE, Ş. ÇALIŞKANER and A. KARAKAYA, A Research on the Effects of Dry Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Rabbit Diets Containing Different Levels of Raw Fiber on Fattening Performance and Cecal Parameters Abstract
YILDIZ, S. and Z. DEMİRCİ, Effects of Some Lignocellulosic Wastes Used in the Production of Pleurotus florida Culture Mushroom on Productivity Abstract
YILDIRIM, O. and H. APAYDIN, Graphical Method for Determining Lateral and Manifold Pipe Diameters in Drip Irrigation Abstract
GÜNEŞ, A., A. İNAL, M. ALPASLAN and S. TABAN, Nutritional Status and the Relationships Between Soil Characteristics and Nutritive Value of the Carrots Grown in Beypazarı Region Abstract
DURSUN, E., M. GÜNER and D. ERDOĞAN, Determination of the Stubble Burying Ratios of Moldboard and Disc Ploughs Abstract
AYDIN, F. and S. PULATSÜ, A Research on the Eutrophication Level of the Sakaryabaşı West Pond Abstract
KAYA, L. and O. YILDIRIM, Economical Comparison of Micro Irrigation Systems for Orchards Abstract
DEMİR, N., H. ÇAMDEVİREN and S. KESKİN, Prediction of Chlorophyll a in Kurtboğazı and Çamlıdere Reservoirs Abstract

SELENAY, M. F. and A. KADAYIFÇI, Evapotranspiration of Alfalfa for Ankara Conditions Abstract

DAYIOĞLU, M. A. The Finite Element Method at Design of the Greenhouse Floor Heating System: Mathematical Model and Simulation Abstract
KENDİR, H. Variation in Some Morphological and Agronomic Characters of Lesser Burnet (Sanguisorba minor Scop.)Abstract
ERMİN, A. and İ. Y. YURTMAN, Effects of the Usage of Megapro in the Flushing Rations Abstract
GÜNER, M., M. VATANDAŞ and E. DURSUN, Determination of Cracking Characteristics of Some Variety of Apricot Stones Abstract
KENDİR, H. Vegetation Composition, Forage Yield and Range Condition of A Natural Rangeland in Ayaş (Ankara) Abstract
Abstracts
 

1999 5 (1) 1-8
Lactation Curve Traits of Native Buffaloes
(Turkish)

Ali KAYGISIZ
Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University Department of Animal Science-Kahramanmaraş

In this study, traits of the lactation curves of Native Buffaloes raised at the Afyon Kocatepe State Farm were determined. The shape and type of lactation curves were described by the parameters of Gamma function of Yt = A tb e-ct. 10.4 percent of lactation curves were atypical. The distributions of typical and atypical lactation curves were depended upon the lactation season (P<0.01), while not significantly (P>0.05) depended upon the lactation number. Least squares means were found to be 2756.5±0.403 g for A parameters (beginning yield), 0.713±0.128 for b parameters (coefficient of rising), 0.15174±0.06033 for c parameters (coefficient of decreasing), 7.27±0.12 for S parameters (persistency), 6086.75±146.77 g for Ymax parameters (Average of maximum daily peak yield) , 104.56±36.22 days for Tmax parameters (average of daily peak yield length), respectively. Effect of calving year on Ymax were highly significant (P<0.01). Effect of calving season on A and Ymax were significant (P<0.05) or highly significant (P<0.01). Effect of calving number on A, S and Ymax were significant (P<0.05) or highly significant (P<0.01).

Key Words : lactation curve, lactation persistency, buffalo

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1999 5 (1) 9-14
A Research on the Effects of Dry Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Rabbit Diets Containing Different Levels of Raw Fiber on Fattening Performance and Cecal Parameters
(Turkish)

Mevlüt GÜNAL1, Dilek GÖKÇEYREK2, Engin YENİCE2, Şahibe ÇALIŞKANER2 and Ayşenur KARAKAYA2
1 Süleyman Demirel University Department of Animal Science -Isparta
2Ankara University Department of Animal Science - Ankara

In this research, 48 New Zealand Rabbits, weaned at 6 weeks age; were fed with 0, 2, 0 and 2 % dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplemented diets contained 7, 5, 7 and 5 % fish meal and low or high crude fibre for 7 weeks. Diets of low crude fibre were 9.03 or 9.11 and high crude fibre were 13.30 or 13.64 %. As the effects of supplements on fattening performance, some cecal and feaces parameters were investigated. Research was designed in Randomized Plot Design for 4 groups and had 3 replicates per groups. At the end of the experimental periods average live weights were 1608.2 g, 1651.0 g, 1482 g, 1682.8 g; average live weight gains were 916.9 g, 956.9 g, 786.9 g, 982.1 g; average feed intakes were 3018.0 g, 3094.7 g, 2860.6 g, 3035.0 g; average feed efficiency values were 3.32, 3.34, 3.72, 3.10; cecal dry matters were 20.32 %, 17.60 %, 20.23 %, 20.22 %; pH were 7.12, 6.98, 6.99, 7.05; volatile fatty acids were 35.20 mmol/kg, 32.75 mmol/kg, 28.96 mmol/kg, 32.57 mmol/kg; ammonia were 7.08 mg/100 g, 7.97 mg/100 g, 7.22 mg/100 g, 8.48 mg/100 g for the groups respectively. Although these parameters and mortality were not significant differences (P>0.05) among the groups, average hot carcass outputs were 46.83 %, 42.68 %, 46.02 %, 44.60 % and differences were significant (P<0.05). In addition, although in the feaces; water of wet samples or dry matter of dry samples were not significant (P>0.05) among the groups, crude fibre, crude protein, crude ash were 23.23 %, 23.28 %, 27.67 %, 27.72 %; 12.81 %, 13.74 %, 10.07 %, 12.05 %; 10.51 %, 10.62 %, 8.31 %, 8.26 for the groups respectively (P>0.05). According to the results; at the levels of 2 % dry yeast supplements to rabbit diets contained low or high crude fibre, especially in low crude fibre groups; hot carcass output statistically decreased, feaces crude fibre slightly increased but not statistically, in high crude fibre groups; feaces crude fibre and crude aches statistically increased, however crude protein also statistically decreased were observed.

Key Words: rabbit fattening rations, dry yeast supplements, fiber levels, fattening performance, cecal parameters

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1999 5 (1) 15-23
Effects of Some Lignocellulosic Wastes Used in the Production of Pleurotus florida Culture Mushroom on Productivity
(Turkish)

Sibel YILDIZ1 and Zafer DEMİRCİ1
Blacksea Technical Universitiy Forestry Faculty-Trabzon


In the aim of this study, wastes of some lignocellulosic materials were used for producing of Pleurotus florida and the effects of different substrat combinations on productivity were investigated.Study was composed of 3 main experiments. Wheat straw, leaves of lime and poplar species, needles of spruce, sawdust(Picea orientalis) and corn-cob were used as main substrates. Bran, grass, leaf of hazelnut, waste paper, chips of beech and pine(Pinus brutia), outer barks of wood (beech) and waste of tea leaves were used as additive materials. Each experiment was completed within a period of 2-2.5 months. Diameters of individual fruit bodies, mushroom heights, fresh weights of the obtained mushrooms were measured. According to the results, it is possible to utilize the annual plants such as wheat straw, corn-cob and the sawdust, chipes and the leaves of miscellaneous wood species with additive materials in the production of culture mushroom.

Key Words: pleurotus florida, lignocellulosic wastes, productivity

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1999 5 (1) 24-32
Graphical Method for Determining Lateral and Manifold Pipe Diameters in Drip Irrigation
(Turkish)

Osman YILDIRIM and Halit APAYDIN
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation - Ankara

In this study, graphical solutions were prepared for determining lateral and manifold pipe diameters to obtain an acceptable water distribution in drip irrigation. It was suggested that pipe diameters should be chosen when Christiansen's uniformity coefficient, Cu, was equal or greater than 98% and 97.5% for lateral and manifold pipe lines, respectively. Design charts which uniformity coefficient could be directly found were given for different lateral and manifold pipe diameters.

Key Words : drip irrigation, lateral, manifold, uniformity coefficient, graphical method

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1999 5 (1) 33-44
Nutritional Status and the Relationships Between Soil Characteristics and Nutritive Value of the Carrots Grown in Beypazarı Region
(Turkish)

Aydın GÜNEŞ, Ali İNAL, Mehmet ALPASLAN and Süleyman TABAN
Ankara Universitiy Faculty of Agriculture Department of Soil Science-Ankara

In this study, nutritional status and the relationships between soil characteristics and nutritive value of the carrots grown in Beypazarı region were investigated. For this purpose, soil and plant samples were taken from 57 different field of the research area. Chemical and physical properties and plant nutrient levels of soil and plant samples were determined. The data from plant and soil analysis were compared with the adequate ranges and sufficiency levels of the nutrients for carrot were determined.According to the results, the soils of the research area have heavy texture, neutral pH and high lime. Most of the soils contained adequate or high amounts of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B and Fe. However, Zn and Mn contents of the soils were low. Nitrogen, P and K contents of most of the plants were insufficient. Magnesium and Mn contents of the plants were also low, but not widespread. There were not any deficiency of Ca and Fe in the plants grown in the region.

Key Words: carrot, soil properties, plant nutrients

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1999 5 (1) 45-50
Determination of the Stubble Burying Ratios of Moldboard and Disc Ploughs
(Turkish)

Ergin DURSUN, Metin GÜNER and Doğan ERDOĞAN
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery - Ankara


In this study, the burying ratios of the cereal stubble were determined for mouldboard plough (with manure skimmer and rolling skimmer), disc plough and poly-disc plough. Field experiments were conducted on a wheat stubble clay loam soil. Before experiments stubble quantity, moisture content, bulk density and cone index of the soil at test plots were measured as 3130 kg/ha, 12%, 1.51 g/cm3 and 2.1 MPa, respectively. According to the research results; stubble burying ratios increased with increasing forward speed. The highest stubble burrying ratios were obtained with mouldboard plough which has manure skimmer. These ratios were found 98.1 % for mouldboard plough with manure skimmer and 93.2 % for mouldboard plough with rolling skimmer. Stubble burying ratio for disc plough increased with increasing position and direction angles of disc. Stubble burying ratios of disc plough changed between 82.9 % and 87.6 %. The lowest stubble burying ratio were obtained by using poly-disc plough.

Key Words : mouldboard plough, disc plough, poly-disc plough, stubble burying ratio, manure skimmer.

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1999 5 (1) 51-58
A Research on the Eutrophication Level of the Sakaryabaşı West Pond
(Turkish)

Fikri AYDIN and Serap PULATSÜ
Ankara University Deparment of Fisheries and Aquaculture- Ankara

In this study, determination of the eutrophication state of the pond which supply water to the Sakaryabaşı Fish Culture and Research Station was aimed. In pond water, primarily phosphorus fractions (total phosphorus, total orthophosphate, total filtrable orthophosphate, particular inorganic phosphorus), and also nitrogen fractions (ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen), chlorophyll-a concentration and some phsico-chemical characteristics (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, transparency, electrical conductivity, total hardness, calcium and magnesium hardness, organic matter, bicarbonate alkalinity) were undertaken. Regarding the total phosphorus concentration, it was detected that trophic state of the pond was hypereutrophic, and especially the values of ammonia-nitrogen, are higher than the acceptable values for rainbow trout production. The management strategies were recommended depending on the data obtained.

Key Words: phosphorus and nitrogen fractions, chlorophyll-a concentration, Sakaryabaşı Fish Culture and Research Station, West Pond.

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1999 5 (1) 59-65
Economical Comparison of Micro Irrigation Systems for Orchards
(Turkish)

Lulu KAYA and Osman YILDIRIM
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation - Ankara


In this study, drip or under-tree micro sprinkler systems (when available wetting ratio can not be obtained with drip systems) were designed for different fruit trees, orchard areas and characteristics of water resource by taking the orchard in the Experiment Farm of Agricultural Faculty, University of Ankara, into consideration and unit system capacity and different system cost elements were obtained. As a result, unit system capacities were found between 0.6 and 1.8 L/s/ha and these values were higher as 80.0-1116.7% in the 5 da orchards than the other orchard areas. The annual total costs for unit area decreased with increasing in orchard area up to 50 da and this decrease was not significant for the areas more than 50 da. In addition, annual total costs decreased with increasing planting intervals and increased with increasing dynamic height of water resource. The shares of annual fixed, operational, energy, maintenance, and irrigation labor costs in annual total costs were 92.8-97.6, % 2.4-7.2, % 0.0-4.5 %, 0.9-1.0 %, and 0.8-2.5 %, respectively.

Key Words : orchard, micro irrigation system, drip irrigation, under-tree micro sprinkler, system capacity, system cost

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1999 5 (1) 66-70
Prediction of Chlorophyll a in Kurtboğazı and Çamlıdere Reservoirs
(English)

Nilsun DEMİR1, Handan ÇAMDEVİREN2 and Sıddık KESKİN 2
1 Ankara University Deparment of Fisheries and Aquaculture- Ankara
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Ankara


The relationships between chlorophyll a and some physical and chemical properties of water were investigated by using multiple linear and nonlinear regression models in Kurtboğazı and Çamlıdere reservoirs. With these two different approaches chlorophyll a was aimed to be estimate more accurately. The determination coefficients were found as 95% and 82% for multiple linear regression models while 85% and 70% for nonlinear regression models for Kurtboğazı and Çamlıdere reservoirs, respectively.

Key Words: chlorophyll a, reservoir, multiple regression, nonlinear model

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1999 5 (1) 71-76
Evapotranspiration of Alfalfa for Ankara Conditions
(Turkish)

M. Fatih SELENAY and Abdullah KADAYIFÇI
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation - Ankara


The evapotranspirations of alfalfa crop in weighting lysimeter in Ankara Research Institute of Village Affairs measured during the years of 1995 and 1996, and the measured values were compared with the values calculated by some sort periodically estimating methods of evapotranspiration. As a result, the most reliable estimation method of evapotranspiration which could be used for irrigation scheduling of sunflower were found as Jensen-Haise method.

Key Words: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), evapotranspiration, estimating methods of evapotranspiration

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1999 5 (1) 77-83
The Finite Element Method at Design of the Greenhouse Floor Heating System: Mathematical Model and Simulation
(Turkish)

Mehmet Ali DAYIOĞLU
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery - Ankara


In this study, the greenhouse floor heating system was modelled and simulated by the finite element method. The floor cross-section envisaged layers which were formed soil (30 cm), fine sand (6 cm), coarse sand (6 cm), perlite (6 cm) and gravel (12 cm) was devided to 100 triangular elements with 66 nodal points. The distance between heating lines in the floor heating system is 30 cm. The temperature changes being in connection with source heat of 3.5 W m-1, 4.0 W m-1 and 4.5 W m-1 were investigated under boundary conditions which were the air temperature of 15 °C and the convection transfer coefficent of 10 W m-2°C-1 on the soil surface. In these source fluxes, temperature values at heating point were determined as 28.10, 29.97 and 31.84°C, respectivelly. The temperature values at nodal points were calculated changing between 17.67 and 31.47 °C at conditions which were soil moisture of 0.15 m3m-3 , soil thermal conductivity of 0.819 W m-1°C-1 and source heat flux of 4 W m-1. The different conditions were analysed and presented using temperature contour lines. As a result, in practices of the greenhouse floor heating, the finite element method could be used as a powerful tool of design.

Key Words: floor heating in greenhouses, finite element method, mathematical modelling, simulation

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1999 5 (1) 84-88
Variation in Some Morphological and Agronomic Characters of Lesser Burnet (Sanguisorba minor Scop.)
(English)

Hayrettin KENDİR
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Ankara


This work was conducted with two lesser burnet types to determine the amount of variation in some characters. Lesser burnet types were grown in Ankara in the spring of 1996. Plants in the field were observed for a number of morphological and agronomic characteristics in 1997. Bünyan 80 cultivar had superiority for stem number, inflorescence length, 1000 fruit weight, dry yield per plant, leaf ratio, germination at 0.05 probabilty level. A wide range of variation was detected among the plants. Values obtained by rating coefficients of variation for each type made it clear that the variation in native population material was wider for most of the characteristics observed. The upper limits of variation in the material collected from Ankara rangelands were also higher than those of Bünyan 80 cultivar. Data showed that native genotype could be used in lesser burnet breeding studies for agricultural purposes.

Key Words: sanguisorba minor, variation, plant characteristics

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1999 5 (1) 89-94
Effects of the Usage of Megapro in the Flushing Rations
(Turkish)

Aslı ERMİN and İ. Yaman YURTMAN
Trakya University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Tekirdağ

In this study, effects of the usage of Megapro on the live weight, body condition score, some blood parameters and reproductive performance of ewes were investigated during the mating season. Twentynine Turkgeldi ewes (2 years old) were divided in to three trial groups (K0; control, K1; 7.40% Megapro, K2; 14.8% Megapro) and fed with trial concentrates based on different groups for a period of 6 weeks. Average live weight, body condition score values at the begining of the study, at the mating and at the end of study were found as 42.10±1.977 kg, 42.20±1.738 kg, 42.90±1.686 kg; 51.41±1.547 kg, 50.80±2.174 kg, 51.64±1.836 kg; 53.30±1.448 kg, 54.17±2.610 kg, 53.48±1.802 kg; 2.06±0.095, 2.00±0.102, 2.13±0.094; 2.45±0.050, 2.33±0.117, 2.66±0.102; 2.50±0.052, 2.75±0.125 and 2.94±0.108 for the group of K0, K1 and K2 respectively. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) with respect to live weights, but some differences in body condition scores at second and third control periods were found to be statisticaly important (p<0.05). According to the lambing results, litter size were 1.30±0.152, 1.28±0.184, 1.42±0.534 for the groups K0, K1 and K2 respectively and differences between the groups were not significant (p>0.05).

Key Words: megapro, flushing, live weight, body condition score, blood parameters, litter size

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1999 5 (1) 95-103
Determination of Cracking Characteristics of Some Variety of Apricot Stones
(Turkish)

Metin GÜNER, Mustafa VATANDAŞ and Ergin DURSUN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara


In this research energy and force required to crack, the force-deformation and the force-time curves of some variety of apricot stones such as Hasanbey, Hacihaliloğlu, Çöloğlu, Tokaloğlu, Çataloğlu were determined by using two parallel rigid plates. The size and weight of apricot stones were obtained and geometric mean diameter was calculated before the tests. The tests were conducted for three different moisture. The stones were tested in natural, treated with water for 24 and 48 hours. At the end of the research, the maximum energy and force required to crack were obtained for the variety of Çöloğlu as 239 Nmm and 503 N in the natural moisture respectively. Hacihaliloğlu had the minumum energy and force as 122 Nmm and 333 N at the same moisture respectively. Moreover, we found that the energy increased and the force decreased as the moisture increased.

Key Words: apricot stone, the cracking force, the force-time curve, the force-deformation curve

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1999 5 (1) 104-110
Vegetation Composition, Forage Yield and Range Condition of A Natural Rangeland in Ayaş (Ankara)
(Turkish)

Hayrettin KENDİR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Ankara


This study was conducted to find out the current vegetation composition, forage yield and range condition of a natural rangeland in Ayaş county near Ankara in 1997 and 1998. The work was done on a sloppy and shallow soil on the hills near Ankara - Beypazarı highway. The results obtained using line intercept method showed that 85.54 % of the soil surface was exposed to erosion, being not covered by any plant unit. Vegetation was composed of grasses, other plant families and legumes with a portion of 49.64%, 38.39% and 11.97%, respectively. The most frequent plant species in the vegetation which was consist of 42 plant species were sheep fescue (49%), thyme (28%) and june grass (15%). There were no differences between years for forage yield. Dry forage yield of the area was 102.12 kg/da as the mean of two years' sampling. The degree of range quality was 3.71, thus range condition was classified as fair. It is also calculated that an Animal Unit needs 42.30 da of rangeland.

Key Words : rangeland, floristic composition, forage yield, frequency, range condition, carrying capacity

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