1998, Volume: 4, Number: 2
Contents
KARA, E. E., İ. AÇIKGÖZ, P. GÜLTEKİN and H. KÜLAHLI, The Effect of Chimney Emissions of Samsun Nitrogen Industry and Black Sea Copper Enterprise on The Surrounding Soil) Abstract
SÖZERİ, S., S. MADEN, M. E. YAZGAN, S. AÇIKSÖZ, H. KENDİR, E. F. DİLEK and N. KARADENİZ, A Research on the Weed Control Possibilities During Establishment Stages of Lawn Areas as a Maintenance Tool Under Central Anatolian Conditions Abstract
SARIÇİÇEK, B. Z., A. V. GARİPOĞLU and R. AMANVERMEZ, Effect of Various Fat Levels and Seources on Blood Cholosterol Levels in Rabbits Abstract
ÇİFTÇİ, V. and H. KULAZ, Dormancy in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Abstract
ÇAYCI, G., A. BARAN and D. BENDER, The Effects of Peat and Sand Amended Spent Mushroom Compost on Growing of Tomato Abstract
KOR, A., F. CEDDEN, M. ERTUĞRUL and E. BAŞPINAR, Some Slaughtering and Carcass Characteristics in Akkaraman, Akkaraman x Awassi (F1) and Akkaraman x Chios (F1) male lambs Fattened from the Weaning Abstract
KOCABAŞ, E. S. and İ. GİRGİN, Evaluation of Irrigation System Performance in Irrigation Schemes Abstract
VATANDAŞ, M. and R. GÜRHAN, Development of an Electronic Pulsator for Milking Machines Abstract
KILIÇ, Y. and İ. Y. YURTMAN, A Study on the Determination of Carbohydrate Fractions of Industrial By Product Feeds Used in Dairy Cow Rations Abstract

ERMAN, M. S. and İ. Y. YURTMAN, Effect of Using Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculant and Grains Additives on the Quality of Wet Brewers Grains Silages Abstract

ERTAŞ, A. H. Effect of Packaging and Frozen Storage on Lipid Oxidation of Beef Patties Abstract
Abstracts
 

1998, 4 (2) 1-7
The Effect of Chimney Emissions of Samsun Nitrogen Industry and Black Sea Copper Enterprise on The Surrounding Soil)
(Turkish)

Emine Erman KARA, ilknur AÇIKGÖZ, Pelin GÜLTEKİN and Havva KÜLAHLI
Ondukoz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara

The aim of thisl research is to determine the effects of the Chimney emissions of Samsun Nitrogen Industry and Black Sea Copper Enterprise, established in Samsun, located in the Middle Black Sea Geographical Region, on some chemical and biological properties and microelement contes of the surrounding agricultural soil. Since wind direction and extension of agricultural lands have been considered, soil samples have been taken from 0-5, 5-10,, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm depths in three different directions. It has been found out that there is no relationship between factory distance and pH values, and between factory distance and lime content, that pH values and lime content decreased in dephts. It has been determined that there is no characteristic distribution dependent upon direction and factory distance in CO2 production and dehydrogenase (DHG) activity, which are the criteria used in the determination of the biological activity of the soil. Besides, it has been brought out that there is heavy metal accumulation such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, on the surface of the soil in the parts close to the factories.

Key Words: factory chimney emissions, soil CO2 production, dehydrogenase activity, heavy metal accumulation (Fe,Cu,Zn,Mn)


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1998, 4 (2) 8-14
A Research on the Weed Control Possibilities During Establishment Stages of Lawn Areas as a Maintenance Tool Under Central Anatolian Conditions
(Turkish)

Solmaz SÖZERİ1, Salih MADEN1, Murat Ertuğrul YAZGAN2, Sebahat AÇIKSÖZ2, Hayrettin KENDİR3, E.Figen DİLEK2 and Nilgül KARADENİZ2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture-Ankara
3Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

Carried out in 1993-1994, this research aimed to find out the possibilities of weed control mothods before and after the establishment of lawn areas in Central Anatolian conditions. In this research seven different weed control methods were tested. According to the results obtained, total systemic herbicide (Glyphosate) and total systemic herbicide+manure sterilization (Methyl bromide) had no effet in controlling weeds at newly established turf. Total system ic herbicide+post emergence herbicide (Picloram mixture) application affected most of the weeds in the experimental plots. Manure sterilization alone did not show any difference from the control plats. Post emergence herbicide application alone controlled annual weeds, but failed in controlling some perennial weeds such as Agropyron repens. The most promising effect was obtained from total systemic herbicide+manure sterilization+post emergence herbicide applications.

Key Words: lawn area, weed control

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1998, 4 (2) 15-20
Effect of Various Fat Levels and Seources on Blood Cholosterol Levels in Rabbits
(English)

B.Zehra SARIÇİÇEK, Ali Vaiz GARİPOĞLU and Ramazan AMANVERMEZ
Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Samsun

In this research it was aimed to determine the effets of different fat sources (animal fat and vegetable oil) and different fat levels (0 % 2.5 and 5 %) on various blood parameters of rabbits. With this aim, 5 different group (each of with male and female sub-groups) were established (Group 1=0 % fat, group 2=2.5 % vegetable oil (VO), group 3=5 % vegetable oul group 4=2.5 % animal fat (AF), group 5=5 % animal fat) and animals were allocated into these groups. At the end of the experiment, it was determined that blood parameters (LDL-C, total cholesterol, phospolipid, HDL-C, tryglyceride, free cholesterol) were influenced by different fat sources and levels at different manner and animal fats increased these blood parameters.

Key Words: rabbit, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, phospolipid, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, vegetable oil, animal fat

 

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1998, 4 (2) 21-26
Dormancy in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)
(Turkish)

Vahdettin ÇİFTÇİ and Haluk KULAZ
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Van


This experiment was conducted in the year of 1996 by using 6 cultivars of lentil which were registered cultivars and named as Sazak-91, Kayı-91, Kışlık Pull-11, Kışlık Yeşil-21, Kışlık Kırmızı-51 and Yerli Kırmızı. Values for germination and emergence percentage were investigated in 5 different sowing dates (July 2, August 2, September 2, October 3 and November 4) by using seeds harvested in June 24. The effect of sowing dates and cultivars on the germination and emergence values were found significant. Generally the higher values were obtained from the latest dates of sowing. No germination percentage was found for Sazak-91 and Yerli Kırmızı cultivars in the first sowing date while the highest value (100 %) was recorded for the Kışlık Kırmızı-51 cultivar in the latest sowing date. The lowest emergence value in the first counting was obtained from Sazak-91, Kayı-91, Kışlık Pull-11 and Yerli Kırmızı, which were sowed in the first sowing date and had no emergence.However, the highe emergence percentage was found from Kışlık Yeşil-21 (90.5 %) in the latest sowing date. On the other hand, the lowest emergence value in the second counting was recorded from Sazak-91 and Yerli Kırmızı cultivars, which had no emergence in the first sowing date while the highest value was found the Kışlık Kırmızı-51 cultivar as 95.3 % in the latest sowing date. Hence to a resting period achieve higher emergence values for the above mentioned lentil cultivars it would be necessary to wait for 4-5 months after harvest especially for winter sowing of lentis the seed rate must be increased (about 10-20 %) if the same year'' seeds will be used.

Key Words: lentil, seed dormancy, seed

 

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1998, 4 (2) 27-29
The Effects of Peat and Sand Amended Spent Mushroom Compost on Growing of Tomato
(English)

Gökhan ÇAYCI1, Abdullah BARAN1 and Damla BENDER2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara
2Karadeniz Teknik University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ordu


In this study, the effects of peat and sand amended spent mushroom compost (SMC) on growing of tomato (Lycopersicon escelantum Mill. Cv. H 2274) were investigated and 100 % Peat and SMC, mixtures of SMC with 25 %, 50%, 75% Peat and 50% SMC + 25 % Peat 25 % Sand and 50 % Peat + 25 % SMC + 25 % Sand were used as growing media. Plant growing in SMC mixing with peat and sand was compared with 100 % Peat as control 25 % P + 75 % SMC was ascertained the most appropriate mixture for plant growing in SMC mixture Shoot and root dry weights of control was found higher than other treatments. There was no statistical difference among 100 % SMC, 50 % Peat + 50 % SMC and 75 % Peat + 25 % SMC whereas sand significantly negatively affected plant growth (P<0.01).


Key Words: spent mushroom compost, peat, sand, plant growth medium, tomatı

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1998, 4 (2) 30-38
Some Slaughtering and Carcass Characteristics in Akkaraman, Akkaraman x Awassi (F1) and Akkaraman x Chios (F1) male lambs Fattened from the Weaning
(Turkish)

Aşkın KOR, Fatin CEDDEN, Mehmet ERTUĞRUL and Ensar BAŞPINAR
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara


The aim of the study is to find out and to compare some slaughtering and carcass characteristics of Akkaraman. Awassi x Akkaraman (F1), Chios x Akkaraman (F1) male lambs which were fattened from weaning at 2.5 months of age. Each group containing 8 lambs were fed ad-libidum with concentrate and daily 100 g alfa alfa hay for 70 days Five of them were randomly chosen and slaughtered in order to analyse slaughtering and carcass characteristics following the fattening period. The slaughter weights, 36.61+0.542, 40.33+0.454 and 40.67+1.723 kg, omental fat weights, 0.12+0.033, 0.18+0.034 and 0.21+0.030 kg, hot dressing percentage, 48.70 % + 0.641, 49.95 % + 0.587 and 48.54 % + 1.046, cold dressing percentage, 47.06 % + 0.667, 48.52 % + 0.980 and 47.47 % + 1.018 respectively in the group of Akkaraman Awassi x Akkaraman (F1) and Chios x Akkaraman (F1) breeds..The rational portions of the valuable parts in the left- half of carcass were found as follows. Fore-leg 20.54 % + 0.415, 20.13 % + 0.562 and 19.98 % + 0.428, hind-leg 34.60 % + 0.315, 35.35 % + 0.323 and 35.06 % + 0.845 back-loin 19.34 % + 0.623, 18.72 % + 0.915 and 18.38 % 0.711 respectively and according to given breed order. The rational portions of the tissues were found as 54.41 % + 0.86, 51.44 % + 1.130 and 53.60 % + 0.828 for muscles. 19.01 % + 0.561, 20.00 + 0.302 and 20.04 % + 0.507 for bone, 16.84 % + 0.770, 20.00 % + 0.841 and 18.14 % + 1.388 for total fat. R Same values for the part between 6-12 th ribs (cutlet) were 43.75 % + 0.034, 43.55 % + 0.033 and 43.48 % + 0.067 for muscles, 25.00 % + 1.659, 24.19 % + 1.121 and 23.19 % + 0.885 for bone and, 18.75 % + 1.143, 19.35 % + 2.845 and 25.63 % + 1.345 for total fat.

Key Words: lamb, fttening, Akkaraman, Awassi x Akkaraman (F1), Chios x Akkaraman (F1) Carcass characteristics

 

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1998, 4 (2) 39-48
Evaluation of Irrigation System Performance in Irrigation Schemes
(Turkish)

Emel Seçkin KOCABAŞ and İrfan GİRGİN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara


In this study, the certain indicators such as water use, agricultural and economical efficiencies related to the 13 irigation scheme in the Region First of DSİ were calculated and the performance of each system were evaluated. The monthly net and total water supply ratios were considered as water use efficiency indicators. In this context, the monthly water supply ratios have been calculated by using the Penman-Monteith and Blaney-Criddie methods of May. June, <uly, August and September in which the watering reaches to the highest volume. According to the Penman-Monteith method total average water supply ratios for the months of May. June, july, August and September are calculated as 2.0, 0.7, 0.8, 0.8, 1.0 respectively and the net water supply lratios for the same months found as 3.9, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 1.0 respectively. As to Blaney-Criddie method total average water supply ratior for May, June, July, August and September are respectively 5.0, 0.7, 0.9, 0.8, 1.4 and net water supply lratios are 9.6, 1.4, 1.6, 1.6, 2.6 respectively. Total and net average water supply ratios are 1.7 and 0.9 respectively, the ratio of the agricultural efficiency indicators and the rate of return in consident payment of economic efficiency indicators were calculated respectively as 60 % and 80 %. On the other hand, the Nation wide average values are 2.0, 1.04, 66% and 36% respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that the first three values for the research area are approximately the same as the Nationwide values, but the latter is higher than the average value of the country.

Key Words: system performance, water use efficiency, agricultural efficiency, economical efficiency

 

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1998, 4 (2) 49-51
Development of an Electronic Pulsator for Milking Machines
(Turkish)

Mustafa VATANDAŞ and Recai GÜRHAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, an electronic pulsator was developed for milking machine. Electronic control unit consists of an IC monostable multivibrator and time delay circuits as well as a valve system. According to the test results high stability was determined at pulsation rate and pulsator ratio..

Key Words: electronic pulsator, pulsation rate, pulsator ratio

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1998, 4 (2) 52-54
A Study on the Determination of Carbohydrate Fractions of Industrial By Product Feeds Used in Dairy Cow Rations
(Turkish)

Yusuf KILIÇ and İ.Yaman YURTMAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animall Science-Tekirdağ


This study was conducted to determine the carbohydrate fraction contents of some industrial by products which are widely used in the dairy cow ration. For this purpose NDF, ADF, ADL analyses were caried on tha maize silage, beet pulp, wet brewers grains, tomato pulp, razmol and wheat bran samples. Cellulose, hemicellose and NFC values of the samples were calculated by difference using related parameters. Cllulose, hemicellulose, ADF, NDF, ADL and NFC contents in dry matter were found as 29.65, 23.64, 33.02, 56.62, 3.37,26.36 % for maize silage 22.81,21.19, 27.53, 48.73, 4.72, 36.59, % for beet pulp, 20.97, 39.51, 28.08, 65.81, 7.11, 0.16 % for wet brewers grains, 38.63, 20.06, 48.18, 58.92, 9.55, 1.24 % for tomato pulp, 9.59, 27.82, 12.22, 40.04, 2.63, 33.70, % for razmol, 11.95, 33.95, 16.01, 45.33, 4.05, 29.7 % for wheat bran samples respectively.

Key Words: by products, ADF, NDF, ADL, NFC

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1998, 4 (2) 55-57
Effect of Using Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculant and Grains Additives on the Quality of Wet Brewers Grains Silages
(Turkish)

M.Serdar ERMAN and İ.Yaman YURTMAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animall Science-Tekirdağ

Fresh brewers grains materials were delivered directly from the brewery and were randomly assigned in a four treatment groups. Treatment groups were (K) control (I) mikrobial inoculant (3x1010 LAB cfu.g-1), (T) wheat grains, (1+T) bacterial inoculant + grains. Grains were added 3 % of wet weight of the material and inoculant was applied according to the producer quide (3.3 gt-1 TM). Samples were filled in the laboratory type PVC silos after the treatments and stored 90 days. Crude protein (%), crude fiber (%), pH, NH3-N (g.kg-1 DM), lactic acid (% FM), acetic acid (% FM) and LAB counts (cfu.g-1 TM) were found as 22.38 + 0.0545, 16.77 + 0.051, 3.59 + 0.011, 0.30 + 0.110, 0.45 + 0.760, 0.93 + 0.520, 74x103 for the group of K, 22.16 + 0.683, 16.54 + 0.030, 3.64 + 0.070, 0.20 + 0.063, 0.50 + 0.015, 0.24 + 0.067, 50x102 for the group of 1, 21.99 + 0.444, 15.65 + 0.387, 3.95 + 0.015, 058 + 0.038, 0.54 + 0.036, 1.02 + 0.079, 142x103 for the group of T, 22.31 + 0.086, 15.61 + 0.138, 3.94 + 0.017, 0.68 + 0.038, 0.50 + 0.038, 1.73 + 0.811, 69x102 for tha group of 1+T respectively. Differences between the averages of pH, crude fiber and NH3-N values of the treatment groups were found statistically significant (p<0.05).

Key Words: wet brewers grains, silage quality, bacterial inoculant

 

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1998, 4 (2) 58-63
Effect of Packaging and Frozen Storage on Lipid Oxidation of Beef Patties
(Turkish)

A.Hamdi ERTAŞ
Ankara University, Department of Food Engineering-Ankara

Beef patties packaged with or without vacuum were stored at -18oC for six months. Effects of package type and frozen storage time on some quality characteristics of beef patties were investigated Beef patties were evaluated for TBA values, free fatty acids contents, peroxide values, Lovibond tintometer red color intensity and sensory properties at one month intervals during six months of frozen storage TBA values, peroxide values and free fatty acids contents increased over time regardiess of packaging treatment (P<0.01), however vacuum packaged patties had low scores (P<0.01). Lovibond tintometer red color intensity decreased during the frozen storage time in both groups (P<0.01), but vacuum packaged patties had greater red color intensity than monvacuum packaged patties (P<0.01). Packaging type and frozen storage time did not affect the sensorial characteristics of patties (P<0.05).

Key Words: beef patty, packaging type, frozen storage, lipid oxidation

 

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