1997, Volume: 3, Number: 3
Contents
OLGUN, M., B. KENDİRLİ and M. Y. ÇELİK, Determining of Heating Requirements for Greenhouses with Different Features in Yalova Province Abstract
BAYRAM, Ş., N. KILINÇER and N. ÖZDER, Some Morphological Changes Observed in the Blood Cells of Prepupa and Pupa During the Course of Metamorphosis of Agrotis segetum (Den. And Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Abstract
ÇİFTÇİ, V., B. ARSLAN and M. ERMAN The Status of Rood and Shoots of the Lentil (L. culinaris Medik.) in the First Development Stage Abstract
EMEKLİER, H. Y. and N. F. KÖKSOY, Effect of Sowing Time and Plant Densit on Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Abstract
TOPÇUOĞLU, B., C. KÜTÜK, K. DEMİR and M. ÖZÇOBAN, Effect of Calcium Chloride Application on Yield and Some Physical and Chemical Quality Factors in Spinach Plant (Spinaceae oleraceae L.) Fertilized with Ammonium Sulphate and Ammonium Nitrate Abstract
OLGUN M. and H. YAPRAK, Dimensional and Economical Comparison of Different Truss Systems for Agricultural Buildings Abstract
ERMAN, M., V. ÇİFTÇİ and H.Hüseyin GEÇİT, A Research on Relations Among the Charecters and Path Coefficient Analysis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Abstract
GÖRÜR, E . and G. DURSUN, Work Analysis on Mouldboard Ploughs Manufacturing Abstract
SARIÇİÇEK, B. Z. and A. V. GARİPOĞLU, Feed Values of Sunflower Heads and Stovers Treated Wıth Different Methods and Possıbılıtıes of Usıng As Roughage Abstract

BAŞALMA, D. Adaptation of Winter Type Germany Originated Rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. Oleifera L.) Cultivars Under Ankara Conditions Abstract

KENDİR, H. and Ö. BAKIR, An Investigation on the Flora of Ankara-Ahlatlıbel Dryland Range and Distributions of Some Important Range Plant Species Abstract
YILMAZ, S., B. ASLIM and Y. BEYATLI, Effect of Glyphosate Herbicide on the Growth and Acid Production of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Abstract
YENİCE, E. and M. R. OKUYAN, A Research on the Determination of the Requirement Periods of A, D3 and Vitamins E Supplemented to Broiler Rations Abstract
KENDİR, H. Effects of Clipping Height on Some Basic Characteristics of Timoty Grass (Phleum pratense L.) Abstract
HASBİOĞLU, M. M. and A. H. ERTAŞ, Effect of Mashed Lentil (Lens culinaris L. Medik.) Addition on Some Quality Characteristics of Hamburgers Abstract
Abstracts
 

1997, 3 (3) 1-7
Determining of Heating Requirements for Greenhouses with Different Features in Yalova Province
(Turkish)

Metin OLGUN, Berna KENDİRLİ and M. Yavuz ÇELİK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

In this study, heat requirements of 30 types greenhouses with different dimensions and material characteristics in Yalova province which is one of the most intense greenhouse region of Turkey were calculated. The results were evaluated as grafical. As a result among greenhouse volume with heat loss by ventilation, the area of the greenhouse cover with heat loss by conduction and the ground area of the greenhouse with total heat loss were determined a linear relation. Increasing greenhouse volume cause a decrease % 10-17 in heat loss by ventilation. Increasing area of the greenhouse cover cause a increase % 1 for glass materials and % 32 for single layer PE materials according to double layer PE materials in heat loss by conduction. Total heat loss by Per square mater of greenhouse ground area cause a increase % 1-2 for glass greenhouses and % 1-6 for plastic greenhouses.

Key Words: Yalova, greenhouses, heating requirement

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1997, 3 (3) 8-15
Some Morphological Changes Observed in the Blood Cells of Prepupa and Pupa During the Course of Metamorphosis of Agrotis segetum (Den. And Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
(Turkish)

Şerife BAYRAM1, Neşet KILINÇER1 and Nihal ÖZDER2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara
2Trakya University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Tekirdağ

Important morphological changes in the blood cells of prepupa and pupa of A. segetum were observed during the course of matemorphosis from the periodic slide preparations. Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, adipohemocytes, spherulocytes, oenocytoids and crystal cells were observed during prepupal stage as well as larval breakage of cells happaned from the begining of prepupal towards pupal stage. On the other hand, sometimes regeneration and mitosis division in hemocytes was also observed. Moreover, during prepupal and pupal stages, large quantitiy of crystals was also found among the broken cells in hemolymph. During both of the prepupal and pupal stages plasmatocytes were found playing an active role in the course of metamorphosis.

Key Words: Agrotis segetum, metamorphosis, haemocytes

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1997, 3 (3) 16-19
The Status of Rood and Shoots of the Lentil (L. culinaris Medik.) in the First Development Stage
(Turkish)

Vahdettin ÇİFTÇİ, Burhan ARSLAN and Murat ERMAN
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

In lentil, at the first stages of development, the amount of dry matter spent for the root and above the soil organs shows significant differences according to the cultivars, spending more food stuff for root development increases and so this rises the cultivar's tolerance for negative conditions. This research was conducted to determine the formation of root and above the soil surface organs in the five lentil cultivars (Kışlık Pul 11, Kışlık Yeşil 21, Kışlık Kırmızı 51, Sazak-91 and Kayı-91). In the research 10 seeds of each cultivars were sown into PVC containers with 460 cm3 of volume. The experimental design was a replicated randomized block with three replications. 15, 22 and 29 days after emergence, the plant were pulled off and their root lengths, shoot lengths, number of leaves, root and above the soil weights (oven dry weights) and under / the soil dry weight rates were determined. The development advanced root lengths, shoot lengths, number of leaves and root and above the soil weights (dry oven weights showed distinct increases at the all cultivars.

Key Words: lentil, root, shoot, the first development stage

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1997, 3 (3) 20-28
Effect of Sowing Time and Plant Densit on Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)
(Turkish)

H. Yavuz EMEKLİER and N. Funda KÖKSOY
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

Research was conducted in experimental plots of Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University in the year of 1995. Variety of sorghum Beydarı was sown on three sowing time (April 20th May 5th and May 20th) and three plant density (40x10 cm, 40x15 cm and 40x20 cm). Depending on this research results could be summarized as follow: According to plant density as an average; the plant height 96.04, 89.05 and 78.88 cm; the number of leaf Per plant 10.77, 10.42 the length of flag leaf 23.51, 25.79 and 28.73 cm; the blade of flag leaf 4.58, 5.07 and 5.49 cm, the number of first branch of panicle 49.79, 52.88 and 55.28; the seed yield of Per plant 26.63, 34.30 and 43.68 g respectively were obtained. The highest and lowest seed yield were determined in 40x20 cm plant density as 484.47 g/m2 on sowing time April and May 20 respectively.

Key Words: Sorghum, plant density, within the row spacing, sowing time

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1997, 3 (3) 29-33
Effect of Calcium Chloride Application on Yield and Some Physical and Chemical Quality Faectors in Spinach Plant (Spinaceae oleraceae L.) Fertilized with Ammonium Sulphate and Ammonium Nitrate
(Turkish)


Bülent TOPÇUOĞLU1, Cihat KÜTÜK2, Köksal DEMİR3 Mustafa ÖZÇOBAN3

1Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute-Antalya
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara
3Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

AIn a field experiment, yield, total oxalic acid and nitrate contents and also stoicheiometric physiologically active oxalic acid amount of spinach plant were increased by the applications of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate resulted higher values than ammonium sulfate on the parameters mentioned above in spinach plant. Total oxalic acid and nitrate contents and also stoicheiometric physiologically active oxalic acid amount in spinach were decreased by the foliar calcium chloride applications. In spinach plant, no important changes were obtained on physical properties such as average plant and petiole weight and leaf length, but for important changes were obtained in total P, K and Ca contents by the nitrogenous fertilizer and CaCl2 applications.

Key Words: spinach, nitrogenous fertilizer, CaCl2, oxalic acid, nitrate, mineral contents, plant growth

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1997, 3 (3) 34-42
Dimensional and Economical Comparison of Different Truss Systems for Agricultural Buildings
(Turkish)

Metin OLGUN1 and Hasbi YAPRAK2
1Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculturi, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara
2Ankara Üniversity, Kastamonu Profession High School-Kastamonu

Roof is the most expensive structural member for agricultural buildings. Recently, trusses have a widespread usage at roof systems. In this study, six type trusses were taken into account and dimensional and economical comparison were made for different spans and roof covering materials.

Key Words : Agricultural buildings, truss

 

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1997, 3 (3) 43-46
A Research on Relations Among the Charecters and Path Coefficient Analysis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
(Turkish)

Murat ERMAN1, Vahdettin ÇİFTÇİ1 and H.Hüseyin GEÇİT2
1Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Van
2Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

This research was conducted to determine the correlations among the some charecters and the direct and indirect effect of these charecters on the seed yield per decare in chickpea. The experiment was conducted out in Yüzüncü Yyl University, Agricultural Faculty's experimental area in 1990-1991. In this study, ILC- 195, ILC- 3279, Güney Sarysy- 482 chickpea cultivars and 8 lines from ICARDA were investigated. According to the results from relations among the charecters investigated; significant and positive correlations were found between seed yield per decare and biological yield per decare (r=0.548**), seed yield per plant (r=0.548**) and number of pods per plant (r=0.830**) at the level of P<0.01 statistically. Moreover, significant and negative correlations was found between seed yield per decare and 1000-seed weight (r= -0.691**) at the level of P<0.01 statistically. In result of path analysis, the number of pods per plant was the charecter that has positive and highest-direct effect (0.3468) on the seed yield per decare. This was followed by the harvest index (0.2421). The number of secondary branches per plant was the charecter that had negative and highest-direct effect (-0.1550) on the seed yield per decare and this was followed by the seed yield per plant (-0.1061).

Key Words: chickpea, correlation, Path analysis, yield

 

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1997, 3 (3) 47-51
Work Analysis on Mouldboard Ploughs Manufacturing
(Turkish)

Ercan GÖRÜR and İlknur GÖKNUR DURSUN
Ankara Üniversity, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this research, work analysis has been done regarding mouldboard plough in a plough factory. For this purpose, work steps involved manufacturing and the bottom groups of work steps were examined according to work system concept. During the measurements basis time, break time, distribution time, preparation time, and unit time were determined. Required total unit time was determined as 463,72 min to manufacture a three-furrow mouldboard plough with 90 cm working width.

Key Words : work analysis, work system, unit time

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1997, 3 (3) 52-56
Feed Values of Sunflower Heads and Stovers Treated Wıth Different Methods and Possıbılıtıes of Usıng As Roughage
(English)

B. Zehra SARIÇİÇEK and Ali Vaiz GARİPOĞLU
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversity. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Samsun


Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of different urea treatments (4% urea; US, 4% urea+molasses; UMS, and 4% urea+soybean extract treated stovers and heads; USS) on the digestibilities of the sunflower stovers and heads and also to determine the possibilities of utilizing of these stovers and heads as an alternative roughage source. Four native Karayaka hoggets were used in digestion trial. Digestibility coefficients related to dry matter, organic matters, crude protein of the untreated stovers and heads (UTS), US, UMS, and USS were determined as; 35.771, 46.232, 6.037 %; 42.478, 47.742, 37.916%; 62.334, 51.085, 45.311%; 55.232, 59.340, 56.330%, respectively. Energy values (SV) were determined as; 5.468, 14.353, 15.550, 26.757 SV, respectively. Fattening period was 70 days and animal materials were 40 hoggets.Total weight gains, daily weight gains, daily forage intakes, daily concentrate intakes and feed efficiency ratios (feed/gain) were found as; 7.02, 7.54, 7.70, 9.23 Kg; 100.00±12.95, 107.72±15.78, 109.57±11.56, 127.43±15.70 g; 553.86, 550.00, 574.36, 575.86 g; 599.21, 592.43, 598.21, 598.79 g; 11.53, 10.61, 10.71, 9.22 for UTS, US, UMS, and USS, respectively.

Key Words: sunflower stovers and heads, urea treatment, digestion coefficients

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1997, 3 (3) 57-62
Adaptation of Winter Type Germany Originated Rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. Oleifera L.) Cultivars Under Ankara Conditions
(English)

Dilek BAŞALMA
Ankara Üniversity. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

The aim of this research was to determine the adaptation ability of winter type German originated rapeseed cultivars under Ankara conditions. This studry was carried out to determine the yield and yield components of eight rapeseed cultivars (Ceres, Cobra, Diadem, NPZ 71, NPZ 74, NPZ 82, NPZ 66, NPZ 62) under Ankara conditions in 1993-1994. In both years, the sowing was done as early as possible to enable plants to enter winter conditions in rosette stage Plant height, numbers of axillary branches, numbers of pods on the main stem; pod length, number of seeds Per pod was observed in the field as yield components. Seed yields, thousand seed weights and oil ratio were also determined after harvesting. According to the results of the average of two years, the highest seed yield (322.01 kg/da) was obtained from cv. NPZ 62 and the highest oil ratio (37.12 %) was determined in cv. NPZ 66. Yields and oil ratio of these rapessed cultivars were found to be high even though agricultural applications such as irrigation, hoeing and fertilization were not applied. The results indicated that these cultivars could be grown easily under Ankara conditionsa

Key Words: winter rapessed, yield and yield components

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1997, 3 (3) 63-69
An Investigation on the Flora of Ankara-Ahlatlıbel Dryland Range and Distributions of Some Important Range Plant Species
(English)

Hayrettin KENDİR and Ömer BAKIR
Ankara Üniversity. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

The aim of this research was to determine the complete flora of Ahlatlıbel dryland range, near Ankara and to investigate the distributions of the most abundant and important range plants. The results were analysed using chisquare and coefficient of dispersion methods. The analysis showed that the distributions of Stipa lagascae, Fastuca ovina, Astragalus ovalis and Astragalus angustifollius were fitted to the poisson distribution while Poa bulbosa had a contagious distribution. Basal cover values of these five experimental species varied between 5.93 % for Festuca ovina and 0.56 for Astragalus angustifollus. 109 plant species belonging to 77 genera in 27 famillies were found in the experimental area. It was observed that 13 plant species in the experimental area were decreasers, comprising eight grasses, four legumes and one Rosaceae species. Nine species were increasers; four grasses and five from other plant famillies. Thus, a total of 22 plant species out of 109 were identified as climax plant species for this region. The presence of so many plant species in approximately 1.5 ha of land, and the small proportion of climax plant species indicated that the condition of this dryland range was poor. Besides this, it was observed that there was not expected improvement in the vegetation of this range rested for 25-30 years.

Key Words: flora, climax plants, poisson distribution, contagious distribution, cover percentage

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1997, 3 (3) 70-77
Effect of Glyphosate Herbicide on the Growth and Acid Production of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria
(Turkish)

Sibel YILMAZ, Belma ASLIM and Yavuz BEYATLI
Gazi Üniv. Fen Edebiyat Fak. Biyoloji Bölümü-Ankara

In this study the effect of 10-150 mg/ml of glyphosate solution on single and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus diacetylactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus were investigated. In general, glyphosata simulated growth of L. bulgaricus. On the other hand herbicide were inhibited growth of other test bacteria. Results showed that increasing glyphosate solution (10-150 mg/ml) was decreased acid production by single and mixed cultures.

Key Words: glyphosate, herbicide, lactic acid bacteria, acid production

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1997, 3 (3) 78-82
A Research on the Determination of the Requirement Periods of A, D3 and Vitamins E Supplemented to Broiler Rations
(Turkish)

Engin YENİCE and M. Rifat OKUYAN
Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

This research was conducted to determine the requirement periods of A, D3 and E vitamins supplemented broiler rations. The duration of the experiment was 7 weeks and it was carried out with 4 groups. These vitamins were added to the 1 st group's rations for whole experimental period, 2 nd group's rations for first 6 weeks of experimental period, 3 rd group's rations for first 4 weeks of experimental period and to 4 th group's rations for first 2 weeks of experimental period as a vitamin premix. According to the results obtained at the end of the research, the average live weights for the experimental groups' were 2158.4, 2161.1, 2125.5 and 2086.3 g (P>0.05); the average live weight gains were 2111.8, 2115.0, 2079.2 and 2039.7 g (P>0.05); the average feed consumptions were 3955.0, 3913.6, 3958.0 and 3806.0 g (P>0.05); the feed conversions were 1.8746, 1.8507, 1.9014 and 1.8672 (P>0.05); mortalities were 7.8, 5.6, 7.8 and 13.3 % for the 1., 2., 3. and 4. groups respectively. The differences among the experimental groups were insignificant for feed cost of one kg of live weight gain (P>0.05).

Key Words: broiler, vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E

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1997, 3 (3) 83-87
Effects of Clipping Height on Some Basic Characteristics of Timoty Grass (Phleum pratense L.)
(English)

Hayrettin KENDİR
Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

This experiment was conducted to study the reaction of timothy grass to different clipping heights. In the greenhouse of the Agronomy Department of Agricultural Faculty of Ankara University, 20 pots planted with young timoty grass were clipped in 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 cm heights for 86 whenever they reached 15 cm for 86 days in the spring of 1997. No fertiliser was applied but they watered as needed. The forage obtained from every cut was weighted and recorded. The experiment was terminated when the control plants had spikes. After the soil washed away, roots were dried at 70oC for 24 h and weighted. Results obtained indicate that plants cut in 2.5 cm gave the lowest usable forage, total forage, tiller number, dry root weight. The number of cuttings depended on the clipping height and ranged from 7 to 12. The higher the clipping height, the higher the number of cuttings. Plants cut to 2.5 cm gave the lowest tiller number. The highest forage yields, tiller numbers and root weights were obtained from the plants cut to 7.5 and 10 cm heights, which is representative of moderate grazing. The strongest effect of deep cutting grazing was on the root development. Plants cut to a height of 2.5 cm produced 6 times less root weight than the control plants. Three qere no significant differences among the plants cut down to 7.5 and 10 cm. Forage yields, number of cuttings, root weights, tiller numbers were increased with the clipping heights. Clipping to low heights reduced the development of timothy grass; this suggests leavy grazing would also arrest development of timothy grass.

Key Words: phleum pratense, clipping height, forage, root tillering

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1997, 3 (3) 88-93
Effect of Mashed Lentil (Lens culinaris L. Medik.) Addition on Some Quality Characteristics of Hamburgers
(Turkish)

M. Murat HASBİOĞLU and A. Hamdi ERTAŞ
Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering-Ankara

Lentil (Lens culinaris L. Medik.) flour was hyrated at a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) water to lentil flour and boiled for 20 min. Mashed lentils were added at 5, 10 and 20 % to hamburgers and the effect of mashed lentil addition on some quality characteristics of hamburgers was investigated. Mashed lentil addition increased pH and water holding capacity of hamburgers (P<0,01). Moreover, it decreased lipid oxidation, cooking loss, shrinkage and thickness (P<0,01). Acceptability of hamburgers with 5 % mashed lentil addition for color, chewing and flavor was higher than that of control. On the contrary, mashed lentil addition with 10 % and 20 % decreased the acceptability of sensorial characteristics.

Key Words : hamburger, mashed lentil addition, frozen storage, quality characteristics