1997, Volume: 3, Number: 2
Contents
BARIŞ. M. E. and N. KOÇ, Measures to be Taken From The Standpoint of Landscape Architecture for the Problem of Air Pollution in Ankara Abstract
KAYGISIZ, A. Production Traits of Holstein Cows Raised at Kahramanmaraş State Farm Abstract
KAYGISIZ. A. and Y. VANLI, Genetic Analysis of the Brown Cattle Herd of Van Agricultural Vocational High School Abstract
BEYRİBEY, M., F.Kemal SÖNMEZ, B. ÇAKMAK and M. OĞUZ, Determination of the Monthly Water Supply Ratio in State Irrigation Schemes Abstract
ORTA. A. H., A. ISTANBULLUOĞLU and F, S. ALBUT, Evapotranspirotion of Maize for Tekirdağ Conditions Abstract
YURTSEVEN, E. and D. O. BOZKURT, Effects of Irrigation Water Quality and Soil Moisture Content on Crop Yield and Qality of Lettuce Abstract
APAYDIN, H. and F. ÖZTÜRK, Determining of Adequacy of Farm Irrigation Structures in the Irrigation Schemes Abstract
POLATSÜ, Ş., A. KOR, F. CEDDEN, E. BAŞPINAR, M. ERTUĞRUL and N. IŞIK, The Effects of Feeding with Roughage or Compound Feeds on Body and Rumen Development, Slaughtering and Carcass Characteristics and Nutrients Conversion Efficiency in Lambs Abstract
POLATSÜ, S. H. ÇAMDEVİREN and E. BAŞPINAR, The Use of Multiple Regression and Path Analysis in Prodiction of Chlorophyll a Concentration N Mogen Lake (Ankara) Abstract

UYSAL,Ş and M. Ali TOKGÖZ, Barley Yield Forecasting Using Agrometeorological Method Abstract

TÜRKER ,T. and M. Ali TOKGÖZ, Determination of Dependable Rainfall in East Anatolian Region Abstract
AĞLAMIŞ. N. and M.Ali TOKGÖZ, Determination of Water-Use and Distribution Efficiency in Ankara Murted Irrigation Project Abstract
ÇELİK. M. Y. and M.Ali TOKGÖZ, Structural and Functional Features of Livestock Facilities at Gelemen Agriculture Enterprise Abstract
TOKGÖZ, M. A. The Effect of Rainfall to Barley Yield in Turkey Abstract
TOKGÖZ, M. A. Irrigation Planning of Sugar Beet in Ayaş Asartepe Project Area Abstract
Abstracts
 

1997, 3 (2) 1-8
Measures to be Taken From The Standpoint of Landscape Architecture for the Problem of Air Pollution in Ankara
(Turkish)

M. Emin BARIŞ and Nizamettin KOÇ
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Landscape Architecture-Ankara

The objective of this study is to analyze the environmental deterioration resulting from air pollution. For the solution of these problems, in addition to technical measures for controlling, naturall and man-made factors that also effect formation and dispersion of pollutants must be considered and handled together on a broader basis. The study also aims to bring a new approach from landscape and environmental planning point of view to the monitoring and auditing processes of air pollution. For this purpose Metropolitan Region of Ankara has been chosen as the case study and accordingly all natural and man-made features have been examined in relation with their impacts on the air pollution. For the implementations based on the existing natural and man-made features, recommendations have been made. Assuming primarily that pollutants after emerging from the emission sources guided by topographical, meteorological and climatological features, eight different zones have been identified in which suitable implementations recommended, upon examining the interrelations of these zones pullution preventive solutions for each have been produced. Data analysis, evaluation and mapping, works have been carried on computer medium and for this purpose satellite image (Landsat 4) and digital map of Ankara have been used.

Key Words: air pollution, design with climate, urban climate, interrelations plants and air pullution, Ankara

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1997, 3 (2) 9-22
Production Traits of Holstein Cows Raised at Kahramanmaraş State Farm
(Turkish)

Ali KAYGISIZ
Kahramanmaraş University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Kahramanmaraş

Production characteristics of Holstein cows raised at Kahramanmaraş State Farm were studied. Leasts squares means were found as 4398 kg for the 305 day milk yield, 4890 for 2x-305 ME milk yield, 307 days for the lactation length, 94 days for the dry period. The effect of year on the all milk yield traits were highly significant (P<0.01). The effect of lactation number on the 305 days milk yield and dry periods were highly significant (P0.01). The effect of calving season on the 305 days milk yield and 2x-305-ME milk yield were significand (P<0.05) or highly significant (P<0.01) . The percentage variation attributed to calving season, lactation number and year in total variation respectively were 1.02, 6.87 and 20.12 % in the 305 days milk yield, 8.54, 5.33 and 19.55 % in the 2x-305-ME milk yield, 0.44 %, 0.00 and 4.00 % in the lactation periods, 0.00, 0.30 and 2.26 in the dry periods. Least squares means were found as 860 days for age at first calving, 390 days for calving interval, 110 days for service periods, 2.198 for insemination number per pregnancy. The means were found as 97.17 % for calving rate, 1.86 % for stillbirth rate, 0.97 % for abortion rate, 2.50 % for twin birth rate and 97.4 % for survival rate of calves up to the 6 mounths of age. The effect of year on age at first calving, calving interval and service periods were significant (P<0.05) or highly significant (P<0.01). The effect of lactation number and season on insemination number Per pregnancy were highly significant (P<0.01).

Key Words: holstein cattle, dairy performance, reproductive performance

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1997, 3 (2) 23-32
Genetic Analysis of the Brown Cattle Herd of Van Agricultural Vocational High School
(Turkish)

Ali KAYGISIZ1 and Yusuf VANLI2
1Kahramanmaraş University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Kahramanmaraş
2Trakya University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Tekirdağ

The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic analysis of the Brown cattle herd of Van Agricultural Vocational High School. The heritability estimates were 0.359+0.059, 0.356+0.059, 0.254+0.059, 0.224+0.058, 0.071+0.104, 0.063+0.098 and 0.142+0.038 for lactation milk yield, 305 day milk yield, average daily milk yield, lactation period calving interval, service period and gestation period respectively. The repeatability estimates were 0.892+0.236, 0.758+0,243, 0,767+0.222, 0.821+0.212, 0.143+0.039, 0.306+0.058 and 0.462+0.174 for the same traits. By taking the weighed means for the years under the consideration, the phenotypic and environmental change Per years was estimated as - 16.95 kg and - 29.90 kg respectively. The genetic change was calculated to be 12.95 kg Per year according to the values given for the environmental and genetic trends. On the other hand, the genetic trend in milk yield of cows in the herds from 1969 to 89 was estimated as 15.15 kg/year. About 94.35 % of this gain came from the selection of dams of sires.

Key Words: brown cattle, genetic trend, heritability, repeatability

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1997, 3 (2) 33-37
Determination of the Monthly Water Supply Ratio in State Irrigation Schemes
(Turkish)

Mevlüt BEYRİBEY, F.Kemal SÖNMEZ, Belgin ÇAKMAK and Mehmet OĞUZ
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

The aim in development of water resource projects, is not only to supply the water in desired quantities, when and where we need it, and in acceptaible quality, but also to protect the human life and his activities against to the disasters affets of water. For this reason, more attention has been paid on the research studies related to the efficient management of irrigation schemes, recently. Since, the water managament, which is not in accord with irrigation system planning, design and construction, application and monitoring- evaluation phases, results in many problems and makes the sustainable agriculture difficult. The indicators which are related with each others determine the level of water management performance. These indicators can be grouped in terms of water use, agricultural, economical, social and environmental efficiency. One of the water use efficiency indicators is known as the water supply ratio. In this study, 119 irrigation schemes are investigated which is representing 85% of the irrigation area operated by DSİ water supply ratios belonging the irrigation schemes have been calculated for June, July and August which is peak period, average respectively as to net irrigation requirement 1.73 (0.57-3.24) 1.86 (0.88-2.89) and 2.02 (0.79-3.34), however as to gross irrigation requirement 0.89 (0.29-1.67), 0.95 (0.44-1.49) and 1.03 (0.40-1.71).

Key Words: Irrigation scheme, performance, water supply ratio, water use efficiency

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1997, 3 (2) 38-43
Evapotranspirotion of Maize for Tekirdağ Conditions
(Turkish)

A.Halim ORTA, Ahmet ISTANBULLUOĞLUF, Selçuk ALBUT
Trakya University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Tekirdağ

This study was conducted to measure evapotranspiration of maize in Tekirdağ conditions. Irrigation water was applied at soil water depletion fraction of 0.65 in the root depth of 90 cm. Evapotranspiration values were obtained by measuring changes in soil water content for 10 day periods during the whole growing season. These data were compared with the Et values calculated by the methods of Blaney-Criddle (B-C), Penman-Monteith (P-M), FAO modification of Penman (P-FAO), Jenten-Haise (J-H), FAO modification of Class A Pan Evaporation (A-FAO) and Christiansen-Hargreaves modification of Class A Pan Evaporation (A-CH). By this way, the most suitable estimation method of evapotranspiration which could be used for irrigation scheduling of maize was tried to determine. As a result, it has been found that the most suitable estimation methods is Jensen-Haise method (J-H). In addition, the crop coefficient (kc) curve has been prepared for this method.

Key Words: maize, evapotranspiration, crop coefficient.

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1997, 3 (2) 44-51
Effects of Irrigation Water Quality and Soil Moisture Content on Crop Yield and Qality of Lettuce
(Turkish)

Engin YURTSEVEN1 and Deniz Okan BOZKURT2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara
2Master of Science in Agriculture Engineering

In this greenhouse study, the effect of 4 irrigation water salinity (0.25, 2.0, 4,0 and 6.0 dS/m), 2 sodium (SAR=0.30 and 5.00) and 2 soil water content levels (irrigation when consumed 75% and 25% of available water) on the yield of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Tasna) were investigated. For this purpose, factorial experiments in fully randomised design were conducted. As a result, increasing the irrigation water salinity and alkalinity reasoned to decrease the yield of lettuce and the amounts of plant biomass but to increase the total ash content and the mineral nutrient contents. Keeping the soil water content at 75% of available water level provoted to increase the yield of lettuce.

Key Words: salinity, lettuce, lactuca sativa, water quality, yield, crop quality

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1997, 3 (2) 52-58
Determining of Adequacy of Farm Irrigation Structures in the Irrigation Schemes
(Turkish)

Halit APAYDIN and Fazlı ÖZTÜRK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

The aim of this study is determining of adequacy of farm irrigation structures in General Directorate of Rural Service's seven irrigation schemes which in Konya district. Conveyance, distribution, control and measurement structures are transition structures, siphon, chute, drop, aqueduct, stilling basin, flume, weir turnout, check, culvert, automatik siphon and spilway in an irrigation scheme. These irrigation structures investigate to determine placement, structural specialty, hydraulic and operation characteristic and than some proposing was motioned.

Key Words: farm irrigation structures, characteristics of farm irrigation structures.

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1997, 3 (2) 59-64
The Effects of Feeding with Roughage or Compound Feeds on Body and Rumen Development, Slaughtering and Carcass Characteristics and Nutrients Conversion Efficiency in Lambs
(Turkish)

Şafak POLATSÜ, Aşkın KOR, Fatin CEDDEN, Ensar BAŞPINAR, Mehmet ERTUĞRUL and Necati IŞIK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

The aim of the trial was to determine and compare the effects of feeding with roughage or compound feeds on body and rumen development and slaughtering and carcass characteristics of lambs. In addition efficiency of nutrients conversion were compared. For those purposes, Ile de France x Akkaraman and Border leicester x Akkaraman crossbred lambs alfalfa hay, the other group was fed adlibitum compound feed and 100 g/day/head alfalfa hay for 70 days. At the end of the trial feed intake, body growth, slaughtering and carcass characteristics differences of the groups were found as significant (P<0.01). However, percentages of some offals and carcass parts in carcass weigth were not significant. Absolute rumen volumes were same in both groups. Rumen volume/live weigth ratio difference of the groups were significant (P<0.05). Differencies of rumen papilae development of groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). In terms of nutrient conversion efficiency, the values for the conversion of the crude protein and the metabolic energy Per mean metabolic body weight to muscle tissue and tnhe conversion value of the feed crude protein to muscle crude protein were found non significant.

Key Words: lambs, fattening performance, rumen development, carcass characteristics, nutrient corversion efficiency

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1997, 3 (2) 65-68
The Use of Multiple Regression and Path Analysis in Prodiction of Chlorophyll a Concentration N Mogen Lake (Ankara)
(Turkish)

Serap POLATSÜ1, Handan ÇAMDEVİREN2 and Ensar BAŞPINAR2
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aguaculture-Ankara
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this study, the chlorophyll-a concentration of Mogan Lake was predicted by using physical and chemical parameters (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, Secchi depth, total hardness, calcium and magnesium hardness, alkalinity, organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, total phosphorus concentration which were determined in 1992-1994. Out of these parameters, five (monts, pH, transparency, calcium hardness, total phospnhorus cancentration) were used in the multiple regression equation which significant effect on the prediction of the cholorophyll-a concentration. The determination coefficient of the multiple regression analysis was found to be 79 %. Moreover, the path analyse was used to determine the relative effects of the five parameters on the chlorophyll-a concentration. The predicted values of chlorophyll-a concentrations by using multiple regression equation were in agreement with the measured values.

Key Words: Mogan Gölü, multiple regression analysis, path analysis, prediction of chlorophyll-a concentration.

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1997, 3 (2) 69-76
Barley Yield Forecasting Using Agrometeorological Method
(Turkish)

Şule UYSAL and M. Ali TOKGÖZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

The main purpose of this study was to obtain the effect of climatic factors to barley yield in Turkey. In the research by the help of the computers, multiple stepwise regression method was used and the effect of 109 various climatic factors to barley yield were investigated. As a result by the help of these climatic factors, estimation equations of barley yield were obtained for each province. Then the real and the estimated production values of barley were compared.

Key Words: Barley yield, barley production, climatic factors, stepwise multiple regression method

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1997, 3 (2) 77-82
Determination of Dependable Rainfall in East Anatolian Region (Turkish)

Türker TÜRKER and M. Ali TOKGÖZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

In this study, it was tried to determine dependable rainfall values related to Agrı, Bingöl, Elazığ, erzincan, Erzurum, Iğdır, Kars, Malatya, Muş and Tunceli in East Anatolian region and 106 meteorological stations connected to these cites. By the help of computers and GÜVENYAĞ packet programme 10 days rainfall data were evaluated with 10 % probability internal and 10-days dependable rainfall values were obtained. In addition these dependable rainfall values, monthly means of snow-cover, frost, rainy, haily days in a month, all of which are used in the planning of agricultural activities were presented in tabular from for users.

Key Words: fast Anatolian Region, dependable rainfall, GÜVENYAĞ, 10 % probability interval.

 

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1997, 3 (2) 83-88
Determination of Water-Use and Distribution Efficiency in Ankara Murted Irrigation Project
(Turkish)

Nurinisa AĞLAMIŞ and M.Ali TOKGÖZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

The aim of thisstudy was to evaluate and determine the most efficient use of winter in the Mürted irrigation praject which was established by the State Hydraulic Works in 1971. By using linear programming method, optimal irrigation area and crop patterns were determined. Economical analysis of the project was carried out by using the computer program DASI, which was developed by FAO, Finally the optimum irrigation scheduling programs for various crops grown inl the area were calculated by means of the program CROPWAT.

Key Words: irrigation project, irrigation system, water-use efficiency, optimal crop pattern, system performace

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1997, 3 (2) 89-96
Structural and Functional Features of Livestock Facilities at Gelemen Agriculture Enterprise
(Turkish)

M.Yavuz ÇELİK and M.Ali TOKGÖZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

The present study was carried oft to investigate the efficiency of livestock facilities in term of structural and functional planning criteria at Gelemen Agriculture Enterprise and the problems were defined. At the end of the study various alternative solutions were developed and according to the climatic conditions of the region free stall bam for 100 milking cows and poultry house plan for battery cage system with the capacitiy of 5000 hens have been made.

Key Words: Dairy cattle bams, poultry house, animal houses

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1997, 3 (2) 97-102
The Effect of Rainfall to Barley Yield in Turkey
(Turkish)

M.Ali TOKGÖZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

This study was carried out in 9 regions of Turkey which was divided according to Turkey's agriculture production. One country is selected from each region which represents barley production best. The time period for the study is 1982-1992. For each year the barley yield is thought to be effected by rainfall values, in other words the independent variables in the estimation equations were rainfall values. These rainfall values were taken in ten days interval and their total amounts. The estimation equations were obtained by the help of MINITAB packet programme using multiple stepwise regression method in computers. The most effective rainfall values to barley yield for Turkey were found as; the first ten days rainfall value in October and the third ten days rainfall value in March. Then the real and the estimated barley yield values were compared and the cause of the difference between them were discussed.

Key Words: Barley yield, ten days rainfall, multiple stepwise regression method, yield estimation equations

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1997, 3 (2) 103-111
Irrigation Planning of Sugar Beet in Ayaş Asartepe Project Area
(Turkish)

M.Ali TOKGÖZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

In this study, irrigation plans were prepared for sugar beet to determine the amount of irrigation water, the irrigation interval and the number of irrigations in the Ayaş-Asartepe project area which was on the irrigation projects of State Hydaulic Works (DSI). For this purpose, soil samples were taken from the area, to determine the soil structure, specific gravity, field capacity and the wilting point values of the area. The irrigation plans were made by using the climatological data obtained from the Ayaş meteorological station by the help of IRSIS-Irrigation Scheduling information System-packet program which depends on the soil - water budget method. In the study two alternative planning methods were tried in the first method which was camlled "Ideal Irrigations Planning", the irrigation were made whenever the water level in the root zone depletes to the critical water level which was determined before. The water was added up to the field capacity. Although this method was convenient for irrigation planning, it was not suitable in practice as the amount of water and interval differs in each irrigation. So, in the secüond method the amount of irrigation water and the irrigation interval were settled in a fixed manner for practical use and this method was called as "Practical Irrigation Method".

Key Words: irrigation planning, amount of irrigation water, irrigation interval, number of irrigations, soil water budget, IRSIS sofware, ideal irrigation planning practical irrigation planning

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