1997, Volume: 3, Number: 1
Contents
HAKYEMEZ, H., S. ALTINOK and C. S. SEVİMAY, Adaptation of Woolypod Vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa (Ten.) Cav.) Lines Under Ankara Conditions Abstract
YURTSEVEN, E. and A. ÖZTÜRK, The Changes of Salt Balance of a Soil in Relation with theIrrigation Method and the Irrigation Water Quality Abstract
AY, R. and M. O. GÜRKAN, Investigations on the Mass Culture of Trichogramma turkeiensis Kostadinov and Trichogramma embryophagum Hartig (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Killed embryos of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Eggs Using Deep Freeze Method Abstract
DOLAR, F. S. Effects of Leaf Age and Inoculum Concentration on Resistance of Detached Chickpea Leaflets to Two Different Races of Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr. Abstract
SÖNMEZ, F. K. The Analysis of Rainfall and Climatic Factors on Irrigation Abstract
YILDIRIM, Y. E. Comparison of Different Irrigation Schedules in Deficit Irrigation for Agricultural Farm Abstract
MARASALI, B. and A. ERGÜL, Effects of Pollination Types on Berry and Seed Set in Grape Cultivars Abstract
YURTMAN, İ. Y., Ş. POLATSÜ, E. BAŞPINAR and M. L. ÖZDÜVEN, The Effects of the Compound Feed Containing Different Crude Protein Levels on Fattening Performance and Some Slaughtering Characteristics in Türkgeldi Lambs Abstract
VATANDAŞ, M. and R. GÜRHAN, Effects of Different Pulsation Control Methods on the Electronic Pulsator Performance Abstract

ÖZTÜRK, A. Effects of Irrigation Water Quality and Water Table Depth on Some Properties of Carrot Abstract

KODAL, S., M. F. SELENAY, F. K. SÖNMEZ and Y. E. YILDIRM, The Analysis of Evaportranspiration and Rainfall Regarding the Irrigation Water Requirement Abstract
BEYRİBEY, M., F. K. SÖNMEZ, B. ÇAKMAK and M. OĞUZ, Commparison of Irrigation Requirements Basced on Blaney - Criddie and Penman - Monteith Method in İrrigation Schemes Abstract
BEYRİBEY, M., B. ÇAKMAK, F. K. SÖNMEZ and M. OĞUZ, Commparison of Irrigation Requirements Basced on Blaney - Criddie and Penman - Monteith Method in İrrigation Schemes Abstract
ÇAKMAK, B., Assessment of Irrigation System Performance in Transferred Schemes: A Case Study in Konya Abstract
Abstracts
 

1997, 3 (1) 1-5
Adaptation of Woolypod Vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa (Ten.) Cav.) Lines Under Ankara Conditions
(Turkish)

Hakan HAKYEMEZ, Suzan ALTINOK and Cafer S. SEVİMAY
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Ankara

This research which was done with 15 woolypod vetch lines originated from different locations and sent by ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas-Suriye) for evaluation to adaptation under Ankara Conditions and one local hairy vetch cv. L-1437 TARM as control was carried out in the experimental field of Agronomy Department of Agricultural Faculty, Ankara University between 1994 and 1996. According to the result, the best plant stand was got on line 2562, the earliest flowering was got on lines 2562 and 2456, the earliest maturity was got on lines 1446, 2454 and 2445, the highest plant height was got on line 2562 and hairy vetch cv. L-1437 TARM, highest biological yield was got on lines 2456, 2446 and 2562, the highest seed yield was got on lines 2431 and 2424, highest thousand seed weight was got on lines 2424, 2431, 2456, 2454, 2451, 2455, 2442 and 2457 first year and all of the woolypod vetch lines except line 2457 and hairy vetch cv. L-1437 TARM second year, the highest harvest index was got on lines 2562, 2431, 2451, 2457 and 2424. The lines of 2562 (originated from Syria) and 2456 (originated from Japan) which were the best resulted on plant stand, earlyness and biological yield can be advised for growth as green forage, hay and silage plants under Ankara Conditions. The lines of 2431 (originated from Syria) and 2424 (originated from Syria) which were the best resulted on seed yield and harvest index can be growth as grain fodder plant under Ankara Conditions. Hairy vetch cv. L-1437 TARM used as control had the highest plant height but itz flowering time and maturity was later and its biological yield and seed yield was lower than woolypod vetch lines. The earlier seeding date in second year was resulted at higher biological yield and seed yield in all lines.

Key Words: woolypod vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa (Ten.) Cav.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), adaptation


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1997, 3 (1) 6-13
The Changes of Salt Balance of a Soil in Relation with theIrrigation Method and the Irrigation Water Quality
(Turkish)

Engin YURTSEVEN and Ahmet ÖZTÜRK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

Water used for irrigation contain soluble salts, even if they are good quality. The soluble salts added into the root zone with irrigation accumulate in the soil. Increasing salinity which diminish the productivity of soil is important for agriculture, as much as for environment. Accumulation process of the soluble salts in the root zone is related to the plant, soil, water quality, drainage activity, irrigation and drainage management etc. The choice of crop and irrigation method is important for the salinity management when the irrigation water is saline. Since the total irrigation water applied and the way of application are different for different irrigation methods, their effect on the salinity of the soil will be different. In this study, the salinity changes of the root zone in relation to be irrigation method, irrigation water applied and irrigation water quality due to the meassurement of the salts accumulated in the root zone was investigated using different crops.

Key Words: irrigation water quality, salt balance, leaching, irrigation method.

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1997, 3 (1) 14-18
Investigations on the Mass Culture of Trichogramma turkeiensis Kostadinov and Trichogramma embryophagum Hartig (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Killed embryos of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Eggs Using Deep Freeze Method
(Turkish)

Recep AY and M. Oktay GÜRKAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

Ephestia kuehniella eggs were killed by keeping in the deep freeze (at-20 0C and -25 0C for 60 and 120 minutes respectively). T. Embryophagum parasited the E. Kuehniella eggs which were normal and which had been kept at-25 0C for 60 and 120 minutes at the rates of 80.4, 23.2 and 17.2 %, respectively. T. Turkeiensis on the other hand, parasitized the eggs at the rates of 86.8, 24.4, and 12.0 % respectively conditions. T. Embryophagum parasitized the E. Kuehniella eggs which were normal and which had been kept at-20 0C for 60 and 120 minutes at the rates of 78.4, 64.0 and 56.4 % respectively. The percentages of parasitized E. kuehnilla eggs by T. turkeiensis was 87.2, 67.2 and 58.0 % respectively at same conditions. Host eggs whose embryos were killed by keeping in deep freeze at different periods (60 and 120 min.) and controls were also turned black in 5 days and parasitoids had grown in 14 days. All parasitoids which had developed from host eggs, their embryos were killed by keeping in the deep freeze, had been recorded as females. The mean longevites, of parasitoid females developed from E. Kuehniella eggs which were normal and which had been kept at -20 0C for 60 and 120 minutes were recorded as 16.80, 19.08 and 19.2 days for T. Embryophagum and 18.60, 19.60 and 20.52 days for T. turkeiensis, respectively. The mean of total parasitized eggs numbers by the one parasitoid female during her life developed from the E. Kuehniella eggs which were normal and which had been kept at -20 0C for 60 and 120 minutes were 100.00, 100.84 and 105.56 eggs, respectively for T. Embryophagum, 99.2, 98.88 and 104.12 eggs, respectively for T. turkeiensis. It was recorded that there was no difference for range of sex and developmental period between offspring of parasitoids which had developed from host eggs whose embryos were killed by deep freeze and from normal eggs.

Key Words: trichogramma turkeiensis, Trichogramma embryophagum, mass rearing technicque

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1997, 3 (1) 19-23
Effects of Leaf Age and Inoculum Concentration on Resistance of Detached Chickpea Leaflets to Two Different Races of Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr.
(English)

F. Sara DOLAR
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

The effects of leaf age and inoculum concentration on resistance of chickpea cultivars to Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr. were studied using a detached leaflet method. Young and old leaflets of 30 day-old plant of two chickpea cultivars (ILC 195 and Canıtez 87) were inoculated with each of six different inoculum concentrations (4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128x104 spores/ml) of race 1 and 4 of Ascochyta rabiei. Disease reactions assessed 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 days after inoculation. The appearance of lesions on leaflets depended on race and leaflet age. Disease severity increased with increasing inoculum concentration from 4x104 to 128x104, but this increase depended on the chickpea cultivar, leaflet age and race of Ascochyta rabiei. Young leaflets of both cultivars inoculated with race 1 did not produce lesions at low inoculum concentrations (4 and 8x104 spores/ml). Young leaflets of cv. ILC 195 were found to be moderately resistant to race 1; however, young leaflets of cv. Canıtez 87 were susceptible to race 1. The young leaflets of cv. ILC 195 were more resistant to race 4 than cv. Canıtez 87. Disease severity in young leaflets was lower than in old leaflets of both cultivars when inoculated with each of two races of Ascochyta rabiei.

Key Words: chickpea, Ascochyta rabiei, inoculum concentration, leaf age

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1997, 3 (1) 24-32
The Analysis of Rainfall and Climatic Factors on Irrigation
(Turkish)

F. Kemal SÖNMEZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

Agricultural production is an energy transformation system. Agriculture system, solar energy and quantity and distribution of rainfall are input of this system. In this study, the way which has to be followed is described for the analysis of monthly rainfall and climatic factors to decade, monthly and annual on irrigation The dependable rainfall values calculated for 20, 50 and 80 % can be used for different aims to design and operate the irrigation systems. This study showed that historical decade rainfall data must be analysed if dependable decade rainfall is necessary. Similar situation can be utilised for monthly and annual rainfalls.

Key Words: dependable rainfall, rainfall analysis, climatic factors, analysis.

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1997, 3 (1) 33-38
Comparison of Different Irrigation Schedules in Deficit Irrigation for Agricultural Farm
(Turkish)

Y. Ersoy YILDIRIM
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

The study was aimed to compare different irrigation schedules in deficit determined irrigation for agricultural farm in Beypazarı region. By this purpose, it was pattern under adequate and limited water supply conditions. Irrigation schedules of crops in a farm having 180.9 da land average were determined through IRSIS computer program. Linear programming was used to determine optimum crop pattern for was applied instead of application of whole season deficit irrigation income increased between 2.5% and 8.0%. The obtained results indicated that yield response to water and single season deficit irrigation were important in the farm which had limited water supply capacity.

Key Words: deficit irrigation, irrigation scheduling, optimum crop pattern

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1997, 3 (1) 39-42
Effects of Pollination Types on Berry and Seed Set in Grape Cultivars
(Turkish)

Birhan MARASALI and Ali ERGÜL
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of pollination (open, self and cross pollination) on berry and seed set on grape cultivars (Hasandede, Muscat Hamburg, Kalecik karası, Narince) having perfect flowers with normally seeded fruit set Hasandede and Muscat Hamburg were used as both maternal and pollen parent in reciprocal crosses. Narince and Kalecik karası (normal and g-irradiated pollen) were the other pollen parent. In maternal plants berry set was always higher when cross-pollinated by a proper pollen parent, particularly with Hasandede. So, Hasandede seemed to have a high quality pollinator characteristics. Mean number of seed per berry did not change much. In general 50-75 percent of fertilized ovules became seed. Effects of g-irradiated pollen on berry and seed set have not been noted clearly.

Key Words: Vitis vinifera L., pollination, berry set, seed number, g-irradiation


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1997, 3 (1) 43-46
The Effects of the Compound Feed Containing Different Crude Protein Levels on Fattening Performance and Some Slaughtering Characteristics in Türkgeldi Lambs
(Turkish)

İ. Yaman YURTMAN1, Şafak POLATSÜ2, Ensar BAŞPINAR2 and M. Levent ÖZDÜVEN1
1Trakya University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Tekirdağ
2Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science -Ankara

In this trial, the effects of the compound feeds, containing different crude protein (CP) levels, on fattening performance and some slaughtering characteristics in Türkgeldi male lambs. For this purpose, three experimental diets, having 14.87%, 16.22% and 17.58% crude protein levels, were prepared. This diets were tested on the experimental groups, each having six lambs at the age 2.5 months old. Lambs were fed individually compound feeds were given ad-libitum and in addition 100 g. hay was given to each lamb daily. The experiment was a completely randomized design. At the end of the trial, the effect of treatments were not found to be significant on fatteninig performance. On the other hand, under the condition of this experiment crude protein intake all groups was found to be as 16 g /(kg.BW)0.75. The slaughter values of the 4 lambs from each experiment group were used in determining slaughtering characteristics. There were significant differences in some characteristics between the experimental groups (p<0.05), but many of the characteristics were not found to be significantly different.

Key Words: crude protein, fattening, slaughter characteristics, Türkgeldi Lamb

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1997, 3 (1) 47-53
Effects of Different Pulsation Control Methods on the Electronic Pulsator Performance
(Turkish)

Mustafa VATANDAŞ and Recai GÜRHAN
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Machinery-Ankara

In this study, three different control methods of pulsation were developed for electronic pulsators. Performance of these methods was compared with commercial pneumatic and hydraulic ones. Results pointed out that developed methods exhibit better performance than pneumatic and hydraulic ones in respect of pulsation frequency and other pulsation characteristics.

Key Words: pulsator, pulsator rate, pulsator raio

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1997, 3 (1) 54-58
Effects of Irrigation Water Quality and Water Table Depth on Some Properties of Carrot
(Turkish)

Ahmet ÖZTÜRK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

This study was carried out to determine the effects of irrigation water salinity and water table depth on some properties of carrot, irrigation water salinity and water table depth were the two factors of the research which was conducted as factorial trial. There were five different treatments as irrigation water salinity which were 0.25, 1, 2, 4 and 6 ds/m and three different treatments as water table depth which were 45, 60 and 90 cm. As a result irrigation water salinity and water table depth affected the physical properties of carrot. An increase in irrigation water salinity increased the dry matter contents of fruits. Water comsumption of plants decreased with the increasing levels of water table and irrigation water salinity.

Key Words: salinity, water table depth, salinity-plant relations, carrot

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1997, 3 (1) 59-68
The Analysis of Evaportranspiration and Rainfall Regarding the Irrigation Water Requirement
(Turkish)

Süleyman KODAL, M. Fatih SELENAY, F. Kemal SÖNMEZ and Y. Ersoy YILDIRIM
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

Irrigation water requirement of crops, depending on crop water consumption and rainfall, varies significantly from year to year. In this study, the approaches that can be used to determine the expected requirement of irrigation water in hot - rdy, medium and cold - wet years were exemined. Results suggested that for the calculation of crop water requirements in a hot - dry year, the value of crop water requirement representing this period the best in the past years should be used.

Key Words: irrigation water requirement, evapotranspiration analysis, rainfall analysis

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1997, 3 (1) 69-73
Use of Average and Annual Data for Monitoring and Evaluation of Irrigation Schemes
(Turkish)

Mevlüt BEYRİBEY, Kemal SÖNMEZ, Belgin ÇAKMAK and Mehmet OĞUZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

Water management in irrigation schemes contain stages of general irrigation planning, planned water distribution and evaluation of irrigation results. Average climatical factors of long years and irrigation water requirement values calculated by Blaney - Criddle method have been using in evaluation studies of irrigation results in Turkey. Since precipitation shows significant differences with respect to regions use of average climatical factors in evaluation studies does not give actual results. In this stud, irrigation water requirement calculated using both average and annual data were determined in 118 irrigation schemes of 21 regions and differences in 46 % of this schemes were significant. Therefore, for an economic monitoring and evaluation system, estimation of crop water requirement using climatical factors of long years and irrigation water requirements depending on annual precipitation were determined to be advantageous.

Key Words: irrigation water requirement, monitoring and evaluation of irrigation schemes

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1997, 3 (1) 74-78
Comparison of Irrigation Requirements Basced on Blaney - Criddie and Penman - Monteith Method in İrrigation Schemes
(Turkish)

Mevlüt BEYRİBEY, Belgin ÇAKMAK, Kemal SÖNMEZ and Mehmet OĞUZ
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

Turkey is in a arid and semi-arid climate belt. This situation increases the concern of irrigation. As water resources can be used efficiently and irrigation projects can be used efficiently and irrigation projects can be prepared suitably for conditions, It's required to determine crop water requirements monthly or shorter periods. The main principle in calculation of irrigation water requirements is to determine evapotranspirations. The most appropriate way is directly measurement methods in determination of evapotrranspiration. However they're expensive and needs long time. For this reason researchers developed equations in order to predict evapotranspiration. In the study, the aim is to calculate gross irrigation water requirements based on Blaney-Criddie and Penman-Monteith Method belonging the years of 1984-1993 and to compare the results with each other in state irrigation schemes. By this aim, irrigation water requirement were calculated considering two methods in 120 irrigation schemes taken as material. The results were assessed with t-test statistically, the difference between two methods were found as significant in 43 % of the investigated irrigation schemes.

Key Words: irrigation water requirement, Blaney-Criddle method, Penman-Monteith method

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1997, 3 (1) 79-86
Assessment of Irrigation System Performance in Transferred Schemes: A Case Study in Konya
(Turkish)

Belgin ÇAKMAK
Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

Irrigation project are faced with some problems preventing to get targets in spite of all efforts. They decrease irrigation system performance Limited water supply and huge investment requirements for irrigation projects enable to emphasize monitoring and assessment of irrigation system performance. Performance assessment in irrigation schemes is carried out not only to determine achievement lavel of targets in a system but also to compare performance of different systems. In this study irrigation schemes of the forth region, which are constructed operated and transferred by The State Hydraulic Works, are considered as research material. Irrigation system performance is assessed in some irrigation schemes which are larger than 501 hectares. Water supply ratios are 2.07 as to net irrigation water requirement and 1.23 as to gross water requirement as weighted averagi in investigated schemes. Average irrigation ratio, weighted average rate of return, financial efficiency ratio and water fee collection ratio are found out respectively as 68 %, 2.7, 6-61 % and 15-96 % in the schemes.

Key Words: water supply ratio, rate of return, financial efficiency ratio, irrigation ratio, water fee collectuion ratio

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