2008, Volume: 14, Number: 1
Contents
SATTARİ, T. M., F. SALMASİ and F. ÖZTÜRK, Comparison of Different Methods Used in Determination of Irrigation Reservoir Capacity Abstract
DEMİRBAĞ ŞAHİN, N. The Effect of Different Grazing Systems on Compressed Sward Height and White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Frequency in Grasslands Abstract
ŞAHİN, K. and İ. H. YILMAZ, A Research on Forages Production and Problems in Gürpınar District of Van Abstract
GÜLER, M. Determination of Ethephon Application Effects in Yield and Yield Components in Triticale Cultivars Abstract
BALKAN, A. and T. GENÇTAN, Bazı Effects of Different Row Spacing and Seeding Rate on Grain Yield and Yield Components in Some Bread Wheat Cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) Abstract
ÜNAL, G. H., K. YAMAN and A. GÖK, Analysis of Agricultural Accidents in Turkey Abstract
DÜŞÜNCELİ, F., L. ÇETİN, S. ALBUSTAN, Z. MERT, K. AKAN and A. KARAKAYA, Determination of the Reactions of Some Barley Cultivars and Genotypes to Scald Under Greenhouse and Field Conditions Abstract
ECEVİT, M. F., B. ŞAN, T. D. ÜNAL, F. H. TÜRK, A. N. YILDIRIM, M. POLAT and F. YILDIRIM, Selection of Superior Ber (Ziziphus jujuba L.) Genotypes in Çivril Region Abstract
İPEK, A., M. DEMİR KAYA and B. GÜRBÜZ, Effects of Seed Age and GA3 Application on Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Seeds Abstract

ALTUNTAŞ, E. Some Physical Properties of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) and WatermelOn (Citrullus lanatus L.) Seeds Abstract

POLAT, H. and G. DELLAL, Changes in Serum Thyroid Hormones Levels in Angora Goat Kids Abstract
DELLAL, G. and H. POLAT, Changes in Testosterone Levels in Angora Goat Kids Abstract
KATAR, D. and B. GÜRBÜZ, The Effect of Different Plant Densities and Nitrogen Doses on Drug Leaf Yield and Some Features of Lemon Balm (Melisa officinalis L.) Abstract
KOYUNCU, N. The Effects of Different MS Doses on Tissue Culture Parameters in Wheat (Triticum sp.) Abstract
TÜRKKAN, M. and . S. DOLAR, Role of Phytotoxins inPlant Diseases Abstract
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2008, 14 (1) 1-7
Comparison of Different Methods Used in Determination of Irrigation Reservoir Capacity
(Turkish)

Mohammad.T. SATTARİ1, Farzin SALMASİ1 and Fazlı ÖZTÜRK2
1 Tabriz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Water Engineering - Tebriz - Iran
2 Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara-Turkey

Usually development of dams and irrigation-drainage projects requires high investment cost. Because of financial limitations, consideration of optimization techniques for determination of reservoir capacity is clear. Determination of reservoir capacity by classical methods such as mass curve (Ripple method) and sequent peak algorithm, don't consider all effective parameters in problem. In these methods reservoir capacity may be estimated with a higher than that of optimization methods. In this research comparison between classical and modern methods for calculating one dam capacity in East Azerbaijan named Yalgiz Agac has been done. Results showed that the dam capacity with Ripple method (mass curve) will be 13.1 hm3, with sequent peak algorithm will be 6.86 hm3 and with non-linear optimization will be 6.19 hm3.

Key Words: Reservoir management, Ripple method (mass curve), sequent peak, non-linear optimization












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2008, 14 (1) 8-15
The Effect of Different Grazing Systems on Compressed Sward Height and White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Frequency in Grasslands
(Turkish)

Nurdan ŞAHİN1 and DEMİRBAĞ1
1 Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Field Crops-Ankara-Turkey


Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine and compare of the frequency of sward structure and the frequency of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) between intensively-grazed (MC,Moderate Commertial Stocking) and extensively-grazed (LC,Lenient Commertial Stocking) grasslands. Study was carried out as an EU project at Göttingen University in extensively and continuously grazed Relliehausen Experimental Grassland in Germany in 2002-2003 with three repetitions and commercial castrated simmental breed. Grassland was randomized into two continuous stocking groups as MC (intensive grazing with moderate stocking) and LC (extensive grazing with lenient stocking), and after 1st year grazing, data was collected from second year's records. Study was planned as 3 repetitions and each plot was composed of 1 ha. Targetted compressed sward heights (CSH) were 6 cm in MC and 12 cm in LC. CSH measurements were collected from previously fixed 100 points by transect method, spaced 1m in transect line composed of 100 m in each plot with 4 repetitions in 4 period in every 4-5 weeks by using discmeter and identified white clover was also recorded. Measured CSH levels was recoded as CSH1:? 4.5 cm, CSH2: 5.0-9.5 cm, CSH3: 10.0-14.5 cm and CSH4:>15.0 cm. The highest incidence was seen in CSH2 group (40.9%) and the lowest one was in CSH4 group(10.7%). In MC system, the highest incidence was seen in CSH2 (41.1%) the lowest in CSH4 (5.7%); in LC system the highest in CSH2 (40.8%), the lowest in CSH1 (9.7%) in respect to grazing system and CSH group interaction. Also the highest incidence was seen in CSH2 and in the 1st period (53.8%), the lowest in CSH4 and in the 1st period(2.7%) according to CSH group and period interaction. Frequency of white clover was the highest in CSH1 (79.3%), and the lowest in CSH4 (36.7%) and, also showed statistically significant difference in only MC system and 1st period according to CSH group and period interaction. Frequency of white clover showed a tendency to increase in short CSH groups and in MC than those tall CSH groups and LC. In conclusion, white clover can survive in grasslands in short CSH groups or bare soil sites of grasslands and heterogenious-mosaic sward structure of grassland may effect the growth of white clover positively.

Key Words: Trifolium repens, white clover, sward structure, moderate stocking, lenient stocking, compressed sward height











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2008, 14 (1) 16-21
A Research On Forages Production and Problems in Gürpınar District of Van
(Turkish)

Kasım ŞAHİN1 and Hakkı YILMAZ2
1Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Economics-Van
2 Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Field Crops -Van


The purpose of thsis research was to determine production and problems of forages grown in Gürpınar district of Van. Eighty-seven forage producers were interviewed at Gürpınar district of Van province where forages are being produced intensively. The data belong to 2006 production period and were collected by means of questionnaires interviewing with persons in village. On these farms, the average population per farm was 6.74 people. The average farmer's age were 42.67 years old and had 23.49 years of farm production experience in overall farms. The average farm size was 52.05 decare. About 60.25 % of the total land is irrigated and the remaining 39.75 % is dry land. In 2006, 26.87 decare average land was planted with forages which are mainly alfalfa (20.14 da), sainfoin (5.34 da) and silage corn (1.39 da). The average cow, sheep and goat per farm was 2.05, 35.82 and 8.70, respectively. The main problems of forage production in region are lack of forage cultivation information such as, irrigation methods, usage of certified seed, and government related programmers (forage encourage programme). Also, they do not have enough tool, and equipment for forage cultivation. Therefore, farmers should be trained on the topics of forage cultivation. Also, if villagers establish a cooperative, they can get tools and equipment easily. In the region, development on dairy and fattening cow breeding are depend on forage production. Therefore, forage production in the region should be more encouraged, especially, alfalfa, sainfoin, and silage corn production.

Key Words: Forages production, socio-economical characteristics.









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2008, 14 (1) 22-28
Determination of Ethephon Application Effects in Yield and Yield Components in Triticale Cultivars
(Turkish)

Mustafa GÜLER1
1 Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Field Crops - Ankara

This study was conducted at the Experimental Field of the Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara between the years 2004-2006 in order to determine the effects of various ethephon doses on yield and yield components of Triticale cultivars. Tatlıcak 97, Karma 2000, Melez 2001 and Presto cultivars of Triticale were used in this study and 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g/ha ethephon doses were applied at the beginning of heading. Both the results of two years were separetely evaluated in the study. According to the results of the research; significant differences were determined with the application of various ethephon doses on four triticale cultivars in regard to grain yield and yield components. The greatest values were generally obtained at 450 g/ha ethephon dose in grain yield and yield components. More increase in ethephon doses caused decrease the values of grain yield and yield components. Melez 2001 and Tatlıcak 97 cultivars have generally the highest values in the all traits.

Key Words: Triticale, ethephon doses, yield, yield components










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2008, 14 (1) 29-37
Effects of Different Row Spacing and Seeding Rate on Grain Yield and Yield Components in Some Bread
Wheat Cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) (Turkish)


Alpay BALKAN1 and Temel GENÇTAN1
* This study was taken from M.Sc. thesis
1 Namık Kemal University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Field Crops - Tekirdağ


This research was carried out in experimental field of Field Crops Department of Agricultural Faculty of Namık Kemal University in randomized split split blocks design with three replications for two years (2003/2004 and 2004/2005 growing seasons). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of some different row spacing (17, 34, 51 and 68 cm) and seeding rates on grain yield and yield components of three bread wheat cultivars (Pehlivan, Flamura-85 and Saraybosna) commonly grown in Trakya region. Based on the results of this study, some yield characters of bread wheat cultivars such as grain yield per decare, number of spikes per square meter and harvest index have been negatively affected by increasing row spacing. However, effects of row spacing on grain weight per spike varied from year to year. On the other hand, some yield characters of wheat cultivars such as grain yield per decare, number of spikes per square meter, grain weight per spike and harvest index have been positively affected by increasing of seeding rates depend on different row spacing.

Key Words: Bread wheat, row spacing, seeding rate, grain yield, yield components.













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2008, 14 (1) 38-45
Analysis of Agricultural Accidents in Turkey
(English)

H. Güran ÜNAL1, Kemal YAMAN2 and GÖK2
Kastamonu University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Kastamonu-Turkey
2 Kastamonu University, Vocational High School, Kastamonu-Turkey


The people working in agriculture face with various dangerous factors. Therefore, the agriculture sector is considered as the most risky groups among all the sectors. The rate of work accidents in Turkey is far above the average in the developed countries. In order to prevent the work accidents, the characteristics of accidents should be determined and the preliminary precautions should be taken. As it is the case in the developing countries, sufficient study about labor security and worker health is not available in Turkey, either. In this study, the work accident characteristic of agriculture sector in Turkey has been tried to be determined. The values in agriculture sector have been compared with the averages of the other sectors and the differences have been determined. It has been regarded that this study will be a positive step for decreasing the rate of work accidents, which brings together many physical and moral burdens in Turkey which has 20 millions of agricultural population.

Key Words: Agriculture, work accident, work safety, accident rate










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2008, 14 (1) 46-50
Determination of the Reactions of Some Barley Cultivars and Genotypes to Scald Under Greenhouse and Field Conditions
(English)

Fazıl DÜŞÜNCELi1, Lütfi ÇETIN1, Seval ALBUSTAN1, Zafer MERT1, Kadir AKAN1 and Aziz KARAKAYA2
1 Central Research Institute for Field Crops, PK. 226 Ulus-Ankara/Turkey
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara/Turkey


The reactions of 36 barley cultivars and 683 barley genotypes to scald were investigated under greenhouse (seedling) and field (adult plant) conditions. Among the 683 barley genotypes tested 44% and 39 % were found to be resistant to moderately resistant in the seedling and adult plant stage, respectively. In the genotype resistance study, a significant (P=0. 0001) correlation was found between the seedling resistance and adult plant resistance (r=0.53). The cultivars Çetin 2000, Avcı 2002, Erginel 90, Kıral 97, Kaya 7794, Akhisar 98, Zafer 160 and Yeşilköy 387 were found as resistant under both greenhouse and field conditions. The cultivars Çıldır 02, Vamıkhoca and Quantum were found as susceptible under greenhouse conditions; however, they were found as resistant under field conditions. Twenty-five cultivars were susceptible under both greenhouse and field conditions.

Key Words: Barley, Rhynchosporium secalis, scald, seedling resistance, adult plant resistance








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2008, 14 (1) 51-56
Selection of Superior Ber (Ziziphus jujuba L.) Genotypes in Çivril Region
(English)

Fevzi M. ECEVİT1, Bekir ŞAN1, Tuba DİLMAÇ ÜNAL1, Filiz HALLAÇ TÜRK1, Adnan N. YILDIRIM1
Mehmet POLAT1 and Fatma YILDIRIM1
1Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Isparta


The objective of this research performed between 1999 and 2001 was the selection of promising ber genotypes in ber population in Çivril, Denizli region and then the preservation as genetic resources. For this purpose, 52 genotypes were selected and evaluated for their superior fruit characteristics and productivity. Promising genotypes were selected using the 'Weighted-Ranged' method. 7 genotypes were selected based on fruit volume, yield, flesh/stone ratio, total soluble solids and vitamin C. The yield of selected genotypes changed between 6.34 and 17.28 g per annual shoot. The fruit characteristics for the selected genotypes were ranged from 4.52 to 6.12 g for fruit weights, 0.34-0.41 g for stone weights, 11.02-16.15 for flesh/stone ratio, 28.10-30.03 % for total soluble solids, 31.43-33.63% for total solid, 225.3-366.0 mg 100g-1 for vitamin C, 2.17-3.0 % for ash, 0.47-0.68 % for total nitrogen and 2.91-4.24 % for total protein.

Key Words: Ber, Ziziphus vulgaris L., selection













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2008, 14 (1) 57-61
Effects of Seed Age and GA3 Application on Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Seeds
(Turkish)


Arif İPEK1 , M. Demir KAYA2 and Bilal GÜRBÜZ3
1Ordu University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Field Crops -Ordu
2T.C. Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Tarla Bitkileri Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü Yenimahalle-Ankara
3 Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Field Crops -Ankara


This study was conducted at the laboratory of Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara, during 2002-2004. Cumin and fenugreek seeds of cv. Gürarslan were used as seed material. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of seed age (fresh, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months after harvest) and gibberellic acid doses (control (distilled water), 100, 200 and 400 ppm) on germination rate of cumin and fenugreek seeds. The result showed that germination rate of seeds varied in the range of 95.5-100.0% in fenugreek and 18.5-79.0% in cumin. Seed age and GA3 significantly affected germination rate of cumin. Germination rate of aged seeds of cumin was enhanced with GA3 application. Germination of fenugreek seeds were not significantly influenced by seed age and GA3. The application of 100 ppm GA3 should be advised to increase germination rate of naturally aged seeds of cumin.

Key Words: Cumin, Cuminum cyminum, fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., seed age, GA3, germination










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2008, 14 (1) 62-69
Some Physical Properties of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. ) and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) Seeds
(English)

Ebubekir ALTUNTAŞ1
1Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery- Tokat/Turkey

Some physical properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) seeds were determined at a moisture content of 9.87% and 2.87% (dry basis), respectively. The mean values of length, width, thickness and geometric mean diameter were 19.92, 11.30, 3.22, 9.71 mm for pumpkin seeds, and 13.28, 8.00, 2.64, 6.52 mm for watermelon seeds, respectively. The mean 1000 seed mass, sphericity, angle of repose, bulk and true densities, single seed volume, surface area, porosity values were obtained as 261.2 g, 60.55%, 23.9°, 321.3 kg/m3, 784.3 kg/m3, 0.11 cm3, 2.54 cm2 and 58.9%, respecitvely for pumpkin seed; and 14.62 g, 49.2%, 19.1°, 412.2 kg/m3, 1543.3 kg/m3, 0.03 cm3, 0.48 cm2 and 47.45%, respectively for watermelon seed. The mean values of dynamic coefficient of friction against galvanized steel, chipboard, mild steel, plywood and rubber surfaces were 0.29, 0.24, 0.32, 0.36 and 0.61 for pumpkin seed, and 0.21, 0.45, 0.41, 0.57 and 0.94 for watermelon seed; while the values of static coefficient of friction were 0.37, 0.38, 0.38, 0.43 and 0.74 for pumpkin seed and 0.27, 0.54, 0.48, 0.70 and 1.11 for watermelon seed, respectively. The maximum static and dynamic coefficients of friction was found for rubber surface.

Key Words: Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)seed, physical properties












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2008, 14 (1) 70-73
Changes in Serum Thyroid Hormones Levels in Angora Goat Kids
(Turkish)

Hüseyin POLAT1 and Gürsel DELLAL2
* This study was taken from PhD. thesis
1 Aksaray University,Faculty of Science and Art Department of Biology - Aksaray
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science - Ankara


In this study, changes in the blood serume levels of thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine=T3, Thyroxine=T4) of male and female Angora goat kids during the months of high temperature. For the months of May, June, July, and August, the T3 levels in the blood serume for the male and female kids were found to be, 129.86 6.960, 136.64 6.320, 107.14 6.120, 98.18 5.490 ng/dl and 134.60 2.700, 140.80 14.900, 113 12.500, 103.33 8.140 ng/dl. respetively. At the same time, the T4 levels in the blood serume of the male and female kids were found to be, 7.09 0.381, 8.19 0.459, 6.94 0.312, 6.54 0.263 g/dl and 7.27 0.333, 8.58 (0.506, 6.58 0.243, 6.41 0.196 g/dl respetively. For the same months, the general aveage of the T3 and T4 levels of male and female kids were found to be, 131.92 5.500, 138.32 6.980, 109.59 6.140, 100.27 4.590 ng/dl and 7.16 0.261, 8.35 0.338, 6.79 0.209 and 6.49 0.174 g/dl respectively. It was determined that the thyroid hormones were significantly affected (P<0.01) by the high environmental temperature during July and August.

Key Words: Angora goat, kid, thyroid hormones







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2008, 14 (1) 74-77
Changes in Testosterone Levels in Angora Goat Kids*
(Turkish)


Gürsel DELLAL1 and Hüseyin POLAT2
* This study was taken from PhD. Thesis
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science - Ankara
2 Aksaray University,Faculty of Science and Art Department of Biology - Aksaray


In this study, changes of testosterone hormone levels in the blood serume of pre-pubertal Angora goat kids, during the months of May, June, July, and August, were researched. In these months, the testosterone hormone levels were found to be, 41.46 2.310; 53.61 1.940; 87.67 2.410, 205.46 8.700 ng/dl for the male kids and 2.00 0.000; 2.00 0.000; 2.57 0.172 ve 2.92 0.259 ng/dl for the female kids respectively, For the female kids, there was not any significant change in the testosterone levels measured during four months. However, the testosterone levels in male kids were found to be significantly increasing (P<0.01) due to the maturing age and consequently the approaching puberty.

Key Words: Angora goat, kid, testosterone









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2008, 14 (1) 78-81
The Effect of Different Plant Densities and Nitrogen Doses on Drug Leaf Yield and Some Features of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.)
(Turkish)


Duran KATAR1 ve Bilal GÜRBÜZ2
* Doktora tezinden kısaltılarak özetlenmiştir.
1 Teşkilatlanma ve Destekleme Genel Müdürlüğü - Ankara
2 Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Field Crops -Ankara


This study was carried out at the experimental field of Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, and University of Ankara in 2001, 2002 and 2003. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) seeds obtained from Field Crops Department were used as the study material. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of different plant densities (40x30, 40x40, 50x30, 50x40 cm) and nitrogen doses (0, 4, 8, 12 kg/da) on yield and yield components. Experiments were conducted in split plots in randomized blocks design with three replications. According to the results of the research, the maximum yield was obtained from the dose of 12 kg/da N and 40x30 cm plant density. Average fresh leaf yield, leaf ratio drug leaf yield and essential oil yield were recorded in 2002 as 2059.06 kg/da, 73.90%, 576.39 kg/da, 1.87 l/da and in 2003 as 2049.90 kg/da, 71.60%, 619.71 kg/da, 1.81 l/da, respectively. This study showed that lemon balm can be cultivated successfully and three cuttings in a year can be done in Ankara ecological conditions.

Key Words: Lemon balm, Melissa officinalis, nitrogen doses, plant density, fresh leaf yield, drug leaf yield, essential oil yield










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2008, 14 (1) 82-86
The Effects of Different MS Doses on Tissue Culture Parameters in Wheat (Triticum sp.)
(Turkish)


Nur KOYUNCU1
1Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Field Crops -Ankara


Increasing crop production yield and crop losses caused by biotic-abiotic stress factors increased the attention to biotechnology-supported breeding studies. However, in these studies the cost of tissue culture and genetic engineering researches are considerably high and chemical substances constitute the major part of this cost. MS medium that provide in vitro nutrition to the explants in such studies is one of these frequently used chemicals. The purpose of this study is to determine the most economical MS medium dose that is necessary for obtaining plants through callus culture. Sarıçanak-98 durum wheat and Pehlivan common wheat cultivated varieties were used as plant material and mature embryos were moved slightly in the seeds for callus formation and were cultured in a solution containing 8 mg/l 2,4-D. Callus that developed in subsequent sub-cultures were cultured in Petri dishes containing MS medium in full (4,405 g/l), half (2,202 g/l) and quarter (1,101 g/l) doses. The weights of the calli were determined by measuring after 11 days and the number of plants obtained at the end of 7 weeks was recorded. After the statistical analysis it was found that different MS doses had no effect on the regeneration capacity and the number of plants obtained. During the formation of callus in solution and by using quarter MS dose in the following phase, it is possible to regenerate complete plants. By this way, MS medium used in sub-cultures which are common in gene transfer studies can be reduced by 75%.

Key Words: Tissue culture parameters, MS medium, callus, regeneration, Triticum, wheat


 









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2008, 14 (1) 87-94
REVEIW ARTICLE
Role Of Phytotoxins In Plant Diseases
(Türkçe)


Muharrem TÜRKKAN1 ve F. Sara DOLAR1
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection -Ankara


Bacterial and fugal plant pathogens are known to produce toxic subtance in infectected plants, Which are named as phytotoxins. Phytotoxins are small molecules and have a variety of structures including sesquiterpenoids, sesterterpenoids, diketopiperazines, peptides, spirocyclic lactams, isocoumarins, polyketides, tetramic acids and perylenequinones. Phytotoxins may be classified as host specific toxins (HST) and non host specific toxins (NHST). Host specific toxins affect only plants of a genotype susceptible to the pathogens. On the other hand, non-host specific toxins affect a lot of plants. So far, Approximately 23 HST and 34 NHST have been determined. All of HSTs are produced by fungi, many of Which belonging to Alternaria ve Cochliobolus. NHSTs produce both bacteria and fungi. Phytotoxins cause a wide range of simtomps on host plants including wilt, chlorosis, blights, leaf spots, necrosis, water soaking and galls.

Key Words: Phytotoxins, HST, NHST, bacteria, fungi, plant disease









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