2007, Volume: 13, Number: 4
Contents
KAYGISIZ, A. The Quality of Colostrum and Its Effects on Calves Growth Characteristics in Holstein Cattle Abstract
SÖKELİ, E., R. AY and İ. KARACA, Determination of the Resistance Level of Two-Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) Populations in Apple Orchards in Isparta Province Against Some Pesticides Abstract
ÇÖRDÜK, M. The Effect of Dietary Fats and Antioxidants on Fatty Acid Composition and Fertility Ability of Fowl Semen Abstract
SATTARİ, M. T., A.FAKHER FARD, M. DOCHERKHESAZ and F. ÖZTÜRK, Simulation of Savalan Irrigation Reservoir by Using Artificial Neural Networks Abstract
BAŞER, İ., O. BİLGİN, K. Z. KORKUT and A. BALKAN, Improvement of Some Quantitative Characters by Mutation Breeding in Durum Wheat Abstract
ÇİFTÇİ AYDOĞAN, E. and K. YAĞDI, Determination of some Agronomic Traits by Diallel Hybrid Analysis in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Abstract
TUNÇTÜRK, M. Determination of Yield and Some Yield Components of Some Yinens (Linum usitatissimum L.) Cultivars in Van Ecological Conditions Abstract
TEKEL, N., H. D. ŞİRELİ and M. E. VURAL, The Effect of Fattening Period on the Fattening Ability and Carcass of Male Awassi Lamb Abstract
KESKİN, N. and B. KUNTER, Induction of Resveratrol via UV Irradiation Effect in Erciş Callus Culture Abstract

DEMİR, N., M. U. KIRKAĞAÇ, A. TOPÇU, Ö. ZENCİR, S. PULATSÜ and Ç. KARASU BENLİ, Water Quality and Trophic State of Sarısu-Mamuca Pond (Eskişehir) Abstract

ÖZEL, Ç. A. Tumor Formation in Isatis constricta Davis (woad) Using Oncogenic A281 Strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens... Abstract
KUŞVURAN, Ş., Ş. ELLİALTIOĞLU, K. ABAK and F. YAŞAR, Responses of Some Melon (Cucumis sp.) Genotypes to Salt Stress Abstract
TÜRKKAN, M. and F. S. DOLAR, The Use of Spectrophotometric Method to Determine Solanapyrones Production of Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr., Causal Agent of Chickpea Blight Abstract
ULUS, C. and A. KARAKAYA, Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Turkish Barley Cultivars to Barley Stripe Abstract
KASIM, U. and ve R. KASIM, An Alternative Treatment of Reduction of Postharvest Losses in Fruits and Vegetables: UV-C Abstract
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2007, 13 (4) 321-325
The Quality of Colostrum and Its Effects on Calves Growth Characteristics in Holstein Cattle
(Turkish)

Ali KAYGISIZ1 and Mustafa KÖSE2
* This study was funded by Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University Division of Scientific Research Project.
1 Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science - Kahramanmaraş
2 Ulaş State Farm, Animal Husbandary Section-Sivas


This study was carried out to determine colostrum quality in Holstein Cows. Colostrum quality has been estimated by using a colostrometer. The colostrometer works by measuring the specific gravity of colostrum and then takein advantage of the linear relationship between the specific gravity of colostrum and its Ig concentration. Among the 59 colostrum samples tested, 15 (25%) samples were found to be good, 32 samples (55 %) were intermediate and the other12 samples (20%) were low concentration. The effect of age of dam and dry period on colostrum quality were found to be significant (P<0.05), whereas effect of calving month and sex of calf were found to be insignificant (P>0.05). The effect of age of dam and colostrum quality on calf birth weight were found to be significant (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively), whereas effect of calving month and sex of calf were found to be insignificant (P>0.05). The effect of calving month on weaning weight was found to be significant (P<0.01), whereas effects of age of dam, sex of calf, colostrum quality and calf birth weight were found to be insignificant (P>0.05).

Key Words : Colostrum quality, Holstein cow











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2007, 13 (4) 326-330
Determination of the Resistance Level of Two-Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) Populations in Apple Orchards in Isparta Province Against Some Pesticides*(English)

Elvan SÖKELİ1, Recep AY1 and İsmail KARACA1
* This study is a part of the MSc. thesis of the first author.
1 Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection -Isparta


This study was conducted to determine the resistance of two-spotted spider mites to some pesticides (propargite, chlorpyrifos and abamectin) used in apple orchards around Isparta province where apple production is intense. The LC50 and LC90 levels of all populations to these pesticides were determined using Petri plate - spray tower method. The LC50 value of Tetranychus urticae Koch populations to propargite, chlorpyrifos and abamectin was found to be 137.69 - 295.07 ?l l-1 distilled water, 70.99 - 1219.46 ?l l-1 distilled water and 6.41 - 15.13 ?l l-1 distilled water, respectively. Resistant ratios of populations were calculated by dividing the LC50 values of field populations by that of a susceptible population of T. urticae strain GSS. The resistance ratios for all T. urticae populations ranged from <1.0 - 1.1 fold for propargite, 2.3 - 40.2 fold for chlorpyrifos and <1.0 - 1.4 fold for abamectin (based on LC50). As a result of this study, it was found that T. urticae populations collected from apple orchards were resistant to chlorpyrifos but they were susceptible to propargite and abamectin.

Key Words: Abamectin, Chlorpyrifos, propargite, pesticides resistance, Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychidae










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2007, 13 (4) 331-336
The Effect of Dietary Fats and Antioxidants on Fatty Acid Composition and Fertility Ability of Fowl Semen
(Turkish)

Muzaffer ÇÖRDÜK1
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara


The typical fatty acid profile of the spermatozoa of domesticated poultry is characterized by the predominance of C20-22: n-6 polyunsaturated. The fish oil diet induced a significant but limited increase in the proportion C22:6n-3 in spermatozoa phospholipids in parallel with an equivalent decrease in the proportion of C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. In addition, the fish oil diet gave significantly higher sperm fertility rate than vegetable oil diet, but fatty acid profile of spermatozoa display a considerable degree of resistance to manipulation by dietary means. These results clearly show that the lipid composition of diet may modify the fatty acid composition of semen and fertilizing ability. Antioxidants have protected sperm membranes against toxic reactive oxygen species, thereby extending the life span of sperm.

Key Words: Fowl, semen, fertility, fat, antioxidant









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2007, 13 (4) 337-345
Simulation of Savalan Irrigation Reservoir by Using Artificial Neural Networks
(Turkish)


Mohammad T. SATTARİ1, A. Fakher-FARD1, Mohammad DOCHERKHESAZ2 and Fazlı ÖZTÜRK3

1 Tebriz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Water Engineering - Tebriz - Iran
2 Şebister University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Computer Engineering -Iran
3 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation - Ankara


Water resources limitation, aim variety and financial sources inadequacy make the managing of optimum releasing to be a great necessity. The undesired temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall, strategic situation of agricultural crops and complicated systems of water resources all are caused the application of mathematical models to be a necessity. On the other hand the stochastic property of inflow to the reservoir system makes the forecast of operation rules in reservoirs to have great importance for irrigation of farmlands. The aim of simulation technique is to predict a behavior of reservoir system in future operation periods. Decision makers make a good management for system operation by application of different scenarios. Savalan dam reservoir with 90 hm3 active capacity was constructed to irrigate 1200 ha agricultural lands in Ardabil province. The monthly water demand of down stream agricultural lands assumed to be supplied perfectly. In this research to along dam reservoir operation forecast namely storage value, spill, evaporation and precipitation over reservoir lake the multi-layer feed forward back propagation ANN method used for simulation of reservoir inflow. The reservoir continuity equation was solved for both cases historical flow and simulated one for the purpose of reservoir parameters calculation parameters obtained from both cases of inflow were compared. The results showed the best consistency observed and calculated parameters.

Key Words: Reservoir management, reservoir simulation, optimum operation and artificial neural networks










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2007, 13 (4) 346-353
Improvement of Some Quantitative Characters by Mutation Breeding in Durum Wheat
(Turkish)

İsmet BAŞER1, Oğuz BİLGİN1, Kayıhan Z. KORKUT1 and Alpay BALKAN1
1 Namık Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops - Tekirdağ


In this research conducted in the Department of Field Crops, Agricultural Faculty, Namık Kemal University, the effect of six different gamma ray doses on plant growth in M1 and M2 generations derived from two durum wheat cultivars was investigated. When mutants and control genotypes in M2 generation were investigated for seven characters, a considerable number of mutants having the desired characteristics were obtained. The application of 200 gray dose resulted in significantly short genotypes among selected mutant genotypes. After 300 gray dose applications, suitable genotypes were obtained in terms of plant height, seed yield per main spike, the number of seeds per spike, harvesting index and spike length. In addition, mutagen application increased number of tillers per plant. For obtained protein band design using the SDS-PAGE method in the Standard and mutant durum wheat genotypes were observed different in 300, 400 and 500 gray mutagen doses

Key Words: Mutation, gamma rays, mutant, durum wheat, harvest index, SDS-PAGE, variability













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2007, 13 (4) 354-364
Determination of Some Agronomic Traits by Diallel Hybrid Analysis in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
(Turkish)

Esra AYDOĞAN ÇİFCİ1 and Köksal YAĞDI1
1 Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops - Bursa


In this study, by using 6 different originated common wheat genotypes [Gönen(G1), Saraybosna(G 2), Köksal-2000(G3), Atilla-12(G4), 15-4(G5), 22-1(G6)], full diallel crosses were made. Plant height, spike length, spikelet number/ spike, seed number/ spike, seed weight/ spike and 1000 kernel weight were investigated over F1 plants and parents.It is found that mean squares of GCA and SCA were significant for all investigated traits whereas it is determined that resiprocal effect was non-significant for spike length and seed number/spike and statistically significant for other traits.GCA effects were determined to be significant for all the traits, except spike lenght, in Gönen wheat. When the SCA effects were examined, in G1xG3 hybrid, except plant height, significant and positive SCA effects were observed for the other traits. The highest narrow-sense heritability was found in plan height by 0.464 and the lowest in spike length by 0.003. The highest heterosis value was observed in G6xG3 hybrid by 82.54% in the seed number /spike, the lowest heterosis was in G5xG3 hybrid by - 28.31 % in the trait of seed weight/spike in the study. The highest and the lowest heterobeltiosis values were obtained in the seed weight / spike by 54.01 % and - 28.63 %, respectively.

Key Words: Common wheat, diallel analysis, GCA and SCA, heterosis, heterobeltiosis.










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2007, 13 (4) 365-371
Determination of Yield and Some Yield Components of Some Linens (Linum usitatissimum L.) Cultivars in Van Ecological Conditions
(Turkish)

Murat TUNÇTÜRK1
1Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops - Van


This study has been conducted out to determine of suitable line cultivars for Van ecological conditions in 2002-2003.In the research established with 3 repetitions according to random blocks experimental pattern, 11 different linen cultivars (Antares, Sarı-85, Linda, Flanders, Atalanta, Norman, McGregor, Dakota, Raulin, Mikael and Royal) have been evaluated in terms of yield and yield elements. In the research, the qualities of plant height, number of main branches, number of capsules in plant, number of seeds in capsule, initial branch height, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, protein ratio, lipid ratio and lipid yield have been examined. At the end of the research, statistically significant differences were found between linen cultivars in terms of examined properties in both experiment years. In the study, the highest seed (141.7-149.0 kg/da) and lipid (49.8-50.8 kg/da) yield were obtained from Linda linen cultivar in both experiment years.

Key Words: Linseed, varieties, adaptation, yield components







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2007, 13 (4) 372-378
The Effect of Fattening Period on the Fattening Ability and Carcass of Male Awassi Lambs
(Turkish)

Nihat TEKEL1, H. Deniz ŞİRELİ1 and M. Emin VURAL2
1 Dicle University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science - Diyarbakır
2 South Eastern Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute - Diyarbakır


This study was carried out on Southeastern Anatolia Research Institute in Diyarbakır in 2005. The aim of the experiment was to investigate fattening performance and carcass characteristics of Awassi Lambs born at 2005 and fed at different terms. The creep fed lambs weaned at two months of age. The each of groups contains 15, 16, and 14 head of lambs and fed intensively for 60 (BS60), 75 (BS75), and 91 (BS91) days respectively. The average final live weight of lambs were found 36.07 1.64, 39.07 1.13 and 42.11 1.50 kg respectively and there was significant difference between BS60 group and BS91 group. The dressing percentage were found 47.41 0.677, 51.63 0.869 and 50.13 0.294, the average daily gain were 0.26 0.018 0.24 0.007 and 0.22 0.016 kg and feed conversion ratio of the groups were found 5.410, 5.635 and 6.160 kg respectively.

Key Words: Awassi, fattening, fattening terms, carcass












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2007, 13 (4) 379-384
Induction of Resveratrol via UV Irradiation Effect in Erciş Callus Culture
(Turkish)

Nurhan KESKİN2 and Birhan KUNTER3
This study is a part of the PhD. thesis.
1This study was funded by Yüzüncü Yıl University and Ankara University Directory of Scientific Research Project.
2Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture - Van
3 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture - Ankara


In this study, the effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation time, incubation time and callus age were investigated for resveratrol induction which is a stilbene compound, in callus cultures of 'Erciş' grape cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.). Callus tissues were obtained from the leaves of the cuttings grown in greenhouse. Gamborg B-5 media including 2% saccarose, 0.8% agar, 1.0 µM BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.1 µM 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid) was used as culture media. Callus tissues were sub cultured two times with 21 days intervals. After the second subculture, 12 and 15 days old callus tissues were exposed to 254 nm UV light at 10 cm distance from the source for 10 and 15 min by opening covers of the petri dishes in sterile cabin. After UV treatment, callus tissues were incubated at 25 oC and in dark conditions. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used for determining of resveratrol production and concentrations were recorded at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after beginning of incubation. The highest resveratrol concentration (66.39 g/g FW) was determined at 48 hours of 12 days-old callus cultures irradiated for 10 minutes. Generally, resveratrol accumulation in 12 days-old callus cultures was higher than that of 15 days-old. Both 10 min and 15 min UV irradiation periods were found to be effective for induction of resveratrol production and thus callus cultures could be convenient for resveratrol production.

Key Words: Erciş cv. (Vitis vinifera L.), stilbene, resveratrol, callus culture, UV irradiation









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2007, 13 (4) 385-390
Water Quality and Trophic State of Sarısu-Mamuca Pond (Eskişehir)
(Turkish)

Nilsun DEMİR1 Mine U. KIRKAĞAÇ1, Akasya TOPÇU1, Özge ZENCİR1, Serap PULATSÜ1 and Çağlan KARASU BENLİ2
*This study funded by Ankara University Agricultural Faculty, Ankara University Aquaculture, Research Center and Eskişehir Municipality
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture - Ankara
2 Ministy of Agriculture and Rural Affairs-Ankara


In this study, some water quality parameters, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton abundance, composition and zooplankton abundance were investigated to determine the trophic state of the recreational pond of Sarısu over a period of six months. The trophic state of the pond was determined as mesoeutrophic-eutrophic with respect to water quality parameters. These parameters were discussed according to the Turkish Environmental Law. A total of 31 species belonging to Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Dinophyceae was identified during the study period. Phytoplankton numbers changed between 495000 and 12808000 cells/l while chlorophyll a concentration varied between 1,12 and 13,2 mg/m3. Rotifera species was dominant in the zooplankton composition. Results are pointed out a rapid eutrophication in the pond and because of this nutrient increase must be controlled.

Key Words: Water quality, trophic state, phytoplankton, chlorophyll, zooplankton












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2007, 13 (4) 391-394
Tumor Formation in Isatis constricta Davis (woad) Using Oncogenic A281 Strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens
(Turkish)

Çiğdem Alev ÖZEL1
1Gazi University, Gazi Faculty of Education, Biology Teaching Programme - Ankara


Leaf and petiole explants obtained from in vitro grown seedlings of Isatis constricta (woad) were treated with oncogenic A281 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Tumour formation started on explants after 15 days and continued until 4 weeks when gus test was performed. The highest gus positive results were recorded from petiole explants selected on medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycine under 16 h light photoperiod.

Key Words: Isatis constricta (woad), Agrobacterium tumefaciens, GUS analysis, tumour formation.


 







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2007, 13 (4) 395-404
Responses of Some Melon (Cucumis sp.) Genotypes to Salt Stres
(Turkish)

Şebnem KUŞVURAN1, Şebnem ELLİALTIOĞLU2, Kazım ABAK1 and Fikret YAŞAR3
*This study is a part of the project number 2002-58 funded by Ankara University Biotechnology Institute
1 Çukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture - Adana
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture - Ankara
3 Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture - Van


The aim of this research is to identify differences in salt tolerance of melon genotypes and the possibility of using plant biomass values and degree of ion accumulation of leaves to determine salt tolerance. In addition, the increase in MDA amount of leaves on salt stress was evaluated. 36 different genotypes were identified according to different parameters in respect to salt tolerance and susceptibility to salinity, correlation coefficients among these characters were determined. It was observed that salt damage in melons is probably the result of toxic effects of Na+ and Cl- ions and the genotypes having low amounts of these ions are more tolerant. Midyat, Besni and Şemame varieties were determinad as salt tolerant melon genotypes; Ananas and Yuva melon cultivars were most sensitive to salt stress.

Key Words: Melon, salinity, tolerance, ion, lipid pedoxidation









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2007, 13 (4) 405-408
The Use of Spectrophotometric Method to Determine Solanapyrones Production of Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr., Causal Agent of Chickpea Blight
(Turkish)

Muharrem TÜRKKAN1 and F. Sara DOLAR1
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection - Ankara


This study is aimed to determine solanapyrones production of Ascochyta rabiei by spectrophotometric method and to define the most suitable day for solanapyrones extraction. Three isolates of A. rabiei were grown in czapek dox liquid medium for 7, 14 and 21 days and toxins were extracted by solid phase extraction using C18 catridge. Then toxin were eluted with acetonitrile. Agilent Specord 200 spectrophotometer was used in quantities analysis of solanapyrones. Toxin production of the isolates on 7th, 14th and 21th days were found diffrent from quantitatively. All three isolates produced solanapyrone B on the 7th day. Two of the isolates, except Auk 7, produced solanapyrone A in very low quantities in the 7th day. Amount of solanapyrone A obtained from 14th day was higher than that of 7th day incubation. This implies as that the increase of mycelial mass of fungi is closely related with quantitive of solanapyrone A. In the 7th, 14th and 21th days extraction, solanapyrone C was defined the most abundant toxin for all isolates. The differencies amoung of the quantities solanapyrone A, B and C was not statistically significant between in the 14th and 21th days of incubation. Consequently it is found that 14th day's incubation appropriate for toxin extraction of A. rabiei.

Key Words: A. rabiei, Solanapyrone A, B and C, Extraction and Spectrophotometer









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2007, 13 (4) 409-412
Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Turkish Barley Cultivars to Barley Stripe*
(English)

Canan ULUS1 and Aziz KARAKAYA1
*Prepared from M. Sc. Thesis
1Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection - Ankara


Seedling reactions of 15 barley cultivars grown in Turkey were determined under greenhouse conditions to five isolates of Drechslera graminea, the causal agent of barley stripe disease. Isolates were collected from different parts of Ankara province. Differences were observed among the reactions of the cultivars to the isolates of the fungus. There were also pathogenicity differences among the isolates. The cultivars Çumra 2001 and Yerçil 147 were resistant to all five isolates. Cultivar Sladoran was resistant to 4 isolates. The cultivars Erginel 90, Orza 96, Çetin 2000 and Aydanhanım were susceptible to three isolates of the fungus. The reactions of other varieties ranged between resistant and susceptible depending on the isolates. Isolate Dg3 was the most virulent.

Key Words: Drechslera graminea, Pyrenophora graminea, barley stripe, barley, Turkey

 









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2007, 13 (4) 413-419
REVEIW ARTICLE
An Alternative Treatment of Reduction of Postharvest Lossesin Fruits and Vegetables: UV-C
(Turkish)

M.Ufuk KASIM1 and Rezzan KASIM1
1 Kocaeli University, Arslanbey Profession High School - Kocaeli


A heavy reliance on synthetic fungicides has been necessary to control postharvest decay of produce, which results in about a 25% loss of fruit and vegetables in the developed countries. These losses can exceed 50% in developing countries. Fungicide residues have been found to pose a potential health threat to the consumer, and particularly to children. Because of this problem, researchers have attempted to fid alternatives to chemical pesticides for controlling postharvest diseases of horticultural products. Among the alternative methods used for controlling decay, ultraviolet-C irradiation (UV-C, 200-280 nm wavelength) offers interesting possibilities. UV treatment, especially with radiation at 254 nm, can cause weak stres responses, often associated with the phenomenon of inducible pathogen resistance.

Key Words: Ultraviolet-C irradiation, fruit, vegetables, postharvest, decay








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