2007, Volume: 13, Number: 1
Contents
ÖZÇELİK, A. ve O. O. ÖZER. The Evaluation of Supporting Payments to Farmers for Fuel and Chemical Fertilizer in Turkey Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ÜNAL, H. G. Research on Mechanization Conditions and Agricultural Applications of Sugar Beet Producers in Kastamonu Abstract Full Text (PDF)
GENÇTAN, T. ve A. BALKAN. Comprasion of Plant Grain Yield and Yield Components of Main Stem and Fertil Tillers in Some Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) Cultivars Abstract Full Text (PDF)
BAŞARAN KAYMAKÇI, A., M. AKSU ve Ö. EGEMEN. Monitoring the Impacts of the Offshore Cage Fish Farm on Water Quality Located in Ildır Bay (İzmir-Aegean Sea) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
TONKAZ, T. An Assessment of Monthly Total Precipitation Characteristics in GAP Area and Generation of Synthetic Series of Monthly Precipitation Data Abstract Full Text (PDF)
GÜLTAŞ, H. T. ve Y. ERDEM. Comparison of Drip and Micro Sprinkler Irrigation Methods for Dwarf Cherry Orchards in the Aspect of Investment and Operational Costs Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ÖZYURT, Ö. and S. ÜLGENTÜRK. Biology of the Euonymus scale Unaspis euonymi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Urban Areas of Ankara, Turkey Abstract Full Text (PDF)
AYGÜN, A. ve H. DUMANOĞLU. Shoot Organogenesis From Leaf Discs in Some Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) Genotypes Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KOÇTÜRK, B. Ö. ve R. GÜRHAN. Determination of Mechanical Properties of Various Walnut According to Different Moisture Levels Abstract Full Text (PDF)

AĞAOĞLU, Y. S. , S. P. EYDURAN ve E. EYDURAN. Comparison of Some Pomological Characteristics of Blackberry Cultivars Growth in Ayaş ConditionsAbstract Full Text (PDF)

AŞAN, M. Development of New Culture Medium for Various MicroorganismsAbstract Full Text (PDF)
 
 
 
 
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2007, 13 (1) 1-8
The Evaluation of Supporting Payments to Farmers for Fuel and Chemical Fertilizer in Turkey
(Turkish)

Ahmet ÖZÇELİK1 and Osman Orkan ÖZER1
1Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics-Ankara

Because of the social and economic importance of agricultural sector for Turkey and high sensitivity of agricultural production toward risk and uncertainty, supporting and protection measures towards agricultural products are taken by government. Supporting methods are so different and it is mostly used such as market supports, market price support and direct income support. In this study, it is examined fertilizer support which is taken part into input support and diesel oil support which is used in agricultural activity and also it is examined theirs sufficiency levels for producers in terms of providing diesel oil costs. It is considered supporting amounts which are taken part into "Çiftçilere Kimyevi Gübre Destekleme Ödemesi Yapılmasına Dair Karar" for fertilizer support, "Tarımsal Faaliyette Kullanılan Mazot İçin Çiftçilere Destekleme Ödemesi Yapılmasına İlişkin Tebliği" for diesel oil support and it was calculated actual amounts and examined by comparing. As the result of examination, it was found that supports which were given by government were not adequate for producers in terms of providing production costs.

Key Words: Agricultural supporting policies, fertilizer support, diesel oil support











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2007, 13 (1) 9-16
Research on Mechanization Conditions and Agricultural Applications of Sugar Beet Producers in Kastamonu
(Turkish)

H. Güran ÜNAL1
1Kastamonu Univ. Profession High School-Kastamonu

In this study, it was aimed to determine mechanization conditions and agricultural applications of sugar beet producers in Kastamonu which has one of the 30 sugar beet factories in Turkey. An interview was carried out with the producers in four districts where most of production comes from. The survey results were collected and evaluated based on districts. In addition to this, averages of Kastamonu were determined. As a result, it was determined that tended to use mechanization depending on their economical conditions. It has seen that rotary cultivator, hoeing machine and combine sugar beet harvester have been used recently. It was also determined that average tractor power and equipment per tractor were found to be 64.1 HP and 6.5, respectively in Kastamonu. Furthermore, it was seen that soil analysis haven't been made by a big majority of the producers and they have applied excessive fertilizer.

Key Words: Sugar beet, Kastamonu, agricultural application, mechanization











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2007, 13 (1) 17-21
Comparison of Plant Grain Yield and Yield Components of Main Stem and Fertil Tillers in Some Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) Cultivars
(Turkish)

Temel GENÇTAN1 and Alpay BALKAN1
1 Namık Kemal Univ. Faculty of Agriculture Department of Field Crops-Tekirdağ

This research was carried out in experimental field of Field Crops Department of Faculty of Agriculture of Namık Kemal University in randomized split blocks design with three replications in 2002/2003 growing season. Three bread wheat cultivars (Pehlivan, Flamura-85 and Golia) with different plant height and maturing period commonly grown in Trakya region were used as experimental material in this study. The objectives of this study were to compare plant grain yield and some other yield components such as plant height, spike length, the number of spikelet per spike, the number of grain per spike, the grain weight per spike and 1000 grain weight of main stem and fertil tillers in the cultivars used in the study. Based on the results of this study, main stems of all cultivars had the highest plant height, spike length, the number of spikelet per spike, the number of grain per spike, the grain weight per spike and 1000 grain weight. In term of these characters, performance of first tillers, second tillers and third tillers were second, third and fourth in the rank respectively. The highest plant grain yield was obtained from plants with 4 tillers including main stem. Plants with no tiller (only main stem) had the lowest plant grain yield. The results of this study indicate that tiller number in wheat grown in Tekirdağ conditions should be 4 including main stem to maximize grain yield.

Key Words: Bread wheat, main stem, fertil tiller, plant grain yield, yield components








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2007, 13 (1) 22-28
Monitoring the Impacts of the Offshore Cage Fish Farm on Water Quality Located in Ildır Bay (Izmir-Aegean Sea)
(Turkish)

Aslı KAYMAKÇI BAŞARAN1, Mehmet AKSU1, and Özdemir EGEMEN1
Ege Univ. Faculty of Fisheries Department of Marine- Inland Water Sciences and Technology-İzmir


Net cage aquaculture has developed rapidly since mid 1980's in Turkish Coasts. Rapid and uncontrolled development had brought some environmental problems. Uneaten feeds and feaces effected water column and sediment in a negative way especially in closed and semi-enclosed bays. Together with the advances in net cage technology, offshore aquaculture which makes possible more intensive and efficient production has brought new trend to cage aquaculture. The aim of this study was to monitor probable impacts of the offshore aquaculture farm produced sea bream and sea bass on water column located in Ildır Bay. For this purpose, 8 seasonal samplings were carried out at three stations from surface and bottom waters on May 2000, July 2000, October 2000, February 2001 and February 2004, May 2004, August 2004, November 2004. Physico-chemical variables (temperature, salinity, pH; dissolved oxygen, Secchi depth) and nutrients (Nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate) of the samples were investigated. Measured values changed between; 14.0-24.5ºC for water temperature, 7.85-8.48 for pH, 33.97-41.00 ‰ for salinity, 5.2-9.2 mg/L for dissolved oxygen, 10.5-32.9 m for secchi depth, nd (non detected)-0.44.µgat/L for nitrite, nd-1.12 µgat/L for nitrate, nd-9.07µgat/L for ammonium, nd-0,61 µgat/L for phosphate. In conclusion, significant changes were not detected in water quality because cages are situated offshore and consequently depths are high and feeding is carried out under control.

Key Words: Offshore marine cages, water quality, monitoring, Aegean Sea, Ildır Bay










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2007, 13 (1) 29-37
An Assessment of Monthly Total Precipitation Characteristics in GAP Area and Generation of Synthetic Series of Monthly Precipitation Data
(Turkish)

Tahsin TONKAZ1
1Harran Univ. Faculty of Agruculture Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation -Şanlıurfa

In this study, assessment of monthly total precipitation characteristics was aimed and synthetic precipitation series were generated in order to compare with observation series in GAP area. In monthly precipitation analysis covering 16 stations, dry months (June, July, August, and September) were not included. The highest precipitation value was recorded as 129.2 mm in Adıyaman (December) and the lowest record was observed as 47.2 mm in Akçakale, the most southern part the region, at the same month. From southern part where frequent droughts have been in counted to the north, amount of precipitation increased. A considerable difference was determined between mean of generated and observed series in May of Akcakale where the highest skewness coefficient was found across the study area. Since taking 20% risk is suitable for agricultural production, areal distribution of the synthetic data (p=0.80) were mapped using geographical information systems and presented for user' benefits.

Key Words: GAP area, monthly total precipitation, synthetic data











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2007 13 (1) 38-46
Comparison of Drip and Micro Sprinkler Irrigation Methods for Dwarf Cherry Orchards in the Aspect of Investment and Operational Costs
(Turkish)

Hüseyin T. GÜLTAŞ1 and Yeşim ERDEM1
* This Sturdy was taken from M. Sc. Thesis.
1 Namık Kemal Univ. Faculty of Agriculture. Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Tekirdağ

This study was conducted in the field of Tekirdag Viticulture Research Institute. Drip and micro sprinkler irrigation methods were compared in respect to irrigation water requirements, establishment cost, running cost, energy cost and annual total cost in the cherry orchard of 27.3 da. For this purpose, soil characteristics were determined, irrigation water requirements of cherry was calculated, and then, irrigation systems were planned, system capacities were determined, system components were designed and project estimated costs were prepared according to prices of year of 2006. The cost of establishment, capital, fixed, energy, maintenance, labour of irrigation and annual total costs were calculated by economic analysis. As a result, seasonal irrigation water requirements were found 397 mm and 482 mm for drip and micro sprinkler irrigation methods, respectively. System capacities were determined as 3.56 L/s in drip irrigation method and 5.12 L/s in micro sprinkler irrigation method. Annual total capital cost and annual total cost were found as upper at the level of 17% and 13%, respectively, in drip irrigation method than micro sprinkler irrigation method. According to the this results, it has been suggested that, when irrigation water has been taken from the wells with low dynamic head, if water source has been adequate micro sprinkler irrigation method can be applied, but if water is scarce drip irrigation method should be preferred.

Key Words: Cherry, drip irrigation method, micro sprinkler irrigation method, irrigation water requirement, irrigation costs










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2007, 13 (1) 47-53
Biology of the Euonymus scale Unaspis euonymi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Urban Areas of Ankara, Turkey
*(English)


Özlem ÖZYURT1 and Selma ÜLGENTÜRK2
*Prepared from MSc. Thesis.
1Kocaeli University, Arslanbey Vocational High School, İzmit-Kocaeli
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

Unaspis euonymi is an important pest of Euonymus plants in parks and gardens of Ankara. In this study, the biology of U. euonymi was investigated in 2002 and 2003. The euonymus scale overwintered as mated adult females and had two generations per year. Crawlers of the first generation were present from mid-May to mid-June and those of the second generation during July. The maximum number of eggs counted in a female body was 70,8; the greatest number laid in a day was 10,8. Adult females were more abundant on the branches than the leaves. In contrast, adult males were more abundant on leaves than on branches. The number of predator species (Coccinellidae: Adalia bipunctata (L.), Chilocorus bipustulatus (L.), Exochomus quadripustulatus (L.): Nitidulidae: Cybocephalus sp.; Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.) was low and inefficient.

Key Words: Euonymous, Unaspis euonymi, Euonymus scale, biology, urban, Ankara







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2007, 13 (1) 54-61
Shoot Organogenesis From Leaf Discs in Some Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) Genotypes
(Turkish)

Ahmet AYGÜN1 and Hatice DUMANOĞLU2
*This Study was taken from PhD. Thesis.
1 Ordu Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ordu
2 Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture -Ankara


The objective of this study was to stimulate organogenesis of in vitro shoots from leaf discs in some quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) genotypes. Quince A (dwarf), S.Ö. (Sabahattin Özbek) 39-200 (dwarf), S.Ö. 18-82 (semi dwarf) and S.Ö. 58-315 (vigorous) clonal rootstocks, and Eşme, Limon, and Çukurgöbek cultivars were used as plant materials. Effects of TDZ + NAA combinations or BA + NAA, AgNO3 and putrescine treatments were investigated in two experiments for organogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was significantly induced on MS (Murashige and Skoog) basal medium containing 0.33 mg/l TDZ + 0.5mg/l NAA + 2.0 mg/l AgNO3. The rate of shoot formation was 80.0% in Quince A, 56.7% in S.Ö. 39-200, 17.5% in S.Ö. 18-82, 37.5% in S.Ö. 58-315, 36.7% in Eşme, 40.0% in Limon, and 43.3% in Çukurgöbek. The average shoot number per leaf disc was changed between 0.4 and 2.7 among genotypes.

Key Words: Quince, Cydonia oblonga Mill., in vitro, organogenesis, leaf disc, shoot












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2007, 13 (1) 62-68
Determination of Mechanical Properties of Various Walnut According to Different Moisture Levels
(Turkish)

Barış Özgür KOÇTÜRK1and Recai GÜRHAN1
1Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara


This study, it is aimed to determine some mechanic features ( breaking characteristics) for three different kinds of walnut ( Yalova-3, Kaman, and Şebin) at the same loading rate, at three different moisture content, and three different axes. The data of this study are obtained by loading these kinds statically at a loading rate of 43,4 mm/min., and at the moisture content levels of %8, %13, and % 18, and on x-x (thickness), y-y (width), and z-z (length) axes. Besides, some physical characteristics such as dimensions, geometrical average diameters , and sphericity of the walnut kinds are determined. At the end of the research, it is determined that as the moisture content level increases, there is a decrease in the power required for breaking, and contrarily there is an increase in the energy value required for displacement and breaking. The results obtained are in a supporting way to the previous studies carried out.

Key Words : Static loading, walnut, rupture force









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2007, 13 (1) 69-74
Comparison of Some Pomological Characteristics of Blackberry Cultivars Growth in Ayaş Conditions
(Turkish)

1 Ankara Univ. . Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture--Ankara
2 Ankara Univ. Natural and Applied Science - Ankara
3 Yüzüncü Yıl Univ. . Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science -Van

The aim of this study was to compare each other in place of fruit weight, total acid and soluble solid contents of pomological characteristics of 11 blackberry cultivars (namely, Arapaho, Black Satin, Bursa 1, Bursa 2, Bursa 3, Cherokee, Chester, Dirksen Thornless, Jumbo, Navaho and Ness) cultivated in Ankara (Ayaş) ecology during 2002-2006. Analyses of Variance at Repeated Random Complete Design (11x5x3) were applied for data regarding each pomological characteristics. According to the analyses, the effects of year, cultivar, and cultivar by year interaction on the pomological characteristics were much more significant (P<0.0001). Comparisons of sub-group for cultivar by year interaction were evaluated between cultivars in the same year. As to the study results, it were suggest that Chester, Dirksen Thornless and Jumbo were found having the largest fruit weight; Dirksen Thornless, Bursa 2 and Ness were cultivars having the largest total acid; Bursa 2, Navaho ve Chester were cultivars that had soluble solid contents. As a result, variation in pomological characteristics resulted from i) variation between cultivars ii) ecological variation during years iii) likely ecological effects consisted of cultivar by year interaction.

Key Words: Blackberry, fruit weight, total acid, soluble solid contents.












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2007, 13 (1) 75-79
Development of New Culture Medium for Various Microorganisms
(English)

Meltem AŞAN1
1Çukurova Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Adana


Hydrolyzed milk medium for growth of some lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis), Bacillus subtilis and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed. In this study we have attempted to improve an alternative growth medium for these bacteria and yeast instead of their conventional media. The growth rates of these microorganisms in hydrolyzed milk medium had small amount lower than their conventional media in general. Therefore the investigation suggests that hydrolyzed milk medium can be used for microbiological and genetic studies.

Key Words: Hydrolyzed milk medium, bacteria, yeast, growth








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