2006, Volume: 12, Number: 1
Contents
HALİLOĞLU H., A. YILMAZ ve V. BEYYAVAŞ, Effect of Foliar Fertilizers Applied at Different Stages on Agronomic and Lint Characters of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
PARLAK M. ve A. ÖZASLAN PARLAK, The Effect of Different Irrigation Water Salinities on Silage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Yield and Soil Salinity Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ÖZTÜRK İ., N. TORT ve N. TOSUN, The Effect of Metalaxyl Application on Anatomical Structure of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
DEMİR C. ve H. ÇELEN, A Research on Situation and Problems of Sprayers in Agricultural Farms in Tekirdağ Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KOYUNCU M., Ş. KARA UZUN ve E. TUNCEL, Characterization of Goat Husbandry and Production Aspects in South Marmara Region

II.Problems and Production Potential of Enterprises Abstract Full Text (PDF)

ÜNAL H. G., A Study on the Possibilities of Shallot Planting with Garlic Planting Machine Prototype Abstract Full Text (PDF)
TURGUTER S. ve S. ÜLGENTÜRK, Biological Aspects of Physokermes piceae (Schrank) (Spruce Bud Scale) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
DEMİR N. ve M. U. KIRKAĞAÇ, Phytoplankton Composition and Biomass of a Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val) Nursing Pond Abstract Full Text (PDF)
MUT Z., S. ALBAYRAK ve Ö. TÖNGEL, Determination of Grain Yield and Some Traits of Triticale (Xtriticosecale Wittmack) Lines Abstract Full Text (PDF)

ALBAYRAK S. ve N. ÇAMAŞ, Yield Components of Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris var. crassa Mansf.) under the Middle Black Sea Region Conditions Abstract Full Text (PDF)

BOZKURT Y., S. BEKCAN ve G. Çelik ÇAKIROĞULLARI, Seasonal Variation and Meat Composition of Bleak (Alburnus orontis, Sauvage 1882) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
SOYDAM A. and B. ÇAKMAK, Economical Comprasion of Collective Pressured Irrigation Systems; a Case Study in Secondary Numbered 1400 of Yaylak Project Abstract Full Text (PDF)
GÜNAL H. and S. ERŞAHİN, Use of Quantified Color Parameters in Estimation of Soil Properties Abstract Full Text (PDF)
UYSAL N. and S. BEKCAN, Effect of Partially Replacing Fishmeal With Soybean Meal on Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ATAK M. and C. Y. ÇİFTÇİ, Morphological Characterization of Some Triticale Cultivar and Lines Abstract Full Text (PDF)
Abstracts
 

2006, 12 (1) 1-7
Effect of Foliar Fertilizers Applied at Different Stages on Agronomic and Lint Characters of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)*
(Turkish)

Hasan HALİLOĞLU1, Ahmet YILMAZ2 and Vedat BEYYAVAŞ1
* Harran Üniv. Bilimsel Araştırmalar Komisyonu tarafından desteklenmiştir.
1 Harran Üniv. Suruç Meslek Yüksekokulu-Suruç-Şanlıurfa
2 Harran Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Şanlıurfa

This research was conducted to study the effect of foliar micronutrients fertilizers applied at different stages of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) on agronomic and technologial properties under Suruç Plain Conditions, Sanliurfa, Turkey in years of 2001 and 2002. Experiments were arranged in split plots with three replications. Cotton cultivars (Erşan-92 and Stoneville-453) were in the main plots and foliar micronutrient fertilizer applications were in sub-plots. According to two year results, application of the foliar fertilizer at different stages of cotton did not show significant effect on the cotton seed yield (297.40 kg/da-393.41 kg/da), ginning outturn (38.84 % - 41.35 %). The highest boll numbers were obtained from application of the fertilizer at F.S. (First Squaring) 150 g/da + F.P. (Flowering Peak) 150 g/da (11 per plant) on Erşan-92 cv. in 2001, but, in 2002, the application of while F.F. (First Flowering) 150 g/da + F.P. (Flowering Peak) 150 g/da (12.07 per plant) and from application of the fertilizer at F.S. (First Squaring) 100 g/da + F.F. (First Flowering) 100 g/da + F.P. (Flowerin Peak) 100 g/da (13.10-13.67 per plant) on Stoneville-453 cv. Application of the foliar fertilizer at F.S. (First Squaring) 150 g/da + F.P. (Flowering Peak) 150 g/da (5-91-6.12 g) led to an increase in cotton seed weight per boll on Erşan-92 cv. but there was no effect on Stoneville-453 cv. The application of the foliar fertilizer at F.S. (First Squaring) (150 g/da) + F.P. (Flowering Peak) 150 g /da stages increased the plant height on Erşan-92 cv., while application at F.F. (First Flowering) 300 g/da stage increased the plant height on Stoneville-453 cv. in both years. Effect of foliar fertilizer applications on fiber length increase has been observed small. The micronaire (4.07 mic. - 4.77 mic.) were obtained in both cultivars from the foliar fertilizer application at F.S. (First Squaring) 300 g/da. For the fiber strength, the strenghtest fibers were obtained from applications of F.F. (First Flowering) with 300 g/da on Erşan-92 cv., and F.F. (First Flowering) + F.P. (Flowering Peak) 150 g/da on Stoneville-453 cv.

Key Words: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), yield, foliar fertilizer, fiber








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2006, 12 (1) 8-13
The Effect of Different Irrigation Water Salinities on Silage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Yield and Soil Salinity
(Turkish)

Mehmet PARLAK1 and Altıngül ÖZASLAN PARLAK2
1 Çanakkale Director of Agriculture Country-Çanakkale
2 Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Çanakkale

In this research, a greenhouse study to determine the effect of irrigation water salinity on the yield and quality of silage sorghum (Early Sumac and Rox) was conducted in 35 cm in diameter and 65 cm in depth PVC columns, with 5 irrigation water salinity levels (0.29, 3, 6, 9 and 12 dS/m) in fully randomised factorial design. The cultivar Early Sumac produced more forage than cultivar Rox. Increasing salinity caused to decrease in plant height, forage yield, dry forage yield and crude protein contents. An increase in irrigation water salinity increased soil salinity.

Key Words: Salinity, salinity-yield relation, silage sorghum, soil salinity








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2006, 12 (1) 14-22
The Effect of Metalaxyl Application on Anatomical Structure of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
(Turkish)

İlkay ÖZTÜRK1 , Nedret TORT1 and Necip TOSUN 2
Ege Üniv. Fen Fak. Biyoloji Bölümü-İzmir
2 Ege Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection -İzmir

In this study, a fungicide as known Megasil (%35 Metalaxyl) were pulverized on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in greenhouses in Fethiye, in Muğla. Then the likely effects of this fungicide on anatomical structures of plants were examined. The fungicide applications were carried out to tomato according to farmer of tomato in greenhouses in this area at doses (5 g/ 12 l water) and two fold (10 g/ 12 l water) of these doses. In the application of Metalaxyl, some anomalies in the anatomical structure of the plant have been observed. All fungicide applications resulted in decreasing in cross section cell layer thickness of leaf, stem and fruit. In addition, deformations in mesophyll cells of leaves, assimilating palisade paranchyma cells of stem and mesocharp cells of fruit were found as well. This situation may indirectly cause a negative effect in the amount and quality of the yield.

Key Words: Fungicide, metalaxyl, anatomy, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., tomato





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2006, 12 (1) 23-28
A Research on Situation and Problems of Sprayers in Agricultural Farms in Tekirdağ
(Turkish)

Cihan DEMİR1 and İlker H.ÇELEN1
1 Trakya Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Tekirdağ


Determination of mechanization level according to plant protection machines carried out on mainly aimed in this research. Problems, maintenance, service and buying cost of the machines were also found out by randomize survey on farms in Tekirdag. The survey included 20 questions. This survey was 718 farmers in villages determined beforehand. Some problems were also recorded except the questions in the survey. The smallest land was determined with 20 da and the largest with 4000 da according to the result. The rate of enterprises which has 101-250 da land was 47.15%. 501 Tractors, 621 cultivators, 519 sprayers were determined according to survey. The rate of sprayer/tractor was found as 1.036. Ages of the sprayers were mostly under 10 years (41 %). Ages of others machines were determined as fewer than 5 years with 35% and older than 21 years with 3%. By observation of sprayer; 79% of them were found to be well and 28% were found to be nozzle clogged. 11% of farmers stated that they always controlled nozzles and when they found some problems they changed with the new ones. In this research, it was also determined that 73% farmers cleaned the machines after each use. 59% maintained and serviced their machines in their own workshop.

Key Words: Sprayer, spraying, plant protection, spray nozzle







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2006, 12 (1) 29-36
Characterization of Goat Husbandry and Production Aspects in South Marmara Region

II.Problems and Production Potential of Enterprises (Turkish)


Mehmet KOYUNCU1, Şebnem KARA UZUN1 and Erdoğan TUNCEL1
* Uludağ Üniv. Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Komisyonu tarafından desteklenmiştir.
1 Uludağ Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science - Bursa


The aim of the study was to determine general conditions and production potential of goat breeding in Bursa, Balıkesir, Bilecik and Canakkale. Total 92 enterprises dealing with goat rearing at least for four years were visited within the above provinces. The live weight of kids (weaning), female and male goats in Bursa, Balıkesir, Bilecik and Çanakkale provinces were found 9.7±0.62, 17.2±0.84, 10.8±0.52 and 17.0±2.76 kg (p<0.01); 41.0±1.22, 46.8±0.84, 43.7±1.27 and 44.4±5.54 kg; 58.7±3.00, 65.0±1.25, 59.4±1.35 and 60.0±3.54 kg respectively in visited enterprises. The means of first breeding age and culling age were determined by interview in enterprises. The lactation length and milk production in Bursa, Balıkesir, Bilecik ve Çanakkale provinces were found 99.3±14.13, 173.0±14.70, 98.5±3.46 and 172.5±14.36 days; 30.1±4.67, 180.3±10.14, 25.8±3.04 and 100.2±12.25 kg respectively. Furthermore kid and goat numbers, which were slaughtered, and meat production were determined from slaughterhouse in four provinces.

Key Words: South Marmara region, goat breeding, production potential, and production characteristics









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2006, 12 (1) 37-43
A Study on the Possibilities of Shallot Planting with Garlic Planting Machine Prototype
(Turkish)

H. Güran ÜNAL1
1Ankara Univ. Kastamonu Profession High School-Kastamonu

The problems of shallot planting mechanization couldn't have been exactly solved in Turkey. Therefore, in this study, the performance of prototype which designed and produced for garlic planting was researched at shallot planting. Prototype was tested 8, 10 cm within rows and 2.5, 4 km/h machine advancing speed in a field. With the measurements after planting, seed spacing performance, rate of germination and planting depth was determined and was statistically evaluated. Because of all result values are in acceptable limits; show that the garlic planting machine prototype can be used successfully in shallot planting.

Key Words: Shallot, garlic, planting, garlic planting machine







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2006, 12 (1) 44-50
Biological Aspects of Physokermes piceae (Schrank) (Spruce Bud Scale) (Hemiptera: Coccidae)
(Turkish)

Sema TURGUTER1 and Selma ÜLGENTÜRK1
This study was taken from M. Sc. thesis.
1 Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

Physokermes piceae is an important pest of spruce species. Its some biological aspects were studied on blue spruce (Picea pungens) in Ankara urban ecosystem in 2001-2003. The results showed that P. piceae has one generation in a year and overwintered as the second larval stage. These oviparous insects stored their eggs in two chambers under their bodies. Oviposition started in May and crawlers appeared in the end of June beginning of July. The second larval stage appeared September-May period. Adult males and females were observed in the middle of April till in the middle of June. Males mostly infested the lower needle surfaces while females preferred the surfaces of young brunches. The ratio of the males in the population was 54.37 % while the females comprised 45.62 % of the population. Number of egg was detected 844.63 ±49.09 in 2001, 925.35 ±49.84 in 2002 years.

Key Words: Physokermes piceae, spruce bud scale, biology, Coccidae, spruce, urban ecosystem






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2006, 12 (1) 51-55
Phytoplankton Composition and Biomass of a Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val) Nursing Pond
(Turkish)

Nilsun DEMİR1and Mine U. KIRKAĞAÇ1
Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of fisheries and Aquaculture -Ankara

In this research, the variations in phytoplankton composition and biomass were investigated in an earthen pond stocked with 5 days old grass carp fry (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Val.) between July 7 and September 2, 1998, weekly. In pond, a total of 37 species belonging to seven classes (7 species from Bacilloriophyceae, 19 species from Chlorophyceae, 1 species from Chrysophyceae, 1 species from Cryptophyceae, 3 species from Cyanophyceae, 4 species from Dinophyceae and 2 species from Euglenophyceae) were identified. In the sampling period, phytoplankton biomass changed between 2035 ± 345 and 4456 ± 501 mg/m3 and Chlorophyceae species were dominant. Results were discussed according to zooplankton composition and fish gut contents.

Key Words: Phytoplankton, biomass, pond ecology, grass carp, fry









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2006, 12 (1) 56-64
Determination of Grain Yield and Some Traits of Triticale (Xtriticosecale Wittmack) Lines
(Turkish)

Zeki MUT1, Sebahattin ALBAYRAK2 and Özgür TÖNGEL3
Ondokuz Mayıs Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Samsun
2 Süleyman Demirel Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy -Isparta
3 Blacksea Agricultural Research Institute-Samsun

60 lines obtained from CIMMYT and Presto and Tatlıcak tritikale cultivars (xTriticosecale Wittmack) were tested in incomplete block design with three replications between 2003-2005 in Amasya and 2004-2005 in Samsun conditions. In this research, significant differences were determined among grain yield, plant height, thousand kernel weight and test weight. According to three locations, these values have been determined; grain yield was 358.8 - 564.4 kg/da, plant height was 104.5 - 129.7 cm, thousand kernel weight was 29.4 - 41.1 g and test weight was 65.9 - 71.1 kg. According to the results it was decieded that 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 18, 21, 22, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 41, 42 ve 45 numbered triticale lines were selected to test in the region yield experience.

Key Words: Triticale, grain yield, thousand kernel weight, test weight







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2006, 12 (1) 65-69
Yield Components of Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris var. crassa Mansf.) under the Middle Black Sea Region Conditions
(İngilizce)

Sebahattin ALBAYRAK1 and Necdet ÇAMAŞ2
1 Süleyman Demirel Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Isparta
2 Ondokuz Mayıs Univ. Bafra Vocational School-Isparta


In this study, fodder beet growing possibilities were examined in Middle Black Sea Region. The trials were arranged in randomized complete blocks experimental designs with three replications in 2004 and 2005 growing season. Two fodder beet cultivars (Ecdogelb and Ecdorot) at 5 locations (Bafra, Ladik, Suluova, Gümüşhacıköy and Osmancık) were grown. The highest root and leaf yields were obtained from Bafra and Osmancık locations (90.6-86.9 and 13.1-12.7 t ha-1, respectively). While the highest root dry matter content was determined in Ladik, Gümüşhacıköy and Suluova locations (13.9, 13.6 and 13.3%, respectively), there were not significant differences among locations (10.0-11.0 t ha-1) except Ladik in dry matter yield. Ladik and Gümüşhacıköy locations had the highest sugar content (8.9 and 8.6%, respectively). It was determined that the highest root length was in Bafra location (23.2 cm) and the highest root diameter was in Gümüşhacıköy location (10.9 cm). Bafra, Suluova, Gümüşhacıköy and Osmacık locations were determined as suitable locations for fodder beet growing, whereas Ladik location was not suitable location for fodder beet growing because of high altitude, low precipitation and low temperature.

Key Words: Fodder beet, root yield, yield components, location








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2006, 12 (1) 70-73
Seasonal Variation and Meat Composition of Bleak (Alburnus orontis, Sauvage 1882)
(Turkish)

Yusuf BOZKURT1, Süleyman BEKCAN2 and Gül Çelik ÇAKIROĞULLARI3
1Mustafa Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of fisheries and Aquaculture -Hatay
2Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of fisheries and Aquaculture -Ankara
3Directorate of Control Laboratory of Ankara Province-Ankara

In this study, seasonal variation and meat composition of bleak (Alburnus orontis) were investigated. Twenty bleaks were used each season. The mean live weight and mean meat yield was determined as 21.004±8.072 g and 58.39±0.55 % respectively. The highest ratio of crude protein (19.53±0.07 %) was in summer, lipid (6.67±0.04) was highest in winter, dry matter (57.37±0.07 %) was highest in summer and crude ash (6.37±0.24 %) was highest in winter.

Key Words: Bleak, Alburnus orontis, meat composition.







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2006, 12 (1) 74-84
Economical Comprasion of Collective Pressured Irrigation Systems; a Case Study in Secondary Numbered 1400 of Yaylak Project
(Turkish)


Aydan SOYDAM1 and Belgin ÇAKMAK1
* This study was taken from M.Sc. thesis.
1 Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara


The aim of the study is to design collective sprinkler irrigation system and collective drip irrigation system and compare the costs in Yaylak Basin 1400 numbered subsidiary canal. For this purpose, plant water consumptions were calculated by Penman-Monteith method, irrigation systems were designed, system discharges were determined, system parts were dimensioned and system costs were determined by using the unit prices of the year 2004. Cost analyses were carried out for both systems and cost components, fixed and variable costs, distributions of gross incomes supplied from the crops for each system, net current value of irrigation investments, and cost/benefit ratios were calculated. In sprinkler irrigation system, 0.72 YTL income was obtained corresponding to 1 YTL investment when the interest rate is 15%, and 0.95 YTL income was obtained corresponding to 1 YTL investment when the interest rate is 20%. In drip irrigation system, 1.64 YTL income was obtained corresponding to 1 YTL investment when the interest rate is 15%, and 1.94 YTL income was obtained corresponding to 1 YTL investment when the interest rate is 20%. Based on these findings concerning the economical criteria, drip irrigation system was recommended for the study area.

Key Words: Yaylak Project, sprinkler irrigation, drip Irrigation, linear programming, economical analysis







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2006, 12 (1) 85-92
Use of Quantified Color Parameters in Estimation of Soil Properties
(Turkish)

Hikmet GÜNAL1 and Sabit ERŞAHİN1
1 Gaziosmanpaşa Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Departmant of Soil Science-Tokat


Development of fast, reliable, and repeatable soil analyses techniques that causes minimum disturbance soil materials are required to create soil data bases that are needed to achieve sustainable agriculture. The aims of this study were to; i.) investigate the ability of soil color parameters obtained by chromameter measurement of disturbed and undisturbed soil samples to estimate soil characteristics, and ii.) explain the reasons of color difference observed between disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. Thirty nine soil samples collected from each horizon of four soil profiles developed in colluviums. Physical and chemical properties of soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory, and detailed descriptions of soil profiles were performed in the field. Chroma, hue and color differences were calculated from chromameter measured soil color parameters for both disturbed and undisturbed soil samples of each soil horizon. Color of disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were significantly different from each other (P<0.001). Regression analyses between soil characteristics and soil color parameters revealed that chroma and dithionite extractable iron (R2= 0.58 and 0.66 for undisturbed and disturbed soil samples, respectively), and color difference and organic matter (R2=0.35) are significantly related to each other.

Key Words: Soil color, chromameter, CIELAB, color difference, hue, chroma







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2006, 12 (1) 93-100
Effect of Partially Replacing Fishmeal With Soybean Meal on Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
(Turkish)

Nesrin UYSAL1 and Süleyman BEKCAN1
* This study was taken from M. Sc. thesis.
1Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara


In this study, the effect of replacement of fish meal by defatted soybean meal with the dietary lysine supplementation in prepared diet was investigated in Nile tilapia fingerlings. Three different experimental diets (all containing mean 35.8% crude protein and 2.6 DE) at a various ratios of soybean meal has prepared. Diet 1 (Group 1; Control) Protein from fish meal is 25.13 % of crude protein. Control (grup 1) diets were composed of fish meal completely. Experimental diets group 2 and 3 were composed of 30% and 50% defatted soybean protein respectively instead of fish meal. The experiment was carried out in a closed rearing system with recirculated filtered water for 12 weeks. Highest mean weight gain (MWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were obtained group 1 fed with diet 1 (646,15 % ; 2.39) and was significantly better than all other levels (P<0.10). Optimum feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1.05), protein efficiency ratio (PER) (2,89), average daily growth % (ADG %) (7.71), daily growth index (DGI) (3.90) and feed efficiency (FE) (0.95) (P<0,10) were achieved by group 1. However there was no difference among three groups in respect of these values at P>0.05 statistical significance level. In addition, all parameters except FCR and MWG were not significantly different between group 2 and group 3 (P<0.10). Based on all measured criteria, these suggest that 50 % of fish protein from fish meal can totally be replaced by defatted soybean meal without adverse effect on fish performance.

Key Words: Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, feeding, soybean meal, growth









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2006, 12 (1) 101-111
Morphological Characterization of Some Triticale Cultivar and Lines
(Turkish)

Mehmet ATAK1 and Cemalettin Yaşar ÇİFTÇİ2

* Doktora tezinden hazırlanmıştır.
1) Mustafa Kemal Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Hatay
2) Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy -Ankara


The study was carried out at the Agricultural Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 growing periods. Twenty five cultivar/lines of triticale were evaluated in the field experiment for yield and some yield components. According to the results as average of two years lowest and highest data were determined 27.00 (ZF 12) - 35.87 LAD 388) days in athesis data, MT 1 (109.6 cm) - ZF 3 (144.1 cm) in plant height, JGS (4.31) - 5.06 (ZF 6) in number of tillers/plant, 85.24 (ZF 7) - 107.9 (CWT) mm spike lenhgt, 19.42 (ZF 12) -27.05 (ZF 3) number of spikilets/spike, 39.34 (ZF 12) - 53.97 (LAD 388) in number of seeds/spike, 1.54 (ZF 12) - 2.26 (ZF 8) g in seed weight/spike, 32.45 (LAD 388) - 43.62 (ZF 16) g in 1000 kernel weight, 4750.3 (ZF 12) -5920.9 (ZF 16) kg / ha in seed yield, 29.3 % (ZF 3) - 36.37 %(ZF 16) in harvest index and 11.9 % (Tatlıcak-97) - 14.37 % (ZF 3) in protein yield.

Key Words: Triticale, yield, yield components





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