2005, Volume: 11, Number: 4
Contents
ÜNLÜ, L. and L. EFİL. Comparison of Population Developments of Pink Bollworm (Pectionophora gossypiella Saund.) (Lep.: Gelechiidae) on Cotton at Different Locations in Southeast Anatolian Region (Turkey) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
MÜJDECİ, M., A. SARIYEV and V. POLAT. Mathematical Modelling of Wheat Yield (Triticum aestivum L.) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ERİŞEN, S. Somatic Embryogenesis in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Cell Suspension Culture Abstract Full Text (PDF)
MENDEŞ, M., S. SUBAŞI and E. BAŞPINAR. Reporting of the P-Value in Scientific Research (P<0.01?, P<0.05?, P>0.05?)Abstract Full Text (PDF)
AVCI, BİRSİN, M. Effect of Removal of Some Photosynthetic Structures on Some Yield Components in Wheat Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ULUKAN, H. Effect of Foliar Fertilizer as Seed Pre-treatment on Yield Components in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KOYUNCU, M., Ş. KARA UZUN and E. TUNCEL. Characterization of Goat Husbandry and Production Aspects in South Marmara Region I.General Characteristics of Goat Husbandry Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KOCAKAYA Z. and İ. ERDAL. Effect of Zinc Application on Zinc Nutrition and Yield of Wheat Varieties and Lines Grown in Van Region Abstract Full Text (PDF)
TOPRAK, U., İ. A. SUSURLUK and M. O. GÜRKAN. The Partial Sequence Comparison of lef-8 gene Obtained from a Turkish SpliNPV-B with Several Baculoviruses Abstract Full Text (PDF)

VAROL, F., K. BELLİTÜRK and M. T. SAĞLAM. Properties of Irrigation Water in Tekirdağ Province Abstract Full Text (PDF)

MÜDERRİSOĞLU, H., Ö. YERLİ, A. ALTANLAR TURAN and N. DURU. Determination of User Satisfaction in Abant Nature Park by Using ROS Method Abstract Full Text (PDF)
HAKYEMEZ. B. H. and C. SANCAK. Adaptation of Some Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) Varieties to the Irrigated Conditions of Ankara and Changes in Yield According to the Cutting Orders Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ERDAL, İ. Leaf Nutrient Concentrations of Apple Orchards in Isparta Province Abstract Full Text (PDF)
TOĞAY, N., Y. TOĞAY, M. ERMAN, Y. DOĞAN and F. ÇIĞ. The Effects of Different Plant Densities on Yield and Yield Components in Some Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars in Dry and Irrigated Conditions Abstract Full Text (PDF)
DEMİRCİ, F., C. ERDOĞAN and F. F. TATLIDİL. Plant Protection Practices in Tomato Plantations in Ayaş and Nallıhan Provinces of Ankara Abstract Full Text (PDF)
TUĞRUL, K. M. ve E. İÇÖZ. Determination of Wear Characteristics of Drill Cultures of Precision Drilling Machine Made of Different Materials Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ÇALIŞIR, S., A. N. KILINÇER, M. B. KAYDAN and S. ÜLGENTÜRK. Some Biological Aspect of Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on Different Ages of Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
TÜRKER, U. Determination of Spatial Weed Variability for Precision SprayingAbstract Full Text (PDF)
KAYA, M.D., G. KAYA and Ö. KOLSARICI. Effect of NaCI Concentration on Germination and Emergence of Some Brassica Species Abstract Full Text (PDF)
Abstract
Abstracts
 

2005, 11 (4) 345-348
Comparison of Population Developments of Pink Bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saund.) (Lep.: Gelechiidae) on Cotton at Different Locations in Southeast Anatolian Region (Turkey)
(Turkish)

Levent ÜNLÜ1 and Levent EFİL2
Harran Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Şanlıurfa.
2 Plant Protection Research Institute-Diyarbakır.

This study was conducted to compare the population development of Pink Bollworm's in Harran, Bismil and Kızıltepe plains located the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey where cotton growing was made in 2002-2003. The pheromon traps were used for the determination of adult population. The Pink Bollworm has three peak of population (in July, August and September) in all three plains. The maximum population of Pink Bollworm was determined in Harran, Bismil and Kızıltepe, respectively. According to years (2002 and 2003), while the population of Pink Bollworm in Harran Plain was lower in 2003 than that of 2002, population in Bismil and Kızıltepe Plains was higher in 2003 than that of 2002.

Key Words: Pink Bollworm, Cotton, Pheromon trap, Population Development, Southeast Anatolia Region (Turkey)







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2005, 11 (4) 349-353
Mathematical Modelling of Wheat Yield (Triticum aestivum L.)
(Turkish)

Metin MÜJDECİ1, Alhan SARIYEV2 and Veysel POLAT3
* Prepared from Ph.D. Thesis.
1 Süleyman Demirel Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, Isparta
2 Çukurova Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science , Balcalı, Adana
3 Çukurova Univ. Vocational School of Adana, Adana

This study was carried out to mathematical modelling of yield for three years (2000-2002) under Seri-82 wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.) on the field experiment in the university of Çukurova, Faculty of agriculture experimental area. The data of physiologyical development dates, maximum leaf area index, minumum leaf area index, maximum photosynthesis rate, respiration rate and leaf area index constant were determined for wheat plant each year in study. For model related to estimation of daily photosynthesis rate, daily gross photosynthesis, respiration rate maximum and daily leaf area index were used. These were two model for yield estimation. While the model based and only photosynthesis rate, the other model used total plant water consumption, maximum vaporation rate from soil surface and maximum increase rate of daily dry matter amount for flowering period. The values of model and real experimental values of the were compared to and applied statistical evaluation for daily photosynthesis rate revealed that the model results and observe values were correlated well (r=0.95, p<0.01) with each other. In addition, the evaluation related to yield indicated that the results of models were correlated with (r=1.00, p<0.01; r=0.98, p<0.05 respectively) each other. Consequently, the results of study indicated utilisation of this models for wheat yield estimation.

Key Words: simulation, mathematical modelling, wheat yield, photosynthesis







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2005, 11 (4) 354-358
Somatic Embryogenesis in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Cell Suspension Culture
(Turkish)

Semiha ERİŞEN1
1 Ministry of Education, National Education Directorate of Yenimahalle District -Ankara

Alfalfa is an important forage crop. Due to high rejeneration capacity, it is used in tissue culture and genetic transformation studies as a model plant among legumes. This study reports high frequency of somatic embryogenesis from cv. Verco using cell suspension culture. Various explants including leaf, stem and hypocotyl obtained from sterile plantles were cultured using two different protocols. No results were obtained from the one of the protocols. In the other protocol the explants cultured on modified SH medium ( 25% proline + 50% KCl ) containing 1-2-4 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/l kinetin after callusing were transferred to liquid B5 medium containing 1 mg/l 2,4-D. These were subcultured every week and 1 ml of suspension culture were cultured on Boi2y by gentle spreading, which subsequently developed somatic embryos. Developing embryos were transferred to MSO medium for recovery. The highest somatic embryos (150) per Petri dish were obtained from leaf explants previously cultured on SH medium containing 4 mg/l 2,4-D. Significant number of these embryos (70%) developed into plants.

Key Words: Medicago sativa, somatic embryogenesis, suspension




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2005, 11 (4) 359-363
Reporting of the P-Value in Scientific Research (P<0.01?, P<0.05?, P>0.05?)
(Turkish)

Mehmet MENDEŞ1, Serkan SUBAŞI2 and Ensar BAŞPINAR3
1 Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Çanakkale
2 Gazi Univ. Faculty of Technical Education, Construction Education Department-Ankara
3 Van Yüzüncü Yıl Univ. Faculty of Medicine. Department of Biostatistics-Van

It is known that results of scientific research are reported using P-value in general. However, the conventional use of P values P <0.01, P < 0.05 or P > 0.05 after statistical analysis may misleads the readers. When two studies reach the same conclusion P>0.05, but with different P values, reliability of these two studies cannot be the same though the decisions are identical. In this study, the hypothesis stating there is no difference among the surface hardness values from 3 different points of a concrete block with the dimensions 15x100x200 cm is checked. The study calls attention to the P-value and therefrom reached decision on Ho hypothesis, and the changes in the correctness levels of the mentioned decision, in the case of having different number of replications in the experiments carried out with the same objectives. As a result, it would be proper and more useful for the third parties if the P-values found with the statistical analysis were presented as exact probability values (P=x.xxx).

Key Words: P-value, type I error, significance level, hypothesis testing, statistics






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2005, 11 (4) 364-367
Effects of Removal of Some Photosynthetic Structures on Some Yield Components in Wheat
(English)

Melahat AVCI BİRSİN1
Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops-Ankara

Present study was carried out in the experimental field of the Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University during 1999 and 2001. Two wheat cultivars, Gerek-79 and Gün-9, were studied to investigate the impacts of the removal of some photosynthetic structures including flag leaf, second upper leaf blade and awneds, on some yield related components. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block desing of split-plot restriction with four replications. According to results obtained, removal of flag leaf resulted approximately 13, 34, 24 % reduction in grain per spike, grain weight per spike and 1000-grain weight, respectively and 2.8% increase in grain protein contents in both years. Studies indicated that significant reductions in these traits and increases in grain protein contents resulted from removal second upper leaf blade and awneds.

Key Words: Wheat, flag leaf, awneds, photosynthates








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2005, 11 (4) 368-372
Effect of Foliar Fertilizer as Seed Pre-treatment on Yield Components in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
(English)

Hakan ULUKAN1
1 Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops-Ankara

Abstract: Aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of foliar fertilizer as seed pre-treatment at different concentrations and times to the yield components in the İkizce 96 common wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under field conditions of Central Anatolia in a split-split plot design with four replications during 1998-99 and 1999-2000 at the University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Haymana Research and Application Farm, Ankara, Turkey. According to results; plant height, spike length, number of spikes; number of spikelets; number of grain and 1000-grain weight traits showed a positive and statistically significant increasing over the control. In the study, used pre-treatments regimes resulted in improved wheat seed germination and helped to balancing the nutrients at the beginning of growth. Obtained variations in the investigated traits may be explained with the effect of pre-treatment times. Generally, a 10 minutes pre-treatment (S1) with 1% concentration (C1) have been showed that the optimum effect for increasing yield during the first year and all obtained data have been displayed rather stable and higher for second year in the study; but, none of all the parameters have been effected in next year. Foliar fertilizer method as a seed pre-treatment has a potential that can be apply cheap, practical, quick and helper for a healthy first development for the common wheat cultivation in Central Anatolia.

Key Words: Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), yield components, seed pre-treatment, foliar fertilizer







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2005, 11 (4) 373-378
Characterization of Goat Husbandry and Production Aspects in South Marmara Region I. General Characteristics of Goat Husbandry
(Turkish)

Mehmet KOYUNCU1, Şebnem KARA UZUN1 and Erdoğan TUNCEL1
* Supported by Scientific Reserarch Project Commision of Uludağ University
1 Uludağ Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Bursa

The aim of the study was to determine general conditions and production potential of goat breeding in Bursa, Balıkesir, Bilecik and Canakkale. Total 92 enterprises deal with goat rearing at least for four years were visited within the above provinces. The number of household, enterprise width and goat number in Bursa, Balıkesir, Bilecik and Çanakkale provinces were found 5.4±0.45, 3.3±0.36, 6.0±0.45 and 6.3±0.63 person; 3.0±0.34, 4.2±1.20, 5.1±1.15 and 6.0±3.52 hectare ; 145.6±29.6, 115.8±27.7, 219.9±14.8 and 184.0±24.3 head respectively in visited enterprise.

Key Words: South Marmara Region, goat breeding, production potential, and production characteristics






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2005, 11 (4) 379-383
Effect of Zinc Application on Zinc Nutrition and Yield of Wheat Varieties and Lines Grown in Van Region*
(Turkish)

Zuhal KOCAKAYA1 and İbrahim ERDAL2
1Yüzüncü Yıl Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Van
2Süleyman Demirel Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Isparta
*Prepared from M.Sc. Thesis.

This study was conducted to investigate the responses of wheat genotypes and lines to Zn application (2 kg Zn/da). For this purpose 6 genotypes (Kırgız 95, Karacabey 97, Palandöken 97, Doğukent 1, Kutluk 94, Çukurova 86) and 4 wheat lines were used. To evaluate the effect of Zn on wheat leaf and grain Zn concentrations and also yield were examined. Results showed that leaf and grain Zn concentrations and yield increased with Zn application, but this increases showed differences with genotypes and lines.

Key Words: plant growth, wheat, Zn fertilization


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2005, 11 (4) 384-390
The Partial Sequence Comparison of lef-8 gene Obtained from a Turkish SpliNPV-B with Several Baculoviruses
(English)

Umut TOPRAK1, Alper SUSURLUK2 and M. Oktay GÜRKAN1
1 This research was funded by Biotechnology Institute of Ankara University (project number: 25).
Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection Ankara- Turkey.
2 Ins. for Phytopathology, Dept. of Biotechnology and Biological Control, Christian-Albrechts-Uni. Kiel, Klausdorfer St. 28-36,
24223 Raisdorf- Germany.

Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) is a member of Baculoviridae and belongs to the group II NPVs. Lef-8 is a well-conserved gene that is characterized in most of the lepidopteran NPVs. Nucleotide and aminoacid sequences of the encoded proteins and gene content may be phylogenetically informative. In this study, lef-8 gene in the Turkish SpliNPV-B (SpliNPV-TR1) genome was partially amplified by PCR and analyzed by amino-acid sequences with several baculoviruses. Amino-acid sequences of partial SpliNPV-TR1 lef-8 gene was 84 % identical to the lef-8 of SpltNPV while revealed it to have about only 57 %, 55 %, 51 %, 50 %, 50 %, 50 % and 49 % of its amino-acid sequence identity with AgipNPV, McNPV, RoNPV, HaNPV-G4, AcNPV, HzNPV and BufuNPV, respectively. The sequences between SpliNPV-TR1 and granuloviruses also produced low levels of sequence identities (maximum 46 %). Although group II NPVs were rather isolated from noctuid hosts, the low level identity values detected between these noctuid NPVs (except the high idendity value between SpliNPV-TR1 and SpltNPV) revealed that these isolates can not have a monophyletic origin.

Key Words: Baculovirus, spodoptera littoralis, noctuidae, spliNPV-TR1, lef-8, sequence, comparison







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2005, 11 (4) 391-396
Properties Of Irrigation Water In Tekirdag Province
(Turkish)

Fatma VAROL1, Korkmaz BELLİTÜRK1 and M. Turgut SAĞLAM1
1Trakya Univ. Tekirdağ Agricultural Faculty, Department of Soil Science-Tekirdağ

Tekirdag has a great agriculture potential according to its climate, water and soil properties. Water is one of the most important factors affecting on agricultural production. Therefore, water resources have vital importance in increasing agricultural production. This investigation was carried out on 9 irrigation water samples collected from various places of Tekirdag in irrigation period (March and April). The samples were analysed to determine pH, EC, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH -N, CO , HCO , Cl- and NO -N ions, and from these data PI, RSC, SAR and quality classes calculated. All irrigation waters were found suitable for irrigation related to their hardness, Cl-, pH, SAR values. It was evaluated that all of the water samples (9 water samples except water sample no 3) found class C2S1 and water sample no 3 was found class C3S1. According to the analysis results, some average values in the water samples, pH 7.33, electrical conductivity 603 µS/cm, total hardness 23.69 mg CaCO3/l, chloride 2.31 me L-1, RSC 0.08 me L-1 and PI 0.14.

Key Words: Tekirdag, water resources, irrigation water







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2005, 11 (4) 397-405
Determination of User Satisfaction in Abant Nature Park by Using ROS Method
(Turkish)

Haldun MÜDERRİSOĞLU1, Özgür YERLİ1, Aslı ALTANLAR TURAN1 and Nurgül DURU1
1 Abant İzzet Baysal Univ., Faculty of Forestry, Department of Landscape Architecture, Konuralp Campus- Düzce

The aim of this study is determining the participation in recreational activicies in Abant National Park and also the differences of the satisfaction of the visitors who use the areas chosen by ROS classes criterias. Besides adaptation of the ROS system to Abant Nature ark was researched. For his reason an inquiry was done to 359 people. Corelation and variance analyzes were used for interpreting the data taken. As a result it was found out that re-establishing the ROS class system according to Turkish standards, stabeling the system on clerarer standards, explaining the ROS language for easier understandingis needed. The most effective factors on general satisfaction in Abant Nature Park are, season, group size, visitor's gender, age, income level and the places they come from.

Key Words: ROS, recreation, user satisfaction







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2005, 11 (4) 406-410
Adaptation of Some Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) Varieties to the Irrigated Conditions of Ankara and Changes in Yield According to the Cutting Orders
(Turkish)


B. Hakan HAKYEMEZ1 and Cengiz SANCAK2
1Onsekiz Mart Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops-Çanakkale
2Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops-Ankara

This study was conducted for two years at the experimental fields of Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara. The aim of the research was to determine the convenient Berseem clover variety and changes on yield according to the cutting order under irrigated conditions in Ankara. The study was planned by using split plot design with three replications and the main plots were varieties, the sub plots were cutting ranks. Three cuttings were obtained from all varieties in both years. According to the results Lito had the highest yields. The differences between cutting orders were found statistically significant in both years and yields in consecutive cuttings decreased significantly.

Key Words: Berseem clover, hay yield, crude protein ratio, cutting order






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2005, 11 (4) 411-416
Leaf Nutrient Concentrations of Apple Orchards in Isparta Province*
(English)

Ibrahim ERDAL1
* This study was supported by TUBİTAK.
1 Süleyman Demirel Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Isparta


Abstract: This study was conducted in Isparta province to investigate the mineral nutritional status of apple orchards by means of leaf analysis. For this purpose, seven districts were chosen and ten orchards from each district were selected. Leaf samples were taken during two years from the chosen trees. Leaf analyses results indicated that there was no Mg deficiency in trees. Similarly 97% of orchards did not show N deficiency. The most important nutritional problem was Zn nutrition, and 80% of the orchards showed Zn deficiency. On the other hand, 69, 64, 24 and 11% of the orchards showed P, Ca, K and Mn deficiencies, respectively. Finally, it was concluded that soils were fertilized sufficiently with N, but some important nutritional problems continued. Therefore; special fertilization programs should be applied for other nutrients specially for Zn, P and Ca as well.

Key Words: Plant nutrients, nutrient concentrations, leaf analysis







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2005, 11 (4) 417-421
The Effects of Different Plant Densities on Yield and Yield Components in Some Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars in Dry and Irrigated Conditions
(Turkish)

Necat TOĞAY1, Yeşim TOĞAY1, Murat ERMAN1, Yusuf DOĞAN1 and Fatih ÇIĞ1
1 Yüzüncü Yıl Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops - Van

Irrigation (flowering and pod filling) and four different plant density (30, 45, 60 and 75 seed/ m2) were applied using Er-99 and Aziziye-94 chickpea cultivars in the research during 2003-2004 in Van ecological conditions. Experiments were conducted in split-split blocks design with three replications. Plant height, first pod height, number of main branch, number of pod per plant and number of seed per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000 grain weight, seed yield per area and harvest index were examined in this study. According to the two-year results; except numbers of seed per pod effects of varieties, irrigation and plant density on the yield and yield components of chickpea were obtained significantly. While the highest grain yield per area was obtained at the irrigation as 95.4 kg/da and 92.5 kg/da, the lowest grain yield per area was obtained at the dryland as 58.7 kg/da and 52.6 kg/da in years of 2003 and 2004 respectively. The most suitable plant density in Aziziye-94 cultivar was determined with 60 seed/m2 in Van conditions.

Key Words: Chickpea, cultivar, irrigation, plant density, yield








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2005, 11 (4) 422-427
Plant Protection Practices in Tomato Plantations in Ayaş and Nallıhan Provinces of Ankara
(Turkish)


Fikret DEMİRCİ1, Cem ERDOĞAN2 and F. Füsun TATLIDİL3
Supported by TÜBİTAK Project Number TARP-2387.
1Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pretection-Ankara
2Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Ankara Central Plant Protection Research Institute-Ankara
3Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics -Ankara

The study was conducted to observe agricultural practices of the farmers and to define the errors in the plant protection applications in tomato growing areas of Ayaş and Nallıhan provinces of Ankara in 2000 and 2001. The problems that the farmers had in the nurseries and the field were determined by both the observations and the questionnaires. In spite of the farmers' plant protection practices, it was determined that, the yield losses reached to 25.92 % in Ayaş, and 27.51% in Nallıhan provinces totally. It also determined that, the majorities of the yield loses were arise from the nurseries. In this study, the farmers' misapplications and suggestions about the solutions were emphasized in this paper.

Key Words: Tomatoes, yield loss, pests and diseases




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2005, 11 (4) 428-433

Determination of Wear Characteristics of Drill Cultures of Precision Drilling Machine Made of Different Materials (English)

Koç Mehmet TUĞRUL1 and Erhan İÇÖZ2
1 Sugar Institute Agricultural Mechanization Department, 06930 - Ankara, Turkey,
2 Turkish Sugar Factories Corporation, 06100 - Yenişehir, Ankara, Turkey,


For the determination of the long life and economical material of drill cultures, 27 cast chromium materials, two Ni-hard 4 cast material produced at different times, C 1050 (C 45) cast material, materials produced by filling worn C 1050 materials with Oerlikon Citadur 600 B hard filling electrodes and grinding in regular ranges, were tested. The experiments are performed by 5 rows mechanical precision drilling machine. 8 sets of drill cultures were marked distinctively in order to be recognized later, their initial weighs were taken, and mounted randomly to the mostly used precision drilling machines in Afyon and Bor Sugar Factories. After the finishing of the sowing phase, drill cultures were cleaned and weighed again. The differences between the initial and last weighs were compared by calculation of wear amount according to the unit surface and the distance. As the result of this research: Drill culture blades produced from 27 chromium materials were determined to be 44% less worn comparing to Ni-hard 4 (1), 61 % to Ni-hard 4 (2), 90% according to the blades filled with Citadur 600 B and 306% comparing to the C 1050 wrought iron material .

Key Words: Sugar beet, Drill culture, Wear amount, Precision drilling machine, cast material, wrought iron material, filled material






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2005, 11 (4) 434-441
Some Biological Aspect of Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on Different Ages of Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
(Turkish)


Sevilay ÇALIŞIR1, A. Neşet KILINÇER1, M. Bora KAYDAN2 and Selma ÜLGENTÜRK1
* M.Sc.Study from TUBİTAK-TOGTAG Project Number 3261.
1Ankara Univ. Ziraat Fak. Bitki Koruma Bölümü-Ankara
2Yüzüncü Yıl Univ. Ziraat Fak. Bitki Koruma Bölümü-Van

Some biological aspects (development time, adult longevity, sex ratio, real fecundity, encapsulation) of Anagyrus pseudococci on 12 and 18 old day nimphes of Planococus citri were investigated at 28± 1 °C temperature, % 60-65 relative humidity and , 16L:8D photoperiod conditions. The life table parameters of parasitoid on two different age of citrus mealy bugs nymphs were estimated. Effects of host age were not significantly important on the developmental time and adult longevity of A. pseudococci. The developmental times of parasitoid were 13,20 0,092 days for female, 12,45 0,11 days for male on 12 day old mealybugs; 13,15 0,18 day for female, 12,35 0,15 days for male on 18 day old mealybugs. Adult longevities of female parasitoids were longer than male and 14,35 0,68 days on 12 day old, 14,60 0,62 days on 18 day old mealybugs. The oviposition of A. pseudococci were 11.50 0.44 days on 12 day old mealybugs and , 13.35 0.70 days on 18 days old mealybugs. Total numbers of female individuals of the parasitoid on 12 and 18 day old citrus mealybug nymphs were 13,05 0,55, 21,65 1,1 and male numbers 17,40 0,59 and 24,40 1,1respectively. The sex ratio was found 1:0,75 on 12 day old and 1:0,88 (?:?) 18 day old mealybugs. The aggregate and effective encapsulation ratios were found as %31.80 and % 28.30 on 12 day old mealybugs and, % 70.46 and % 59.11 18 day old mealybugs. For the parasitoids on 12 day old nymph the generation time (To)= 18.71 days, net reproductive rate (Ro) = 13.05 female/female/generation and intrinsic rate of increase (rm) = 0.137 0.000 female/female/day. The life table parameters for 18 day old mealy bugs were calculated (T0)= 13.15 day, (R0)= 21.56 female/female/generation, (rm) = 0.157 0.000 female/female/day.

Key Words: Planococcus citri citrus, mealybug, Anagyrus pseodococci, biological interactions, host age








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2005, 11 (4) 442-447
Determination of Spatial Weed Variability for Precision Spraying
(English)

Ufuk TÜRKER1
1Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinary-Ankara

Weeds are patchy because weed spread, survival and reproduction are variable within a field and over time. Weed patches stay in about the same place from year to year, even though weed density within a patch may vary. Weeds, and methods used to control weeds, can have negative economic and environmental impacts. With precision agriculture, growers can take advantage of the patchy nature of weeds by targeting management efforts only where they are needed instead of wasting expensive and potentially hazardous inputs where weeds are not present. The availability of geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) allows to generate site-specific application maps in order to apply herbicides only in those portions of a field in which weeds are present. In this study, weeds in winter wheat were sampled in 2001 and 2002 in two fields of 6.7 ha inSarayköy research station) and 6.4 ha in Atatürk Orman Çiftliği (AOÇ) respectively. The most frequent weed species were taken into account in weed sampling. Weed infestation was determined by a combination of visual assessment within a 5 metre radius and actual weed counts within a 1 m2 quadrant of the grid sample point. Additional sampling was undertaken if the 1 m2 quadrant appeared unrepresentative. Weed density and spraying maps were generated using Arcgis 3.2a GIS software package. The results demonstrate that mapping weeds for precision spraying to control weeds can theoretically reduce herbicide applications. Compared to traditional application, the amount of herbicides in a small grain cereal would be reduced by % 25 in Sarayköy and 55 % in AOÇ field respectively.

Key Words: Weed, weed variability, weed mapping, variable rate herbicide application







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2005, 11 (4) 448-452
Effects of NaCl Concentration on Germination and Emergence of Some Brassica Species
(Turkish)


M. Demir KAYA1, Gamze KAYA2 and Özer KOLSARICI1
Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops -Ankara
Ankara Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture - Ankara

The effects of NaCl on germination and early seedling growth were investigated for rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.), turnip rape (Brassica campestris L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). Seeds of Capitol, Bristol and Orkan in rapeseed, Agat, Mammut and Harmoni in turnip rape, Mohrenkopf, Bayraklı and Yalova-1 in cabbage were used as material. Electrical conductivity (EC) values of the NaCl solutions were 0 (distilled water), 5, 10 and 20 dS/m. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time (day), root and shoot length (cm), seedling fresh weight (mg/plant) and dry matter (%) were measured at 8 days after sowing and emergence percentage (%) was determined at 10 days after emergence in the study. As a result of the research, it was determined that species and cultivars showed different responses to salt stress. Turnip rape was the less affected species by NaCl. No significant decrease in germination and seedling growth up to 10 dS/m was observed. It was concluded that NaCl depressed the seedling growth of the cultivars rather than their germination.

Key Words: rapeseed, turnip rape, cabbage, germination, emergence, NaCl, seedling growth





 







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