2005, Volume: 11, Number: 2
Contents
BAŞARAN M. and M. OKANT, The Effects of Some Soil Properties on Nutritional Status of Cherry Grown in Eldivan District Abstract Full Text (PDF)
YILMAZ GÜVEN, R., H. N. BÜYÜKKARTAL and G. ALGAN, Light Microscopic Study on Meiosis Anomalies of Polen Grains Mother Cells in Anthers of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Karagevrek Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ŞEKERDEN, Ö., A. BORGHESE, M. KÖROĞLU, H. URAS and Y. Z. GÜZEY, Artificial Insemination Studies and Effect of Progesteron Releasing Intravaginal Device (PRID) Treatment on Conception Rate in Anatolian Buffaloes Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KARAALP, M. and M. ÇİMEN, Comparison of Performance and Plasma Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Levels of Fat-tail and Long-tail Hoggets were Fed with Whole Barley Abstract Full Text (PDF)
YAVUZ, G. and İ. C. CEYLAN, A Research on Determination of Effective Factors on Farmers' Decision Making Process in Forage Crops Production in Polatlı District Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KARŞI, A. and H.YAVUZCAN YILDIZ, Secondary Stress Response of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, After Direct Transfer to Different Salinities Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KAYA, M. and B. KOVANCI, Investigation on the Adult Population Fluctuations of Coroebus rubi L. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Raspberry in Bursa Province in Turkey Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ŞİMŞEK, M., Y. ŞILBIR, S. GERÇEK, E. BOYDAK and Y. KASAP, A Study on Determination of Water-Yield Relationships and Land Equivalent Ratio in Corn-Soybean Intercropping System Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KESKİN, S., A. KOR and E. BAŞPINAR, The Investigation of Relationships Between Some Traits Measured Pre-Slaughtering and Post-Slaughtering by Using of Canonical Correlation Analysis in Akkeçi Kids Abstract Full Text (PDF)

ALBAYRAK, S. and N. ÇAMAŞ, Influence of Row Spacing on Root Yield and Yield Components of Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris var. crassa Mansf.) in the Black Sea Coastal Region Abstract Full Text (PDF)

KAYA SAVAŞ, Şermin, H. N. BÜYÜKKARTAL, G. ALGAN and T. ERCOŞKUN, The Effects of Different Auxins on Anatomical Structure and Development of Radish Tubers (Raphanus sativus L.) Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ŞANAL, M. and G. KÖKSAL, The Effect of Different Nutritional Media on the Reproductive Efficiency of Daphnia pulex Abstract Full Text (PDF)
DEMİRCİ, F. and Ö. HANCIOĞLU, Studies on the Control of Blossom and Twig Blight (Monilinia laxa (Aderhold& Ruhland) Honey) in Sour Cherry Trees in Ankara Province, Çubuk District Abstract Full Text (PDF)
MENDEŞ, M., Al.KARABAYIR and Akın PALA, Path Analysis of the Relationships Between Various Body Measures and Live Weight of American Bronze Turkeys Under Three Different Lighting Programs Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KURUNÇ, A., K. YÜREKLİ and F. ÖZTÜRK, Effect of Discharge Fluctuation on Water Quality Variables from the Yeşilırmak River Abstract Full Text (PDF)
GÜNGÖR UYANIK, F., N. BAYRAKTAR and M. D. KAYA, Comparison of Improved Clones of İzmir Oregano (Origanum onites L.) for Agronomic and Quality Characteristics Under Kula Conditions Abstract Full Text (PDF)
YURTLU, Y. B. and D. ERDOĞAN, Effect of Storage Time on Some Mechanical Properties of Tomato Cultivars Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ELİÇİN, A. K. and K. SAÇILIK, An Experimental Study for Solar Tunnel Drying of Apple Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ŞEHİRALİ, S., T. ERDEM, Y. ERDEM and D. KENAR, Water-Use Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Under Drip Irrigation Abstract Full Text (PDF)
AY, R. and M. O. GÜRKAN, Investigations on Resistance and Resistance Mechanisms of Different Populations of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Against two Selective Acaricide Abstract Full Text (PDF)
Abstracts
 

2005, 11 (2) 115-119
The Effects of Some Soil Properties on Nutritional Status of Cherry Grown in Eldivan District
(Turkish)

Mustafa BAŞARAN1and Mustafa OKANT2
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Soil Science-Ankara
2 Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Şanlıurfa

This research was conducted in order to determine the nutritional status of cherry grown in Eldivan district in terms of macro and micro nutrient elements. For this purpose, both soil and leaf samples were taken from the 14 plantations of commercial cherry growers. Some chemical and physical properties of soil, and macro and micro nutrients, such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, contents of the both soil and leaf samples were determined. According to the results, soils of the research area were neutral and slightly alkaline in pH, sandy clay loam, clay loam, clayey in texture respectively, moderetaly in lime, and low in organic matter. Nutrients such as N, K, Fe, Mn were determined as insuffucient in soil samples also in leaf samples ,but Mg was designated at exessive and Cu, Zn were at sufficient levels. It was determined that both soil and leaf samples were contained insufficient amounts of N, K, Fe and Mn, but excess amount of Mg and sufficients amounts of Cu and Zn. Important relationships were established between the soils Ca,N, Mn contents and the plants Ca,N,Mn contents.

Key Words : Cherry, nutrient status, Eldivan






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2005, 11 (2) 120-125
Light Microscopic Study on Meiosis Anomalies of Polen Grains Mother Cells in Anthers of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Karagevrek
(Turkish)

Rabia GÜVEN YILMAZ1, H. Nurhan BÜYÜKKARTAL¹ and Gönül ALGAN¹
* This study was taken from M. Sc. thesis.
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Science Department of Biology-Ankara

In this study on meiosis anomalies of polen mother cells in anthers of natural hybrid Vitis vinifera L. cv. Karagevrek were examined by light microscopy. The anther wall of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Karagevrek consist of epidermis, endotesyum, 1-2 middle layers, 1-2 multinucleate tapetum and 8-10 microspore mother cells. In most microspore mother cells, the course of meiosis is regular. In some cells irregulaties have been observed. Nucleus membrane of microspore mother cells were seen to become thick. In prometaphase were found ring and group shaped to united chromosomes. In metaphase I were observed univalents and bivalents chromosomes. In the end of anaphase I the bridges between the separating chromosome groups were seen. Microspore tetrads were observed isobilateral and tetrahedral. Cytokinesis was of the simultaneous type.

Key Words : Vitis vinifera L., microsporogenesis





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2005, 11 (2) 126-128
Artificial Insemination Studies and Effect of Progesteron Releasing Intravaginal Device (PRID) Treatment on Conception Rate in Anatolian Buffaloes
(Turkish)

Özel ŞEKERDEN1, Antonio BORGHESE2, Mustafa KÖROĞLU3,Hayrettin URAS3 and Y. Ziya GÜZEY1
1 Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Hatay
2 Istituto Sperimentale Per la Zootecnia, Monterotondo-Roma, Italya
3 Kırıkhan County Agricultural Directorate-Hatay

This experiment was designed to implement articical insemination (AI) and investigate to effects of progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) treatment on conception rate in buffalo cows. The material of the study was formed with as a total of 141 non pregnant multiparous non-cyclic Anatolian buffalo cows and semen from two Italian bulls. PRID had been used for estrus synchronization. Each cow was artificially inseminated in 3 times after removing of PRID from the uterine which it had been kept for 10 days in the uterine, at 48th, 72nd and 96th hours with 2 doses semen after the removing of PRID. Application was realized at 5 seperate season; April 2002 (group 1), November 2002 (group 2), April 2003 (Group 3), November 2003 (group 4), April 2004 (group 5). Cows which it had understood that they were pregnant at 90th days after insemination were based in calculating of conception rates. In 1st, 2nd , 3rd , 4th and 5th insemination groups conception percentages were 45.5%, 17.2%, 58.6%, 12.5%, 46.7% respectively (average 36.9½) At the end of the research it was concluded that, PRID would be the preferred treatment in circumstances where a relatively high proportion of buffaloes are non-cyclic at the time of an oestrus synchronization and AI program.

Key Words: Buffalo, estrus, synchronization, artificial insemination




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2005, 11 (2) 129-132
Comparison of Performance and Plasma Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Levels of Fat-tail and Long-tail Hoggets were Fed with Whole Barley
(Turkish)

Musa KARAALP and Murat ÇİMEN
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Tokat

In this research, seven Karayaka (long-tail) and seven Gıcık (fat-tail)) male hoggets were used. Hoggets were allowed to feed with whole barley and alfalfa straw by ad libitum. The experiment was continued for 28 days. According to the daily (139.3 g) and total weight gain (3.90 kg) and feed conversion ratio (10.32), Gıcık hoggets were better than Karayaka hoggets' (respectively, 43.60 g, 1.22 kg and 26.58). HDL , LDL, VLDL levels of Gıcık hoggets established 14.80, 49, 5.80 mg/dL respectively. But, HDL , LDL, VLDL levels of Karayaka hoggets were found 15.40, 43.20, 4.60 mg/dL respectively. The differences between total plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein (HDL, LDL, VLDL) levels of groups were not significant.

Key Words: Hogget, whole barley, performance, cholesterol, lipoprotein




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2005, 11 (2) 133-138
A Research on Determination of Effective Factors on Farmers' Decision Making Process in Forage Crops Production in Polatlı District
(Turkish)

Gonca YAVUZ1 and İ. Coşkun CEYLAN1
* This study was taken from M. Sc. thesis.
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Economics-Ankara

The objective of this study was to determine effective factors on farmers' decision making process in forage crops production in Polatlı district. While these effective factors are being determined, support policy for forage crops production that has economic characteristic, have been considered and, determining influences of this policy on farmers' decision making process was the secondary objective of this study. This research was carried out with 80 farmers, of which 40 were still receiving forage crops production support and 40 were not receiving forage crops production support. The data was analyzed statistically and the chi-square test was used to test the relationship between variables. The result of the study showed that; notwithstanding the individual characteristics, farm characteristics, and economic factors which were forage crops prices, contribution of forage crops on livestock production and support for forage crops production were significiantly related with farmers' decision making process in forage crops production.

Key Words: Forage Crops Production Support, Decision Making Process






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2005, 11 (2) 139-141
Secondary Stress Response of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, After Direct Transfer to Different Salinities*
(Turkish)

Ayşe KARŞI1 and Hijran YAVUZCAN YILDIZ1
* This article was produced from MSc Thesis
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

The secondary stress response of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus after direct transfer to saline water was evaluated assessing the levels of hematocrit, plasma glucose, sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium. Fish were transferred directly from freshwater to two experimental salinity (9 and 18 ppt) for 72 hours. Plasma glucose, Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca++ all increased however, hematocrit did not change throughout the 3 days exposure period. Considering the parameters measured in this study Nile tilapia appeared to exhibit a stress response to direct transfer to saline water, nevertheless, the magnitude of stress response was related to salinity level.

Key Words: Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus , saline water, secondary stress





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2005, 11 (2) 142-146
Investigation on the Adult Population Fluctuations of Coroebus rubi L. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Raspberry in Bursa Province in Turkey*
(English)

Mehmet KAYA1 and Bahattin KOVANCI2
* This study is part of a PhD thesis
1 Bayer Turkish Chemistry Inc.-Izmir
2 Uludağ University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Plant Protection-Bursa

This study was carried out in Bursa in 1996, 1997 and 1999. The adult population fluctuations of Coroebus rubi L. were investigated by the using visual control method via counts made once or twice a week during a one hour period in an area of 0.1 hectare and the number of adults was evaluated weekly. As a result, the first adults of C. rubi were determined in late May or early June in 1996, 1997, and 1999, depending on the area where the raspberry plantations were located; and on the time where the flowers of the raspberry plants dropped and the fruits formed on the superior racemes. The adult population reached a peak between mid-June and mid-July varying according to the years and the time when the raspberry plants were at harvesting stage. The number of adults during the peak period changed between 3 and 82 adults/0.1 hectare per week, depending on the site of the orchard and the year. The duration of the adult flight period changed between 35 and 70 days ending in late July or early August, depending on site and year. The total number of adults counted in raspberry orchards during the flight period was minimum of 10 adults and maximum of 227 adults/0.1 hectare. Only one flight period of C. rubi was observed in all research areas, Therefore, it was concluded that the insect gave one generation in a year.

Key Words: Coroebus rubi, population fluctuations, raspberry, Bursa




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2005, 11 (2) 147-153
A Study on Determination of Water-Yield Relationships and Land Equivalent Ratio in Corn-Soybean Intercropping System
(Turkish)

Mehmet ŞİMŞEK1, Yunus ŞILBIR2, Sinan GERÇEK1, Erkan BOYDAK3 and Yaşar KASAP4
1 Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Şanlıurfa
2 Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy -Ordu
3 Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Şanlıurfa
4 Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Soil Science-Şanlıurfa

This study was conducted to determine water-yield relationship and land equivalent ration of corn-soybean intercropping system. The intercropping system consisted of only corn (MM), 1 row corn and 1 row soybean (1M/1S), 2 rows corn and 1 row soybean (2M/1S), 2 rows soybean and 1 row corn (2S/1M) and only soybean. The experiments were carried out in research fields of Faculy of Agriculture at Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during 1998-1999. Irrigation water was applied as 100% (IK1), 80% (IK2), and 60% (IK3) of total of four-day evaporation obtained from standard Class A Pan. The results showed that maximum averaged yield values of 10.53-4.59 t ha-1 were obtained from IK1 treatment group while minimum averaged yileds of 8.15-3.57 t ha-1 were determined in IK1 treatment group. Similar to yield results, maximum plant height ranging from 214-182 cm and minimum plant heights of 167-152 cm were achieved in IK1 and IK3 treatment groups, respectively. Corn yield decreased as the plant height decreased. No significant differences were observed on ears diematers and ears height. Yield results for soybean were similar to those in corn. Maximum averaged yields (3.31-1.28 t ha-1) were determined in IK1 whilst minimum averaged yields (2.27-0.90 t ha-1) were obtaied in IK3 treatment groups. Maximum land equivalent ratio was found in 1M/1S intercropping application and was followed by 2M/1S and 1M/2S, respectively. Maximum irrigation water and seasonal water consumption was determined in IK1 treatment group. Based on the irrigation treatments, maximum irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) of 0.87 kg m-3 and water use efficiency (WUE) of 0.77 kg m-3 were obtained in 2M/1S intercropping application while minimum values of IWUE (0.51 kg m-3) and WUE (0.50 kg m-3) were obtained in 1M/2S application.

Key Words: Intercropping, corn+soybean, land equivalent ration, water-yield relationship





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2005, 11 (2) 154-159
The Investigation of Relationships Between Some Traits Measured Pre-Slaughtering and Post-Slaughtering by Using of Canonical Correlation Analysis in Akkeçi Kids
(Turkish)

Sıddık KESKİN1, Aşkın KOR1 and Ensar BAŞPINAR2
1 Yüzüncü Yıl University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Animal Science-Van
2 Ankara University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

Canonical correlation analysis is a multivariate technique, which is employed to examine between two variable sets, each of that consist of two or more variables. In spide of not necessary, it may be defined as one set of variables is independent and another set of variables is dependent. In the analysis, new variable pairs are obtained from the linear combinations of the orginal variables for each sets and it is aimed that the correlations between new variables are maximum. Obtained new variables are called canonical variables and correlations between that variables are called canonical correlation. In this study the relationships between some characters of Akkeçi kids (n = 82) which were measured pre-slaughtering and post-slaughtering were investigated by using canonical correlation analysis. Seven pre-slaughtering characters (slaughter weight, body length, wither height, heart girth depth, heart girth width, heart girth circumference, leg circumference) constitued the X variable set while eigth post-slaugtering characters (head weight, feet weigth, skin weight, omental and mesenteric fat weight, weights of heart, lung, and liver, spleen weigth, hot carcass weigth, and cold carcass weigth) consituted the Y variable set. As a result, the correlation between the first canonical variable pair was found as 0.962 (p<0.01).

Key Words : Canonical correlation, canonical variable, carcass weight, body measurements





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2005, 11 (2) 160-164
Influence of Row Spacing on Root Yield and Yield Components of Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris var. crassa Mansf.) in the Black Sea Coastal Region
(Turkish)

Sebahattin ALBAYRAK1 and Necdet ÇAMAŞ2
1 Blacksea Agricultural Research Institute-Samsun
2 Ondokuz Mayıs University, Bafra Profession High School-Samsun

Effects of four row spacing (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm) on root yield and some yield components of fodder beet (Beta vulgaris var. crassa Mansf.) cultivar Ecdorot and cultivar Ecdogelb were evaluated in Çarşamba and Bafra plains, Turkey in the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. The root yield, root dry matter rate, root dry matter yield, root diameter, root length, and sugar content were determined. Row spacing significantly affected most of the yield components determined in both locations. Root yield, root dry matter yield, root diameter, and root length increased along with increased of row spacing. However, root dry matter rate and sugar content were not greatly influenced by row spacing. The highest root dry matter was obtained from 50-60 cm row spacing for both cultivars and locations. Cultivar Ecdorat had higher yield data and this cultivar was also found more stable than cultivar Ecdogelb in the Black Sea costal region of Turkey.

Key Words: Fodder beet, row spacing, root yield, root dry matter yield






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2005, 11 (2) 165-172
The Effects of Different Auxins on Anatomical Structure and Development of Radish Tubers (Raphanus sativus L.)
(Turkish)

Şermin SAVAŞ KAYA1, H. Nurhan BÜYÜKKARTAL¹, Gönül ALGAN¹ and Tunç ERCOŞKUN¹
* This study was taken from M. Sc. thesis.
1 Ankara University, Faculty of Science Department of Biology -Ankara

Examination on the effect of petiole application of auxin and synthetic auxin on morphology and tuber anatomy of radish plant. Tuber diameter, tuber length and weight, taproot length and weight, leaf length and weight were increased with application of IAA, IBA, NAA and 2.4-D. The upmost increase was occured with IAA appliance. Cambium cell numbers were increased. The upmost increase was observed in NAA appliance. Central cylindir zone thickness were enlarged. The upmost increase was observed in IAA appliance.Lignified xylem cell numbers were increased. The upmost increase was observed IBA and 2.4-D appliance. Lignified xylem cell diameters were increased IBA and NAA appliance. On the other hand, lignified xylem cell diameters were dicreased with IAA and 2.4-D appliance. Unlignified xylem parenchyma cell diameters were increased in auxin and synthetic auxins appliance. The upmost increased was observed in IAA appliance. Cortex zone thickness were increased. The upmost increase was observed in NAA appliance.

Key Words : Raphanus sativus L., tuber, cambial activity, IAA, IBA, NAA, 2,4 -D





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2005, 11 (2) 173-177
The Effect of Different Nutritional Media on the Reproductive Efficiency of Daphnia pulex
(Turkish)

Müge ŞANAL1 and Gülten KÖKSAL2
* This study was taken from M. Sc. thesis.
1 Master of Science in Agricultural Engineering-Ankara
2 Ankara University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

Determination of the most suitable nutritional medium for the culture of Daphnia pulex in the laboratory conditions was aimed in this study. Unicellular green algae (Scenedesmus disciformis), mixture of commercial trout fry feed granules and alfalfa meal and dry baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used, as nutritional mediums. In the stock culture of the Daphnia pulex fed with unicellular green algae the maximum number of nauplii obtained per female was 22 and the mean number of nauplii per female was determined as 13.60 ± 2.34. In mass culture, mean number of nauplii per female for 1 and 5 L glass jam were 12.17±0.73 ve 11.33 ± 0.88, respectively. In the stock culture of the Daphnia pulex fed with the mixture of commercial trout fry feed granules and alfalfa meal, maximum number of nauplii per female was 12 and the average number of nauplii per female was determined as 10.00 ± 0.71. In mass culture, the average number of nauplii per female for 1 and 5 L glass jam were determined as 9.33 ± 0.88 and 9.00 ± 0.58, respectively. In the stock culture of Daphnia pulex fed with dry baker's yeast, maximum number of nauplii from a female was 10 and the average number of nauplii per female was determined as 8.60 ± 0.60. In mass culture, the average of number of nauplii per female for 1 and 5 L glass jam were determined as 8.00± 0.53 and 7.00 ± 0.58, respectively. It can be concluded that the suitable nutritional medium for the culture of Daphnia pulex in laboratory conditions was firstly unicellular green algae (Scenedesmus disciformis), secondly the mixture of commercial trout fry feed granules and alfalfa meal and thirdly dry baker's yeast.

Key Words : Daphnia pulex, laboratory conditions, nutritional media, reproductive efficiency






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2005, 11 (2) 178-183
Studies on the Control of Blossom and Twig Blight (Monilinia laxa (Aderhold& Ruhland) Honey) in Sour Cherry Trees in Ankara Province, Çubuk District
(Turkish)

Fikret DEMİRCİ1 and Özdemir HANCIOĞLU1
* This study was funded by TUBITAK Project no 2273.
1 Ankara University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

The effectiveness of registered fungicides against blossom and twig blight of sour cherry agent Monilinia laxa were evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on some complaints of farmers about ineffectiveness of the fungicides. The effects of fungicides on spore germination and mycelial development of M. laxa were determined. Of the fungicides, the highest effective fungicide, carbendazim, inhibited the spore germination at 0.1 µg/ml, and it's EC50 dosage was 1.134 µg/ml. The in vivo experiments were conducted for two years, It was determined that, all the experimental fungicides were effective against M. laxa and there was no sensitivity loss of 40 M. laxa isolates, from the experimental area, to benomyl and carbendazim.

Key Words: Sour cherry, Monilinia laxa, fungicides, control






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2005, 11 (2) 184-188
Path Analysis of the Relationships Between Various Body Measures and Live Weight of American Bronze Turkeys Under Three Different Lighting Programs
(Turkish)

Mehmet MENDEŞ, Ali KARABAYIR and Akın PALA
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Animal Science-Çanakkale

In animal breeding and genetics, knowledge of causal effects may provide valuable information on selection. Different contributions of explanatory variables to the traits indicate that the breeder has to choose the variable with the largest contribution in a selection effort. In this study, direct and indirect effects of four explanatory variables (Shank Length, Breast Length, Breast Depth and Breast Circumference) influential on live weight at week 30 in American Bronze turkeys were investigated using path analysis. Results of the analyses indicated that the direct effects of shank length were the largest on live weight. In general, indirect effects of Breast Length and Breast Circumference through Shank Length were highest among all indirect effects. Shank Length is the most influential variable and must be included in the model in estimating the live weight at week 30.

Key Words: Lighting programs, causal effects, path analysis, American bronze turkey






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2005, 11 (2) 189-195
Effect of Discharge Fluctuation on Water Quality Variables from the Yeşilırmak River
(English)

Ahmet KURUNÇ1, Kadri YÜREKLİ1 and Fazlı ÖZTÜRK2
1 Gaziosmanpaşa University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Tokat
2 Ankara University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Ankara

In this study, streamflow and water quality variables including specific conductivity (EC), water temperature, Na+, K+, Ca2++Mg2+, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42- B, sodium adsorption rate (SAR), hardness and total salt (TS), relationships and hysteresis diagrams were investigated to determine the major processes affecting water quality in the Yeşilırmak River. The base-flow water discharge was observed between July and February whereas March April and May represent a peak as a result of seasonal rainfall, snowmelt and run-off. The results indicate that most variables exhibit clockwise hysteresis with high values during the base-flow and lower values during the high discharge. There is a negative relationship between discharge and water quality variables including EC, Na+, K+, Ca2++Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, SAR, hardness and TS. However, no relationship was obtained between discharge and water temperature, pH, CO32- and B. Among the water quality variables EC, Ca2++Mg2+, HCO3-, SO42-, hardness and TS exhibit an open clockwise loop whereas pH, Na+, K+, Cl- CO32-, SAR and B exhibit a complex loop. Water temperature was the only variable that exhibits counterclockwise loop.

Key Words: Streamflow, water quality variables, hysteresis, Yeşilırmak River




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2005, 11 (2) 196-200
Comparison of Improved Clones of İzmir Oregano (Origanum onites L.) for Agronomic and Quality Characteristics Under Kula Conditions
(Turkish)

Figen UYANIK GÜNGÖR1, Nilgün BAYRAKTAR2 and M. Demir KAYA2
* Summary of Ph D. Thesis.
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affarrs Ankara
2 Ankara University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Agronomy -Ankara

This study was carried out in the years of 1999 and 2000 in Dereköy (Manisa-Kula) to compare 8 improved lines (79, 268, 372, 661, 694, 732, 747, 789) of İzmir oregano (Origanum onites L.) for agronomic and quality aspects. The experiment was reestablished as randomized blocks with four replications in fall of 1998. According to the results in 1999, a certain variation was observed among clones. Plant height and green herb yield were recorded as 22.9-32.5 cm and 520.0-766.7 kg/da. Drug herb yield and drug leave yield were determined as 158.6-293.9 kg/da and 114.2-203.1 kg/da, respectively. Dry matter rate could not be recorded due to insufficient material in 1999. Essential oil rate varied between 4.7 and 5.7%. According to the first cutting in 2000, plant height and green herb yield were obtained as 33.6-44.7 cm and 560.0-2113.3 kg/da. Drug herb yield and drug leave yield were noted as 269.9-803.3% kg/da and 176.6-536.7 kg/da, respectively. Dry matter rate was recorded as 35.0-45.7%. Essential oil rate changed between 5.6-6.9% according to clones. The results of second cutting in 2000 were recorded as follows. Plant height; 20.4-32.4 cm, green herb yield; 423.3-1603.3 kg/da, drug herb yield; 204.5-629.3 kg/da, drug leave yield; 129.0-439.0 kg/da, dry matter rate; 36.7-45.3%. Essential oil rate varied between 3.5-6.6 % among clones. This study showed that İzmir oregano grown in Kula ecological conditions can be successfully cultivated from yield and quality aspects. Among the investigated clones, 661 and 79 were well adapted and gave higher herb and drug yield in the conditions.

Key Words: İzmir oregano, Origanum onites L., clones, yield, quality




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2005, 11 (2) 201-206
Effect of Storage Time on Some Mechanical Properties of Tomato Cultivars
(Turkish)

Yeşim Benal YURTLU1 and Doğan ERDOĞAN2
* This study was taken from PhD. thesis.
1 Directory of Testing Center of Agricultural Equipment and Machinery-Ankara
2 Ankara University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Agricultural Machinery -Ankara

In this study, a compression test-measurement system was developed to determine the effect of storage time on some mechanical properties of tomato varieties. The compression test-measurement system composes of moving platform, holder, dynamometer, cylindrical die with spherical end, amplifier, PC card, data logger software and computer. EF-49 and Joker tomato cultivars were used in the tests. To investigate the effects of storage time on the mechanical properties of the biological materials, samples were stored in 5 0C conditions and tests were conducted at harvest date, 2nd, 4th and 6th days. The compressive force-deformation characteristics of each vegetable were determined with a view to obtaining information on rupture point force and deformation for them. Deformation, rupture force, modulus of elasticity, deformation energy and deformation volume were determined at the end of the tests. The rupture force and modulus of elasticity of both tomato varieties tended to decrease as the time in cold storage increased. The statistical analyze was made to determine the effects of the cultivars, storage time and their interactions on these properties.

Key Words: Biological material, tomato, storage time, mechanical properties, modulus of elasticity






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2005, 11 (2) 207-211
An Experimental Study for Solar Tunnel Drying of Apple
(English)

Ahmet Konuralp ELİÇİN and Kâmil SAÇILIK
Ankara University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Agricultural Machinery -Ankara

Using solar tunnel dryer, the thin-layer solar drying experiments of apple were carried out under the conditions of Ankara, Turkey. During the experiments, apples were dried to the final moisture content of 11 from 82% w.b. in 1.5 days of drying in the solar tunnel dryer as compared to 2 days of drying in the open sun drying. The experimental drying data of apple slices obtained were used to fit the Page, logarithmic and Wang and Singh models, and constants of drying models tested were determined by non-linear regression analysis. Among the various models tested to represent the solar tunnel drying behaviour of organic apple, one was selected which presented best statistical indicators. Samples dried in the solar tunnel dryer were completely protected from insects, rain and dusts and the dried samples were of high quality in terms of colour and hygienic. Since this system is simple in construction and can be constructed at a low cost with locally obtainable materials, it has been successfully used for drying various agricultural products such as vegetables and fruits by growers in Ankara.

Key Words : apple, solar drying, moisture content, colour





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2005, 11 (2) 212-216
Water-Use Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Under Drip Irrigation
(Turkish)

Sezen ŞEHİRALİ1, Tolga ERDEM2, Yeşim ERDEM2 and Dinçer KENAR1
1 Trakya University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Agronomy -Tekirdağ
2 Trakya University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation -Tekirdağ

This study was carried out to determine the water-use characteristics of bean irrigated with drip irrigation and irrigation was applied in five different programs as 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % replenishment of water depleted. As a result, seasonal evapotranspiration was measured as 732 mm for 100 % replenishment of water depleted. The linear relationships were found between grain yield vs seasonal irrigation and grain yield vs seasonal evapotranspiration. The yield response factor (ky) was determined as 1.04. Irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and water use efficiency (WUE) ranged from 0.34 to 0.41 kg/m3, 0.20 to 0.37 kg/m3, respectively.

Key Words: Bean, drip irrigation, evapotranspiration, yield response factor, grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE)





2005, 11 (2) 217-223
Investigations on Resistance and Resistance Mechanisms of Different Populations of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Against two Selective Acaricide
(Turkish)

Recep AY1 and M. Oktay GÜRKAN2
* This a research was taken from PhD thesis and funded by TUBITAK TARP Project No 1899.
1 .Süleyman Demirel University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Plant Protection -Isparta
2 Ankara University Faculty of Agricultre, Department of Plant Protection -Ankara

Nine different populations of Tetranychus urticae Koch were collected on cotton from Adana, Antalya, İzmir and Urfa. Their response against two selective acaricide (dicofol ve bromopropylate) was investigated using both conventional bioassay and biochemical assays. LC50 and LC90 values of dicofol and bromopropylate were determined for all populations using residual bioassay (petri dish-spray tower). Resistance ratios were determined by comparing the samples with standard susceptible strain, GSS, and for dicofol and bromopropylate were found to be 1.112-2.497 and <1.0-1.106 fold respectively (at LC50). In biochemical assays, correlation between esterase enzyme and selective acaricide resistance were analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Three populations which were collected from Adana (2) and Urfa (1) have Est-4 and high esterase activity. However, No correlation was found between susceptibility of T. urticae population and density of esterase enzyme (Est-4).

Key Words: Tetranychus urticae, susceptibility, esterase, dicofol, bromopropylate, acaricide, cotton






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