2005, Volume: 11, Number: 1
Contents
ŞİRELİ, H. D. ve M. ERTUĞRUL, The Repeatabilities of Live Weight and Body Measurements in Akkaraman, BD1 x BD1 (Dorset Down x Akkaraman) and Akkaraman x BD1 Lambs Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KOYUNCU, M., Ş. KARA UZUN, Ş. ÖZİŞ ve S. DURU, Some Testis Characteristics in Kıvırcık Lambs Abstract Full Text (PDF)
MENDEŞ, M. Determining of Suitable Simulation Number: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ÖZDİL, F. ve E. BAŞPINAR, The Comparison of Phenol-Chloroform and Chelex® 100 Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Genomic DNA From Goat Milk Somatic Cells Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ÖZCAN, H., N. AYDIN ve H. Orhan BAYRAMOĞLU, Yield Stability and Correlation Among the Stability Parametersin Wheat Abstract Full Text (PDF)
RAD, S. ve G. YARŞI, Economic Performance and Unit Production Cost in Greenhouse Farms Producing Tomatoes in Silifke Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ŞEKERDEN, Ö., M. KÖROĞLU, E. SABAN, Possibilities of Early Pregnancy Diagnosis by Blood and Milk Progesterone Test Post Insemination in Anatolian Buffalo Cows of Hatay Province Abstract Full Text (PDF)
MÜDERRİSOĞLU, H., E. L. KUTAY ve S. ÖRNEKCİ EŞEN, Constraints in Rural Recreation Activities Abstract Full Text (PDF)
DENGİZ, O., İ. BAYRAMİN ve M. USUL, Determination of Soil Quality Properties of Kahramanmaraş State Farm's Soils Using Parametric Method Abstract Full Text (PDF)

FİLYA, İ. ve E. SUCU, Investigations on Using Organic Acids in the Silage Fermentation1. The effect of formic acid-based preservative on the fermentation, microbial flora, aerobic stability and in situ rumen degradability characteristics of maize silage in laboratory conditions Abstract Full Text (PDF)

ÖZKAN, C., O. GÜRKAN, Ö. HANCIOĞLU, The Sour Cherry Pests, Their Natural Enemies and Observations on Some Important Species in Çubuk (Ankara) County inTurkey Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ERDOĞAN, Y., S. ÇÖÇÜ, İ. PARMAKSIZ, C. SANCAK ve Orhan ARSLAN, Adventitious Shoot Regeneration From Immature Embriyo Explants of Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia (L.) Wild.) and Micropropagation Abstract Full Text (PDF)
TOPRAK, U., Ş. BAYRAM, M. O. GÜRKAN, Gross Pathology of SpliNPVs and Alterations in Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) Morphology due to Baculoviral Infection Abstract Full Text (PDF)
YÜREKLİ, K., A. KURUNÇ, S. GÜL, Frequency Analysis of Low Flow Series from Çekerek Stream Basin Abstract Full Text (PDF)
TUNÇTÜRK, M., İ. YILMAZ, M. ERMAN ve R. TUNÇTÜRK, Comparision of Summer Rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.) Cultivars for Yield and Yield Traits Under Van Ecological Conditions Abstract Full Text (PDF)
SİPAHİOĞLU, H. M., M. USTA, B. POLAT, M. OCAK ve O. B. ŞAVUR, Distribution of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot (PNRSV) and Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Viruses (ACLSV) in Prunus Leaves Abstract Full Text (PDF)
KORKMAZ, A. Ş. Density and Biomass of Fish in Kadıncık (Çamlıyayla-Mersin) Brook Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ATAK, M. ve C. Y. ÇİFTÇİ, Effects of Different Sowing Rates on Yield and Some Yield Components in Triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack Abstract Full Text (PDF)
SAÇILIK, K. A. ÇOLAK, Dielectric Properties of Opium Poppy Seed Abstract Full Text (PDF)
ABYANEH, H. Z., A. H. NAZEMI, M. R. NEYSHABORI, K. MOHAMMADI ve G. H. MAJZOOBI, Chloride Estimation in Ground Water From Electrical Conductivity Measurement Abstract Full Text (PDF)
Abstracts
 

2005, 11 (1) 1-6

The Repeatabilities of Live Weight and Body Measurements in Akkaraman, BD1 x BD1 (Dorset Down x Akkaraman) and Akkaraman x BD1 Lambs (Turkish)

Halit Deniz ŞİRELİ1 and Mehmet ERTUĞRUL2
*Summary of Ph D. Thesis.
1 Dicle University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Diyarbakır
2Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science -Ankara

In this study, it was aimed to estimate repeatability of live weight, height at withers, chest depth, the widht of chest and body lenght and usage of parameters told below as criterias of early selection in Dorset Down x Akkaraman (BD1), Akkaraman and Akkaraman x BD1 lambs in Bala State Farm. In order to obtain data 130 head BD1 x BD1, 101 head Akkaraman and 109 head Ak x BD1 lambs were measured for these traits one month intervals from birth to six-months of age. Before executing statistical analysis, data (collected as stated above) were standardized with respect to some macro enviromental factors such as sex and birth type. Then the simple analysis of variance technique for the estimation of repeatabilties of live weight and some body measurements were used. The result showed live weight and several body measurements of BD1 x BD1, Akkaraman and Ak x BD1 lambs and then the repeatabilties for live weight, height at withers, body length, chest depth and chest width were 0.59±0.04, 0.39±0.04, 0.50±0.04, 0.46 ±0.04 and 0.45±0.04in BD1 x BD1 lambs0.53±0.03, 0.38±0.03, 0.44±0.03, 0.30±0.03 and 0.39±0.03 in Akkaraman lambs 0.56±0.04, 0.31±0.04, 0.33±0.04, 0.57±0.03 and 0.37±0.04 in Ak x BD1 lambs respectively. As it is shown above, however values of weight repeatability differ among the genotypes, they are more or less similar. Values of weight repeatability are higher than those obtained for body repetability measures, thus, weight repeatability would be more appopriate indicator for an early selection. Also ,this indication can be valid for these three genotypes. Moreover, higher body repeatability measures can also be used in early selection.

Key Words: Dorset Down, Akkaraman, crosbred lambs, repeatability





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2005, 11 (1) 7-11
Some Testis Characteristics in Kıvırcık Lambs
(Turkish)

Mehmet KOYUNCU, Şebnem KARA UZUN, Şeniz ÖZİŞ and Serdar DURU
Uludağ University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science-Bursa

In this study, some testis characteristics of 47 Kıvırcık lambs were determined. In male lambs, least square means of testis diameter, testis length, scrotum circumference, scrotum length and scrotum volume as testis measurements were 2.55±0.099cm, 5.83±0.165cm, 15.23±0.650cm, 7.24±0.287cm and 87.57±5.921cm3 at 2 mounths, of age and 2.99±0.099cm, 6.59±0.164cm, 14.24±0.657cm, 10.60±0.290cm and 157.49±5.987 cm3 at 6 mounths of age. Effect of birth type on testis diameter and the effect of dam age on testis length were (P<0.05 and P<0.01) and the effects of lamb age and live weight of lambs on the whole testis measurements were significant (P<0.01).

Key Words: Kıvırcık lamb, testis characteristics, environmental effects




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2005, 11 (1) 12-15
Determining of Suitable Simulation Number: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study
(Turkish)

Mehmet MENDEŞ
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science -Çanakkale

Simulation is an important method for modeling biological, social, agricultural, medicine and economic processes. Therefore, at the planning stage of a simulation modeling the question of number of simulation runs (N) is very critical. Because, stabilization of parameter estimation changes depend on number of simulation. This study aimed to investigate effect of number of simulation on stabilize of actual Type I error rate. For this aim, Type I error rates were estimated for 16 different number of simulation conditions. Results of this simulation study suggested that while number of simulation was small, differences among the actual Type I error rates increased. On the other hand, it could be said that 50000-700000 simulation numbers were optimum for all sample sizes.

Key Words: Simulation, Type I error, sample size, normal distribution, homogeneity of variance




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2005, 11 (1) 16-20
The Comparison of Phenol-Chloroform and Chelex® 100 Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Genomic DNA From Goat Milk Somatic Cells
(Turkish)

Fulya ÖZDİL1 and Ensar BAŞPINAR1
* This study is summerised from M. Sc. thesis.
1 Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science -Ankara

In this study, the isolation of genomic DNA was carried out by using a total of 30 Akkeçi and native hair goat milk samples that were collected from Konya-Ermenek region and University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science. The isolation of genomic DNA was performed by using phenol-chloroform and Chelex® 100 extraction methods. The concentration and the purity of genomic DNA obtained with both methods, were determined by spectrophotometric absorption of UV light at 260 nm and 280 nm wave length and the results were compared. The mean DNA concentration obtained from phenol-chloroform extraction method was 2406±322 mg/mL and the mean purity of genomic DNA (A260/A280 ratio) was 1.816±0.038. These results indicate good deproteinisation in phenol-chloroform extraction method. The mean DNA concentration obtained from Chelex® 100 extraction method was 590.0±54.9 mg/mL and the mean purity of genomic DNA was 1.311±0.012. These results showed that there were some protein contaminations in DNA samples by using Chelex® 100 extraction method. The genomic DNA obtained from phenol-chloroform extraction method, appeared to be a single band on 1 % agarose gel but due to the less amount of genomic DNA obtained in Chelex® 100 extraction method, there was no signal on agarose gel.

Key Words: Genomic DNA isolation, milk, somatic cells, Chelex® 100, phenol-chloroform extraction



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2005, 11 (1) 21-25
Yield Stability and Correlation Among the Stability Parametersin Wheat
(Turkish)

Hasan ÖZCAN1, Nevzat AYDIN1 and H. Orhan BAYRAMOĞLU1
1 Blacksea Agricultural Research Institute - Samsun

A genotype having high yield across the environment is very important for wheat breeders and growers. The aim of this research was to determine the yield and yield stability of 23 wheat cultivars and lines. The experimental designs were completely randomized block designs with four replications. Experiments were established in Samsun and Amasya in the years of 2000-2003. Mean yield of genotypes, regression coefficient (r), deviation from regression (S2d), and determination coefficient (r2), coefficient variation (CV), regression line intercept (a) were evaluated as stability parameters. Lines no 6, 16 and 17 showed high and stable yielding ability. Lines 6, 12, 15, 16, 20 and 21 have higher yield than average yield and their r value are higher than 1. Coefficient variation (CV) was highly correlated with deviation from regression (S2d). Clusters were combined for stability parameters of genotypes and two main groups were obtained.

Key Words: bread wheat, yield, stability parameters





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2005, 11 (1) 26-33
Economic Performance and Unit Production Cost in Greenhouse Farms Producing Tomatoes in Silifke
(Turkish)

Sevgi RAD1 and Garip YARŞI1
* Funded by Scientific Reesearch Project Unit of Mersin University, Project No:BAP-FBE.MÜNF.TP(SR)2002
1 Mersin University, Silifke Vocational School Silifke-Mersin

Economic performance and unit product costs of plastic greenhouse farms involved in single or double cropping of tomatoes in Silifke district (Mersin) were investigated in this study. Average yield per decar in single crop oriented greenhouses was found to be 7500 kg In double crop oriented greenhouse farms average yield per decar in fall and spring harvests were determined as 7500 kg and 9000 kg respectively. Mean unit production cost of tomatoes in single crop oriented greenhouse farms was computed as 767.688 Turkish Liras (TL). In double crop oriented greenhouse farms, mean unit product costs of tomatoes were calculated as 594.351 TL and 431.416 TL/kg for fall and spring cropping respectively. Family labor was the most significant items of production costs followed by costs of fertilizers and pesticides. In single cropping family labor constituted 31,43% of mean production costs, while in double cropping the share of family labor was found as 25,76% in fall harvest and as 29,58% in spring harvest. Costs of fertilizers and pesticides comprised 10,48% and 9,36% of total production costs in single cropping. In double cropping these two items constituted 10,19% and 8,86% of unit production costs in fall and 5,92% and 10,17% of unit production costs in spring harvest respectively. Net Profit was found to be 226,6% higher in double crop oriented plastic greenhouse farms.

Key Words: Greenhouse production of tomatoes, production costs, Silifke





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2005, 11 (1) 34-39
Possibilities of Early Pregnancy Diagnosis by Blood and Milk Progesterone Test Post Insemination in Anatolian Buffalo Cows of Hatay Province
(Turkish)

Özel ŞEKERDEN1, Mustafa KÖROĞLU2 and Erdal SABAN3
1 Mustafa Kemal University Department of Animal Science Antakya-Hatay
2 Kırıkhan County Agricultural Directorate, Antakya-Hatay
3 Agriculture and Livestock Nuclear Research Center, Kazan- Ankara

In the research it was aimed to investigate possibilities of using of blood serum and milk progesterone test in early pregnancy diagnosis in Anatolian buffaloes under the field conditions. The material of the study was formed by blood samples taken from 17 Anatolian buffalo cows (group 1) that had been inseminated on May 2002 and milk samples taken from 22 Anatolian buffalo cows (group 2) that had been inseminated on November 2003. The cows were belong to Ilıkpınar Village of Kırıkhan District of Hatay Province buffalo Herd. In both of insemination groups, after being estrus of the cows were synchronized by using PRID the cows were inseminated artificially. In the cows belong to group 1, blood samples were collected from each cow at the PRID inserting day, on the day after the removing of PRID (10th day of PRID implanting) and on the 40th day after insemination. In the cows belong to group 2, milk samples were collected in the morning milkings from each cow at the day PRID inserting on days 13 and 21-23 after artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was estimated by progesteron concentration in the samples of serum of blood which were collected on day 40 after insemination, and in the milk samples which were collected on day 21-23 after AI. Pregnancy was confirmed on the 90th days after insemination by rectal palpation of the uterine contents. Progesterone concentration of pregnant and non-pregnant cows calculated as 6.473 ±1.5780 ng/ml, and 0.97833 ± 0.34032 ng/ml for blood; 12.51±3.025 ng/ml and 1.73±2.242 ng/ml for milk respectively. In anatolian buffaloes, accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis by blood serum and milk progesterone concentrations were determined as 90.9% and 83.3% respectively.

Key Words: Anatolian buffalo, early pregnancy diagnosis, blood and milk progesteron



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2005, 11 (1) 40-44
Constraints in Rural Recreation Activities
(Turkish)

Haldun MÜDERRİSOĞLU , Elif Lütfiye KUTAY and Sevil ÖRNEKCİ EŞEN
Abant İzzet Baysal University, Forestry Faculty Department of Landscape Architecture Beçi -Düzce

The purpose of the study is to determine both the frequency of participation to recreational activities, and the constrains that effect participation frequency. For this purpose and inquiry has been done with 250 people in 2004 spring semester. Five point Likert scale has been used to evaluate the constrains and participations. In order to determine the types of constrains from the data obtained factor analize has been used. According to this, the constrains can be grouped as follows, a person's physiology, friends, economic status, self- respect, lack of recreation sites, inter-personal reasons, and time.

Key Words: Düzce, rural, recreation, constrains





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2005, 11 (1) 45-50
Determination of Soil Quality Properties of Kahramanmaraş State Farm's Soils Using Parametric Method
(Turkish)

Orhan DENGİZ1, İlhami BAYRAMİN2 and Mustafa USUL3
Rural Affairs General Directorate Research Institute- Ankara
2 Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture Department of Soil Science-Ankara
3 Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute-Ankara

The aim of this research was carried out soil quality properties by using parametric system in Kahramanmaraş State Farm. First of all land mapping units and some parameters that require for this method were determined from 1: 20 000 scale basic soil map which was prepared before. After land quality index taken into rating of soil criteria factories consideration was calculated by using square root formula, suitable classification was determined for each land mapping unit. According to the results, total study area is 1994,9 ha and % 0.51 (10.2 ha) of this area is various land uses (roads, settlement places etc.). While most of the study area's soil quality (% 55.1-1099.1 ha) consist of the best and good classes (S1 and S2) in terms of agriculture use, it was found that %16,5 (329.9 ha) of study area has low and rest of it has poor soil quality properties. In addition that, this method was comprised with another method that was applied for the same area and their results are significantly close each other. Furthermore database of study area was formed by using GIS technique

Key Words: land quality index, parametric method, land evaluation





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2005, 11 (1) 51-56
Investigations on Using Organic Acids in the Silage Fermentation

1. The effect of formic acid-based preservative on the fermentation, microbial flora, aerobic stability and in situ rumen degradability characteristics of maize silage in laboratory conditions (Turkish)

İsmail FİLYA and Ekin SUCU
Uludağ Üniv. University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Animal Science -Bursa

This research was carried out to determine the effects of formic acid-based preservative (FAB) on the fermentation, microbial flora, aerobic stability and in situ rumen degradability characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) silages in laboratory conditions. Maize was harvested at milk stage of maturity. Formic acid-based preservative was applied at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 ve 4.0 g/kg levels to about 1.5-2.0 cm chopped fresh material. Fresh materials were ensiled in 1.5 liter anaerobic jars aquipped with a lid that enabled gas release only. The jars were stored at 26±2 °C in laboratory conditions. Silages were sampled for chemical and microbiological analyses on day 90 after ensiling and subjected to aerobic stability test for 5 days. In addition in situ rumen dry and organic matters degradabilities were found of the silages. As a result, FAB that applied to maize decreased lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations and prevented proteolysis in the silages. However, FAB showed a high antimicrobial activity on the silages and prevented yeast, mould, enterobacteria and clostridia growth in the silages. Generally, FAB improved aerobic stability and increased in situ rumen dry and organic matters degradability of maize silages.

Key Words: Silage, maize, organic acid, fermentation, microbial flora, aerobic stability, in situ rumen degradability





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2005, 11 (1) 57-59
The Sour Cherry Pests, Their Natural Enemies and Observations on Some Important Species in Çubuk (Ankara) County inTurkey
(Turkish)

Cem ÖZKAN1, Oktay GÜRKAN1 and Özdemir HANCIOĞLU1
* Funded by TÜBİTAK TOGTAG Project Number 2679.
1Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Plant Protection -Ankara

This investigation was carried out on sour cherry orchards in Çubuk (Ankara) county between 1999-2002. In this study, 21 pest species and 8 beneficial insects were identified. Of these, 3 were economical pests; Rhagoletis cerasi (L.), Rhynchites sp. ve Tetranychus urticae Koch. In addition, two parasitoids; Trichogramma sp., Aphidius sp., and six predators; Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.), Coccinella semptempunctata L., Adalia bipunctata (L.), Anthocoris nemoralis (F.), Orius sp., Metasyrphus corallae (F.) were determined.

Key Words: sour cherry pests, beneficial insects, Çubuk, Ankara, Turkey




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2005, 11 (1) 60-64
Adventitious Shoot Regeneration From Immature Embriyo Explants of Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia (L.) Wild.) and Micropropagation
(Turkish)

Yılmaz ERDOĞAN1, Satı ÇÖÇÜ2, İskender PARMAKSIZ3, Cengiz SANCAK2 and Orhan ARSLAN1
* This study was taken from M. Sc. thesis.
1 Gazi University, Educational Faculty, Department of Biology-Ankara
2 Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Ankara
3 Gaziosmanpaşa University Faculty of Science and Art Department of Biology-Tokat

Immature embryo explants of six bitter vetch line were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of TDZ. It was observed that Thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations , genotype and type of explants affected shoot production significantly. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration and the highest number of shoots per explant were determined as 90% and 22. Regenerated shoots from line 8 were micropropagated on MS medium with various combinations of BAP-NAA and TDZ. The highest number of shoot (7.33 per explant) were obtained on MS medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and 0.2 mg/l NA with 7.33. Subsequently, regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium containing 2 mg/l IBA.

Key Words: bitter vetch, immature embriyo, adventitious shoot regeneration, micropropagation, tissue culture





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2005, 11 (1) 65-71
Gross Pathology of SpliNPVs and Alterations in Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) Morphology due to Baculoviral Infection*
(English)

Umut TOPRAK1, Şerife BAYRAM1 and M. Oktay GÜRKAN 1
* Prepared from Master's Thesis, This research was funded by Biotechnological Institute of
Ankara University (project number: 25)
1 Univ. of Ankara, Fac. of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection Ankara


Baculoviruses are invertebrate-specific pathogens and baculoviral infections cause alterations in the physiology, metabolism and morphology of insects. It is important to recognize these physiological and symptomatologic changes to understand baculovirus infection cycle and biology. For this reason, in our study Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae were inoculated with the SpliNPV to doses of 3000 and 20,000 OBs for third instars and to concentrations of 106 and 3x 106 OBs/ml for neonates and the alterations due to NPV infection in larvae were then examined. Bioassays carried out with the third instar S. littoralis larvae revealed that no symptoms were detected during the first three days post-inoculation due to SpliNPV infection. Approximately, in the 4th day, infected larvae began to respond much more slowly than healthy larvae. This symptom was followed by whitening and slimming of cuticula, failure in molting, swelling of the body, diarrhoea, climbing to high places and hanging, liquefaction of the body and death. Infected neonates exhibited limited symptoms of distension and the failure of molting. The larvae died in approximately 8-8.5 days for third instars and in approximately 3-3.5 days for neonates due to baculoviral infection for the both doses and concentrations. On the other hand, different doses or concentrations did not cause an alteration in the occurence time of symptoms. To associate the NPV biology with the genes involved in baculovirus genome and understand their life cycle will improve their efficacy as biopesticides and help to the effective use of baculoviruses.

Key Words: spodoptera littoralis, NPV, baculovirus, gross pathology, morphology





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2005, 11 (1) 72-77
Frequency Analysis of Low Flow Series from Çekerek Stream Basin
(English)

Kadri YÜREKLİ1, Ahmet KURUNÇ1 and Selçuk GÜL1
1Gaziosmanpasa of Univ. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Structures and Irrigation-Tokat

The most true selection probability distribution is important to describe the low flow statistics for the studies related to drought analysis. The aim of this study is to derive appropriate probability distributions for frequency analysis of 7-day annual low flows at three gauging stations of the Çekerek Stream. The lowest 7-day flow series were constituted from daily flow data for 7-day periods of each year. A minimum 7-day flow is the lowest flow that occurred within a 7-consecutive day period. L-moment technique was used to predict the parameters of the selected distributions. Two goodness of fit indices, including MADI and MSDI, were used to compare the performances of the probability distributions for fitting. According to results, the best performance was obtained for generalized pareto (GPA) distribution. The distributions produced negative values were discarded. The predicted low flows obtained from the distributions that produced positive values (except Log Pearson type three) for empirical probability levels (Gringorten formula) sufficiently represent the actual low flows for probability levels higher than 75%. The statistics having reoccurrence interval of ten years (Q7,10) based on GPA distribution were predicted as 0.29, 1.27 and 2.11 m3/s for gauging stations 1424, 1409 and 1404, respectively.

Key Words: low flow, probability distribution, L-moment technique, Çekerek Stream





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2005, 11 (1) 78-85
Comparision of Summer Rapeseed (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.) Cultivars for Yield and Yield Traits Under Van Ecological Conditions
(Türkçe)

Murat TUNÇTÜRK, İbrahim YILMAZ, Murat ERMAN and Rüveyde TUNÇTÜRK
Yüzüncü Yıl University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Van

This study was carried out to determine the most suitable rapeseed cultivars at Gevaş,Van for three years, from 2000 to 2003. Sixteen summer rapeseed cultivars (Jaguar, Marinca, Semu DNK 207 NA, Regent, Westar, Tobin, Semu 209/81, Tower, Liraspa, Lisonne, Lirawell, Prota, Spok, Kosa, Star, Helios) were studied in a completely randomized block experimetal design with three replications. Traits such as plant height, branch number per plant, pod number per plant, grain number per pod, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil ratio, and oil yield were investigated. According to the results, Marinca and Westar had the highest seed and oil yield, 1436 kg ha-1 - 533 kg ha-1 and 1395 kg ha-1- 482 kg ha-1, respectively; Jaguar and Prota had the highest oil ratio as 40.3 %.

Key Words: Rapeseed, cultivar, adaptation, yield




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2005, 11 (1) 86-90
Distribution of Prunus Necrotic Ringspot (PNRSV) and Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Viruses (ACLSV) in Prunus Leaves
(Turkish)

Hikmet Murat SİPAHİOĞLU, Mustafa USTA, Bülent POLAT, Mustafa OCAK and Orçun Burak ŞAVUR
Yüzüncü YılUniversity Faculty of Agriculture Department of Plant Protection -Van

Leaf discs taken from different canopy and leaf sites of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) infected Prunus mahaleb and Apple chlorotic leafspot virus (ACLSV) infected peach (P. persica) tree were analyzed for the determination of virus distribution in leaf tissues by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. The ELISA results suggest high virus concentration of PNRSV and ACLSV at the basal leaf section of the lamina and uneven virus distribution in their host leaves. Clear and relatively balanced amplification bands were obtained when the same leaf sections were analyzed by RT-PCR. No conspicuous differences were found in terms of viral concentrations among the leaves tested. Amplification bands of RT-PCR test results suggest homogeneous distribution of both viruses in tested Prunus leaves. Both viruses were exhibited different patterns of distribution in their hosts according to the detection method used. No correlation was found between ELISA and RT-PCR tests in determining the distribution of both viruses.

Key Words: prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, ELISA, RT-PCR, PNRSV, ACLSV




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2005, 11 (1) 91-97
Density and Biomass of Fish in Kadıncık (Çamlıyayla-Mersin) Brook
(Turkish)

Ahmet Şeref KORKMAZ
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture-Ankara

In this study, age, length and weight distributions together with density and biomass of fish species in the studied section for 16 km of the Kadıncık Brook which is one of the important tributaries of the Tarsus Stream were researched. In addition to these, distribution area of brown trout in the brook was also investigated. In the studied section of Kadıncık Brook, were two species caught to be brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma Dümeril, 1858) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) in the period of September 9-18, 2002. First brown trout was caught at 8.6th km of the Kadıncık Brook. It was observed that fish quantity increased from that point towards headwater. Sixty-four nos. brown trout and 15 nos. rainbow trout caught from the Kadıncık Brook were determined to be consist of five age-groups and two age-groups, respectively. To estimate density and biomass, the studied section of Kadıncık Brook according to nature of bottom and habitat was separated into four strata. Thirty-six sampling sites at length for 200 m in these strata were selected and in the selected sections, carried out single catch by electrofishing. Removal method based on single-pass electrofishing was carried out to obtained data. Density and biomass were estimated as 28 inds. ha-1 and 2,55 kg ha-1 for brown trout and 3,47 inds. ha-1 and 1,56 kg ha-1 for rainbow trout, respectively. Density and biomass of fish in Kadıncık Brook were estimated as 32 inds. ha-1 and 4,1 kg ha-1, respectively.

Key Words : Brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), density, biomass, Kadıncık Brook, Turkey





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2005, 11 (1) 98-103
Effects of Different Sowing Rates on Yield and Some Yield Components in Triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack)
(Turkish)

Mehmet ATAK and Cemalettin Yaşar ÇİFTÇİ
Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Ankara

This research was conducted at Applying Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara in 2001-02 and 2002-03 growing season. The aim of this research was to investigate effects of different sowing rates on yield and yield components in some varieties or lines of triticale. Triticale varieties of Tatlıcak-97, Karma-2000 and Presto and lines of BDMT, MT 1, ZF 3, and ZF 16 were used as material in experiment. Three different sowing rates (160, 200, and 240 kg/ha ) were applied. Cultivar x sowing rate interaction was significant for seed number per spike in first year, plant height, spike length and seed number per spike for second year. Cultivars were not significant for grain yield in first year but significant (p <0.05) in second year. Sowing rates were not significant for grain yield in first year but significant (p<0.05) in second year. It can be stated that grain yield were higher in the sowing rate of 240 kg/ha.

Key Words: Triticale, sowing rates, yield and yield components




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2005, 11 (1) 104-109
Dielectric Properties of Opium Poppy Seed
(English)

Kâmil SAÇILIK and Ahmet ÇOLAK
Ankara Üniv. Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinary-Ankara

The dielectric properties of poppy seed were determined over the frequency range from 50 kHz to 10 MHz at moisture content in a range of 6.12-22.47% dry basis (d.b.) with bulk density changing between 541.99 and 626.37 kg/m3 using parallel-plate capacitor sample holder. The dielectric constant, loss factor, loss tangent and the a.c. conductivity was greatly influenced by the moisture content, bulk density and frequency. The moisture content was the most significant factor affecting the dielectric properties of poppy seed. The dielectric constant and loss factor increased with an increase in moisture content and bulk density and with a decrease in frequency. The dependence of the loss factor and loss tangent on frequency was less regular than that of the dielectric constant. The a.c. conductivity was observed to increase more rapidly with increasing moisture contents than with increasing frequencies. Also, two models have been shown to estimate adequately the dielectric constant and loss factor of poppy seed within the investigated moisture content, bulk density and frequency range.

Key Words : Dielectric constant; loss factor, loss tangent; conductivity; poppy seed




2005, 11 (1) 110-114
Chloride Estimation in Ground Water From Electrical Conductivity Measurement
(English)

Hamid Zare ABYANEH1, A. H. NAZEMI2, M. R. NEYSHABORI2 , K. MOHAMMADI3 and G. H. MAJZOOBI1
1 College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan-Iran
2 College of Agriculture, University of Tabriz Tabriz-Iran
3 College of Agriculture Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran-Iran

Salinity assessment of ground waters for the irrigation purpose often includes measurement of chloride ion, constitute that in large concentrations is toxic to plant. Since the measurement of electrical conductivity is much easier than determining chloride ion, the aim of this study was to develop an empirical relationship between chloride ion concentration and electrical conductivity of ground waters for western of Iran. Large numbers of water samples, 1063 laboratory and 2252 field data, were collected over about 66000 Km2 areas in west of Iran. Electrical conductivity (EC) was measured with a conductivity cell and Cl- concentration by titration with AgNO3 solution. The data were grouped into various groups based on crop tolerance to salinity and consequently to EC. Linear, polynomial and power regression models were tested. Using data for all 3315 samples, all three models were highly significant and explained 99% of the variability in observed Cl- values. Other models for different groups of data also developed and it was concluded that there is a good agreement and correlation between EC and Cl- concentration in water samples except for EC<3 dSm-1.

Key Words: Chloride estimation, electrical conductivity, groundwater, linear, polynomial and power regression





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