2004, Volume: 10, Number: 3
Contents
KIZIL, S. and A. İPEK, The Effects of Different Row Spacing on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil Content of Some Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Lines Abstract
GENÇER. H. V., E. BAŞPINAR and Ç. FIRATLI, The Graphic Evaluation of Morphological Characters in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) by Chernoff Faces Abstract
ALBAYRAK, S. and H. EKİZ, Determination of Characters Regarding to Hay Yield Using Correlation and Path Analysis in Some Perennial Forage Crops Abstract
FİLYA, İ., E. SUCU and H. HANOĞLU, Effects of Urea Application on the Silage Fermentation, Aerobic Stability Ruminal Degradability and Fattening Performance of Lambs Abstract
KOCABIYIK, H. and B. KAYİŞOĞLU, Determination of Cutting Properties of Sunflower Stalk Abstract
YILMAZ, H. Flora of the Moist Meadows of Bartın City Abstract
KARAKURT, E. Some Morphological and Phenological Characteristics of Turfgrass Varieties in Grown Ankara/Haymana Conditions Abstract
AKMAN, N. and S. KUMLU, Genetic and Phenotypic Parameters for 305-Day Milk Yield of Turkish Holstein Population Abstract
ÜNAL, H. G. Determination of the Effect of Seed Pipe Material, Falling Angle and Seed Dimension on Falling Time in Garlic Abstract

ARSLAN, S., H. MİRTAGİOĞLU and T. KESİCİ, Comparison of Estimating Parameters Using with DFREML and Method R Regression Procedures for Different Sample Size Abstract

TABAN, S., Y. ÇIKILI, F. KEBECİ, N. TABAN and S. M. SEZER, Evaulation of Potential Nutritional Problem and Fertility Status of the Garlic Grown Soils of Taşköprü Region Abstract
TÜRKER. U. and İ. GÜÇDEMİR, A Research on Assessing Small Scale Spatial Variability on Fallow-Wheat System in Atatürk Orman Çiftliği Using Precision Farming Technologies Abstract
ÖZKAN, C. Effects of Different Photoperiods and Different Nutrients on the Longevity of Endoparasitoid Venturia canescens (Grav.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Reared from Two Different Host Stages Abstract
KOVANCI, O. B., N. S. GENÇER, B. KOVANCI and H. C. AKGÜL, Homoptera Species Found in Strawberry Fields in Bursa Abstract
AZABAĞAOĞLU, M. Ö. and F. İNCE, Dairy Industry Outlook in Kırklareli Province Abstract
LALE, R. and M. AKÇELİK, Resistance Characteristics of Lactococcus lactis Strains Under Stress Conditions Abstract
TÜRK, M., G. BAYRAM, E. BUDAKLI and N. ÇELİK, The Effects of Different Seeding Densities on the Seed Yield of Sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa L.) Abstract
ERMAN, M. and Ş. TÜFENKÇİ, Effect of Different Sowing Dates on Yield and Yield Related Characters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Abstract
SAÇILIK, K. and R. KESKİN, Design of Pneumatic Fertiliser Spreader Abstract
ÖZKAYA, M. T. The Effects of Some Foliar Fertilizers, Applied in Different Period on Fruit Quality and Yield in Gemlik Olive (Olea europaea L.) Variety Abstract
Abstracts
 

2004, 10 (3) 237-244
The Effects of Different Row Spacing on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil Content of Some Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Lines
(Turkish)

Süleyman KIZIL1 ve Arif İPEK2
Dicle Univ., Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy-Diyarbakır
2 Ankara Üniv., Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy -Ankara

This research was conducted to determine the effects of different row spacings on yield and yield components of five coriander lines, at Diyarbakır ecological conditions in 1999-2000 and 2000-20001 growing seasons. The field experiment was laid down as a split plots with five row spacing (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 cm) as main plots and five lines (Line 5, Line 11, Line 50, Line 56 and Line 61) as sub-plots with three replications. In the research plant height, number of branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of seeds per umbrella, seed yield per plant, seed yield, essential oil rate and essential oil yield were investigated. In terms of row spacings plant height varied between 75.36-79.12 cm, number of branches per plant between 7.36-8.61 pieces/plant, number of umbrella per plant between 11.37-15.59 pieces/plant, thousand seed weight between 13.02-13.16 g, seed yield between 98.5-181.4 kg/da and essential oil rate between 0.287-0.318 %, respectively. However, as far lines, plant height was found to range between 74.79-81.32 cm, number of branches per plant between 7.43-8.68 pieces/plant, number of umbrella per plant between 13.54-14.66 pieces/plant, thousand seed weight between 12.51-13.90 g, seed yield between 128.2-148.6 kg/da and essential oil rate between 0.280-0.317 %, respectively. With respect to seed and essential oil yield, the best results were obtained from row spacing of 30 cm and, Line 5 and Line 11.

Key Words: coriander, Coriandrum sativum, row spacing, yield, essential oil rate



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2004, 10 (3) 245-249
The Graphic Evaluation of Morphological Characters in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) by Chernoff Faces
(English)

H. Vasfi GENÇER, Ensar BAŞPINAR and Çetin FIRATLI
Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science - Ankara

Seven parent colonies and 5 offspring colonies of two different Anatolian honey bee (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) ecotypes (total 24 colonies) were sampled randomly for morphological analysis. Morphometric measurements were made on 10 characters. A multivariate graphic method (Chernoff faces) was applied to data of parents and offsprings in representing morphometric data. This multivariate graphic technique, "Chernoff faces", could distinguish differences between ecotypes and between parents and offsprings enabling simple and quick visual comparisons.

Key Words: honey bee, Apis mellifera, morphometry, Chernoff faces, instrumental insemination



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2004, 10 (3) 250-257
Determination of Characters Regarding to Hay Yield Using Correlation and Path Analysis in Some Perennial Forage Crops
(Turkish)

Sebahattin ALBAYRAK1 and Hayrettin EKİZ2
*Ankara Üniv. Fen Bil. Enst. Doktora tezinin bir bölümüdür.
1 Blacksea Agricultural Reserch Institute-Samsun
2 Ankara Üniv. Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agronomy -Ankara

In this research conducted in Ankara conditions, the correlations between hay yield and the other some characters were studied on alfalfa, sainfoin, smooth brome, and crested wheatgrass. Direct and indirect effects of these characters on hay yield were also determined. According to this 3 years research during 2000-2002 years, it was found that dry matter and crude protein yield should be considered on the selection studies in order to increase hay yield on alfalfa, sainfoin, smooth brome and crested wheatgrass. In addition, it was determined that natural plant length and main stem length were also significant criteria for high hay yield.

Key Words: alfalfa, sainfoin, smooth brome, crested wheatgrass, correlation, path analysis



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2004, 10 (3) 258-262
Effects of Urea Application on the Silage Fermentation, Aerobic Stability Ruminal Degradability and Fattening Performance of Lambs
(Turkish)

İsmail FİLYA1, Ekin SUCU1 and Hülya HANOĞLU2
1 Uludağ Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Bursa
2 Master of Science in Agricultural Engineering., Marmara Animal Research Institute, Bandırma-Balıkesir

This study was carried out to determine the effects of urea as a silage additive on the fermentation, aerobic stability, in situ rumen degradability of maize (Zea mays) silages and fattening performance of lambs. Maize was harvested at dough stage of maturity. Urea was applied to fresh materials 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % levels. Materials were ensiled in 2 tons capacity special fiber silos. All silages were sampled on 90 days after ensiling and subjected to aerobic stability test for 5 days. In addition, rumen dry matter, organic matters, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber degradabilities were determined of the silages. Fattening trial was carried out with 50 heads of Merino lambs as 5 groups that include 10 lambs in each. The fattening trial durated 56 days after two weeks adaptation period. Maize silages were offered ad-libitum as individually with a concentrate supplementation equivalent to 2 % of individual live weights. The urea added did not affect fermentation characteristics but blocked yeast and mould growth (P<0.05) and improved aerobic stability of maize silage (P<0.05). On the other hand, urea increased dry matter, organic matters, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber degradability of maize silage (P<0.05) however did not affect fattening performance of the lambs.

Key Words: maize silage, urea, fermentation, aerobic stability, in situ rumen degradability, lamb fattening


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2004, 10 (3) 263-267
Determination of Cutting Properties of Sunflower Stalk (
Turkish)

Habib KOCABIYIK1 and Birol KAYİŞOĞLU1
1 Trakya Univ., Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery-Tekirdağ
* Doktora Tezinden hazırlanmıştır

In this research, it was aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of sunflower parts that remain at fields and concerned with mechanization. The mechanics of cutting on rigid surface was investigated by applying cutting tests to sunflower stalks. The maximum cutting force and cutting stress, total cutting energy, and specific cutting energy were examined. In addition, the effects of the stalk moisture content and stalk region from the bottom to the top on cutting properties were researched. At the end of the research, the maximum cutting force was measured between 0.25 kN and 4.85 kN, an average of 1.81 kN. The cutting stress was obtained between 0.77 MPa and 9.44 MPa, an average of 4.05 MPa. The cutting energy was determined between 3.27 J and 47.18 J, an average of 13.40 J. The specific cutting energy was measured between 0.99 J/cm2 and 6.59 J/cm2, an average of 2.79 J/cm2.

Key Words: sunflower stalk, physical-mechanical properties, cutting force, cutting stress, cutting energy



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2004, 10 (3) 268-274
Flora of the Moist Meadows of Bartın City
(Turkish)

Hale YILMAZ
Zonguldak Karaelmas Üniv. Bartın Forestry Faculty, Department of Landscape Architecture-Bartın

Bartın City is a newly developing area. Continuing agricultural activities in the city and its vaicinity are the indicators that the public has not abondoned their rural life. Agricultural areas in the city intensively exist on surrounding plains of Bartın Stream. Moist meadows together with poplar plantations spread on these plains. During this study, 145 herbaceous plant taxa belonging to 38 families included in the moist meadows of Bartın City were determined. Out of these 145 taxa, 35 taxa are Euro-Siberian phytogeographic regions elements and 12 taxa are Mediterranean phytogeographic regions elements. According to the number of the taxa belonging to the families, Poaceae family with 25 taxa and Fabaceae family with 21 taxa are leading the others.

Key Words: moist meadow, agricultural area, flora, Bartin City



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2004, 10 (3) 275-280
Some Morphological and Phenological Characteristics of Turfgrass Varieties in Grown Ankara/Haymana Conditions
(Turkish)

Erol KARAKURT
Tarla Bitkileri Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü (TARM)-Ankara

This research was carried out between May 1999- September 2000 at Research farm, Central Research Institü for Field Crops in Ankara. During this research, turf species for lawn seedings were studied in order to establish some morphological and phonological traits under Haymana/Ankara conditions. 15 lawn species and varieties were used as the material in the research. In the research, root density, seedling emergence, resistance to winter, drought tolerance, leaf width, leaf color, basal cover and seedling fresh and dry weight, seedling height, stem tickness, tiller number per dm2, regeneration capability, number of days for cutting maturity and 1000 seeds weight were determined. The species performed well in Haymana/Ankara conditions and were successful for lawn seedings under Irrigated conditions.

Key Words: turfgrasses, rooting, seedling emergence, basal cover, tiller number, regeneration


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2004, 10 (3) 281-286
Genetic and Phenotypic Parameters for 305-Day Milk Yield of Turkish Holstein Population
(Turkish)

Numan AKMAN1 and Selahattin KUMLU2
1 Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science - Ankara
2Akdeniz Üniv., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science -Antalya

This study has been carried out to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters for 305-day milk yields of Turkish Holstein cattle to use in breeding program of Turkish Holstein Breeder's Association. The data set used in this study consisted of 15 910 first, second and third lactation milk records of 9655 cows calved between 1990 and 2001 years. The pedigree file used to build relationship matrix was cowered 22145 animals and 222 genetic groups. Estimates of additive-genetic variance, permanent variance, phenotypic variance, heritability, permanent variance ratio, repeatability and phenotypic coefficient of variation were 349636, 320903, 1574935, 0.222 ± 0.0288, 0.204 ± 0.0256, 0.426 ± 0.0102 and 21.8% respectively. The general accuracy of predictions defined as correlation between true and predicted breeding values was calculated as 54.8%.

Key Words: Holstein, milk yield, heritability, repeatability



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2004, 10 (3) 287-290
Determination of the Effect of Seed Pipe Material, Falling Angle and Seed Dimension on Falling Time in Garlic
(Turkish)

H. Güran ÜNAL
Ankara Üniv., Kastamonu Profession High School-Kastamonu

This study, aims to determine the effect of the seed pipe material, falling angle and seed dimension on the falling time. For this purpose 4 pipe materials (sheet iron, hard PVC, soft PVC, spiral), 6 falling angles ((0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°) and 3 garlic dimensions were tested. Optical sensors controlling etrance and leaving time of a clove of garlic seed to seed pipe were placed on the test equipment. By means of PLC the falling time of a clove of garlic is measured in miliseconds. The data of experiments had been evolvated as statistically. According to the result of varians analyses, the triple interaction between seed pipe material, falling angle and seed dimension had been determined. According to the Duncan test results, it was found that the seed dimension is unimportant whereas seed pipe material and falling angle is important. Higher than 20° to vertival an increase in the deviation in the falling time is observed. The falling time of a clove of garlic increase in pipe made of sheet iron, hard PVC, soft PVC and Spiral hose respectively.

Key Words: garlic, seed pipe, falling angle, falling time



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2004, 10 (3) 291-296
Comparison of Estimating Parameters Using with DFREML and Method R Regression Procedures for Different Sample Size
(Turkish)

Serhat ARSLAN1, Hamit MİRTAGİOĞLU1 and Tahsin KESİCİ2
1 Yüzüncü Yıl Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Van
2 Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science-Ankara

In this study, a new approach of regression, Method R and derivative free restricted maximum likelihood (DFREML) were used for estimation and comparison of estimation values. All data were obtain simulating of 10000 animals for their yield traits. In the simulation progress all animals were thought to be from 1200 dams randomly mated with 100 sire. Subgroups were completely randomized, selected based on total observation numbers 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 95% respectively resulting in 5 sub-classes groups. Residual effects of between sub-groups were divided in to components and tested for heterogeneity using with Levene's heterogeneity tests. As a result variances from subgroups were homogeny. According to two methods, when different sample densities were 50% and higher, estimations were with minimum variances and close to the true value (0.33). However, estimation of starting value of h², R method had lower influence than DFREML when the real value was higher than 0.33 with regards to different sample size and different starting value of h², observed results were that R method was a potential approach when the starting values were unknown.

Key Words: DFREML, R regression, mixed linear model, estimation of variance component



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2004, 10 (3) 297-304
Evaulation of Potential Nutritional Problem and Fertility Status of the Garlic Grown Soils of Taşköprü Region
(Turkish)

Süleyman TABAN1, Yakup ÇIKILI1, Faik KEBECİ2, Nilgün TABAN3 and S. Mehmet SEZER4
1 Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science-Ankara
2 İl Kontrol Laboratuvar Müdürlüğü-Kastamonu
3 Ziraat Mühendisi-Ankara
4 Ziraat Mühendisi, Taşköprü Belediyesi, Taşköprü-Kastamonu

The aim of this study was to evaulate the potential nutritional problem and determine the fertility status of the garlic grown soils of Taşköprü-Kastamonu-Turkey region. For this purpose, 40 soil samples were taken and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. In general, the experimental soils were clay loam, loam and sandy clay loam in texture, slightly alkaline in reaction (pH) and medium calcareous. On the other hand, 67.5, 40, 82.5, 5, 97.5, 97.5, 7.5 and 67.5 % of the soil studied were found to be deficient in total-N, plant available phosphorus, sulphur (SO4-S), potassium, zinc, manganese, iron and boron, respectively. The salinity levels of the soil samples were seemed to be under salinity limits. 85 % of soils were determined >25 cmol kg-1 in CEC (Cation exchange capacity). It was also evident that 55 and 45 % of the soils have low and moderate level organic matter content, respectively.

Key Words: garlic, Taskopru, soil, plant nutrient status


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2004, 10 (3) 305-312
A Research on Assessing Small Scale Spatial Variability on Fallow-Wheat System in Atatürk Orman Çiftliği Using Precision Farming Technologies
(Turkish)

Ufuk TÜRKER1 and İbrahim GÜÇDEMİR2
* TÜBİTAK tarafından desteklenmiştir.
1 Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Machinery -Ankara
2 Toprak ve Gübre Araştırma Enstitüsü-Ankara

Farmers agricultural and agronomic practices have prolonged with increased soil deterioration causing decreased soil fertility and organic matter content. The adverse affects of soil erosion, weed and disease have made cereal production less profitable in semi-arid region of central Anatolia. The agricultural practice and management of dry land areas of central Anatolia are needed to be improved by implementing and testing precision farming technologies. In this study, It was aimed to assess site specific variability influencing winter wheat yield in a small scale and prepare variable rate application maps based on site specific variability in Ankara region. Results from 2000 and 2002 for Atatürk Orman Çiftliği (AOÇ) were given and discussed in this paper.

Key Words: precision farming, spatial variability, yield mapping, site specific management



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2004, 10 (3) 313-317
Effects of Different Photoperiods and Different Nutrients on the Longevity of Endoparasitoid Venturia canescens (Grav.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Reared from Two Different Host Stages
(Turkish)

Cem ÖZKAN
Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection-Ankara

Effects of different photoperiods (16:8 h light: dark, and continuous darkness), and different diet treatments (water, honey and no food) on the longevity of Venturia canescens (Grav.) developed from different larval stages of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (L3 and L5) were determined at 25±1°C and 60-70 % relative humidity under laboratory conditions. There were no significant differences between nutrient and photoperiod treatments, and among nutrient, photoperiod and host stage treatments for the longevity of the parasitoid. However, there were significant difference between host stage and nutrient treatments, and host stage and photoperiod treatments for the longevity of the parasitoid. In different host stages and different diet treatments, maximum longevity, 23,21 days, was observed in parasitoids which developed from L5 and fed with honey. In different host stages and different photoperiod treatments, maximum longevity was obtained when parasitoid were developed from L5 in each photoperiod treatments. These results when evaluated in respect of mass culture of V. canescens showed that longevity of the parasitoid significantly increased when mature larvae of E. kuehniella were used as host and feeding with honey.

Key Words: Venturia canescens, photoperiyod, nutrient, host stage, longevity



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2004, 10 (3) 318-322
Homoptera Species Found in Strawberry Fields in Bursa
(Turkish)

O. Barış KOVANCI1, N. Sema GENÇER1, Bahattin KOVANCI1 and H. Celal AKGÜL2
1 Uludağ Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection -Bursa
2 İstanbul Director of Agriculture Country-İstanbul
* TÜBİTAK-TARP/1868 no'lu projenin bir bölümüdür.

This study was carried out in Bursa during 1998-2000 to determine Homopterans in strawberry fields. Observations were made at weekly intervals between May and August but biweekly in early spring and fall. Visual observation and sweep netting method was used for monitoring the species. A total of 18 species of Homoptera were determined including 6, 3, 2, 3, 1 and 3 species belong to the families of Cercopidae, Cicadellidae, Membracidae, Issidae, Dictyopharidae and Aphididae, respectively. Also, the distribution and pest status of these species were studied.

Key Words: strawberry, Homoptera, Bursa, Turkey



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2004, 10 (3) 323-328
Dairy Industry Outlook in Kırklareli Province
(Turkish)

M. Ömer AZABAĞAOĞLU1 and Filiz İNCE1
*Yüksek Lisans Tezinden hazırlanmıştır.
1 Trakya Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics-Tekirdağ

The aim of this research is to determine the present structures of dairies operating within the boundaries of Kırklareli province so as to define the problems confronted and offer solutions to these problems. The province is of great importance both from the point of dairy farming and also for milk processing industry. Gathering information from region and forming solution suggestions has able to constitute for common. The member of the dairy plants is 65 and they have a total milk processing capacity of 1448 tons per day nevertheless capacity use is 37.8%. The 83.1% of plants has a capacity below 30 tons of milk/day. White cheese production is more dominant in the province. A suitable method according to the standards cannot be applied to collect the milk. However, the proportion of the dairy firms which analyse the milk has been determined as low as 57%. The firms have mentioned that they face with great problems related to raw milk quality and marketing of dairy products. The dairies which operate illegally should be removed and contemporary dairy plants should be encouraged in order to develop the dairy sector. The farmers should be educated and conscious so as to increase the quality of raw milk. Diversification should be aimed by giving importance to special characteristic of the dairy products so as to solve marketing problems and production by order should be practised for the chain stores.

Key Words: milk, dairy industry, marketing, quality of raw milk


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2004, 10 (3) 329-335
Resistance Characteristics of Lactococcus lactis Strains Under Stress Conditions
(Turkish)

Rahmi LALE1 and Mustafa AKÇELİK2
*Yüksek Lisans Tezinden hazırlanmıştır.
1Department of Biochemistry, NTNU University, Torndhaim-Norway
2 Ankara Üniv. Fen Fak. Biyoloji Bölümü-Ankara

In this study, cellular resistance responses against four stress factors were investigated for the strains L. lactis subsp. lactis LL52, L. lactis subsp. cremoris LC79 and L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis LD62. Strain LL52 was found to be the most sensitive strain at the end of stress bioassays such as high and low temperatures, low pH and osmotic pressure. Stress resistance specificities of these strains were showed either inducible or constitutive characteristics. Stress resistance induction occurred between 40 - 90 minutes of cell growth according to the bacterial types and stress factors.

Key Words: Lactococcus lactis, stress, resistance


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2004, 10 (3) 336-341
The Effects of Different Seeding Densities on the Seed Yield of Sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa L.)
(Turkish)

Mevlüt TÜRK1, Gamze BAYRAM2, Emine BUDAKLI2 and Necmettin ÇELİK2
Süleyman Demirel Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy-Isparta
2 Uludağ Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy -Bursa

This research was carried out in order to investigate the effects of different row spacings (15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 cm) and seeding rates (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 kg/da) on the seed yield of sainfoin on Agricultural Research and Applied Center of Agriculture Faculty, Uludag University in 2000-2003. The field experiments were established in split block design with four replications. In experiment were determined fruit/raceme, raceme/m2, 1000 husk weight and seed yield. According to results of this study, sainfoin should be planted with 60 and 75 cm row spacings and 8 kg/da seeding rate for higher seed production in Southern Marmara Region or in regions having the same ecological conditions.

Key Words: sainfoin, row spacing, seeding rate, seed yield, 1000 husk weight



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2004, 10 (3) 342-345
Effect of Different Sowing Dates on Yield and Yield Related Characters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
(Turkish)

Murat ERMAN1 and Şefik TÜFENKÇİ2
1 Yüzüncü Yıl Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy -Van
2 Yüzüncü Yıl Üniv. Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science -Van

This study was conducted to determine effect of different sowing dates on yield and yield related characters of chickpea cultivar ILC 482 during 1998 and 1999 in randomized block design with four replicates. Effect of sowing dates on grain yield was significant. The highest grain yield was obtained from 10 April sowing in both years. Mean decrease in grain yield with 25 April and 10 May sowings were 14.1 and 25.5 % respectively, compared with 10 April sowing in 1998. These losses were 29 and 47.4 % respectively in 1999. Sowing dates also affected significantly yield related characters, except for seed number per pod in both years. The highest values in terms of yield related characters were obtained from 10 April sowing during the first and second year.

Key Words: chickpea, sowing date, yield


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2004, 10 (3) 346-352
Design of Pneumatic Fertiliser Spreader
(Turkish)

Kâmil SAÇILIK1 and Rahmi KESKİN1
*Ankara Üniv. Araş. Fonu tarafından desteklenen Doktora Tezi'nden hazırlanmıştır
1 Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery-Ankara

In this study, the factors affecting the operation conditions of the pneumatic fertiliser spreader were especially emphasized. For this purpose, design factors were determined on spreader head in order to criticize its characteristics by manufacturing four different head types in laboratory conditions. In these experiments, the influence of fertiliser type, spreader head type, fertiliser delivery speed and fan speed on distribution characteristic of pneumatic fertiliser spreader were studied. In the determination of the distribution characteristic of pneumatic fertiliser spreader, the criteria of the evenness of transverse and longitudinal distribution were also used. The effects of each level of four factors on the evenness of transverse and longitudinal distribution were found to be significant (p<0,01) in analysis of variances. According to the approached research findings, it was determined that spreader head's projection ability of fertiliser was very satisfactory, fan speed was the most important factor on the evenness of the distribution, diammonium phosphate was better than ammonium nitrate in terms of the evenness of the distribution and the unevenness in fertilizer delivery mechanism needs to make it more improvement.

Key Words : pneumatic fertiliser spreader, chemical fertiliser, spreader head, evenness of transverse distribution, evenness of
longitudinal distribution


2004, 10 (3) 353-357
The Effects of Some Foliar Fertilizers, Applied in Different Period on Fruit Quality and Yield in Gemlik Olive (Olea europaea L.) Variety
(Turkish)

Mücahit Taha ÖZKAYA
Ankara Univ., Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture-Ankara

Most of the olive trees are generally not irrigated and fertilized, as happened in our country. In these conditions the efficacy of conventional fertilizer application is limited. According to the some studies, it is generally informed that there are N, K, P and B deficiencies in olive leaves. It is well generally accepted that nutrients can be fed much easier into young olive leaves that are less covered by epicuticular wax layer than to mature leaves. However, spraying of young leaves significantly increases the burn risk and the late timing, misses the chance to load the olive tree with nutrients before flowering. No efficient and specifically engineered delivery system for foliar nutrients application to olive is available to use today. However, this study showed that since there are Fertivant which is completely organic surfactant and N, P, K and/or B as an ingredient of the Nurtivant called special engineered foliar fertilizer has positive affects on fruit quality and yield especially for table olive. By this research, especially combination of the pre-bloom fertilization with P, B and K and small fruit period fertilization with K can be advised.

Key Words: olive, Olea europaea L., foliar fertilization, yield, quality, boron, Gemlik



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